U10 Minerals

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U10 Minerals

  1. 1. Minerals CONTENTS RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK
  2. 2. Contents Minerals Definition Composition and arrangement Classification Silicates Non-silicates Identification Properties <ul><li>Extraction and uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses </li></ul></ul>Formation Conditions HOME HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK
  3. 3. Resources HOME What are minerals? What are minerals like? How are minerals formed? How are minerals classified? Physical properties of minerals How are minerals extracted and used? HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK Activity: What do you know about minerals? Links
  4. 4. What are minerals? calcite SEE ALLOTROPIC FORMS HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK naturally ocurring inorganic homogeneous solid substance definite chemical composition
  5. 5. diamond What are minerals? Allotropic forms carbon graphite inorganic calcite HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK homogeneous solid substance definite chemical composition GO BACK naturally occurring
  6. 6. What are minerals like? HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK Are minerals pure substances? Can the same mineral vary in colour? How are minerals arranged?
  7. 7. What are minerals like? Yes, minerals are pure substances. mixtures How are minerals arranged? HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK Can the same mineral vary in colour?
  8. 8. What are minerals like? Yes, impurities can cause different colours. white quartz rose quartz smoky quartz How are minerals arranged? HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK Are minerals pure substances?
  9. 9. What are minerals like? Arrangement crystalline minerals organised structure amorphous minerals unorganised structure Agate (amorphous silicon dioxide) Rock crystal (crystalline silicon oxide) HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK Are minerals pure substances? Can the same mineral vary in colour?
  10. 10. How are minerals extracted and used? Mineral beds Underground mine Surface mine “ benches” horizontal galleries shaft SEE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK SEE MINERALS IN EVERYDAY LIFE
  11. 11. How are minerals extracted and used? Rivers and streams are polluted Vehicles make a lot of noise. Traffic pollutes the air, soil and water. Vegetation is destroyed Dumps are created. Mining and the environment GO BACK HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK What can be done?
  12. 12. How are minerals extracted and used? Before After Environmental impact assessments Mining projects Remove waste materials Cover mines with earth Reforestation What can be done? HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK GO BACK
  13. 13. How are minerals extracted and used? Table salt halite Source of metals galena lead cinnabar mercury Ceramics industry clay minerals pottery bricks tiles Construction materials gypsum plaster calcite cement quartz glass Jewellery gold diamonds Minerals in everyday life HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK GO BACK
  14. 14. How are minerals classified? Silicates. They contain oxygen and silicon. olivine white mica (muscovite) black mica (biotite) orthoclase mica quartz feldspar clay minerals HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK
  15. 15. How are minerals classified? Non-silicates. They do not contain silicon. native elements native gold native sulfur oxides hematite sulfates barite carbonates cinnabar galena calcite halite sulfides halides HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK
  16. 16. halite biotite clay minerals olivine pyrite Physical properties of minerals quartz hematite muscovite talc feldspar colour lustre hardness streak cleavage HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK
  17. 17. feldspar halite biotite clay minerals olivine pyrite Physical properties of minerals white or pink white or yellowish different colours black white or transparent different colours olive green brassy yellow COLOUR quartz muscovite lustre hardness streak cleavage GO BACK HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK
  18. 18. Physical properties of minerals dull to glassy LUSTRE waxy metallic glassy talc feldspar pyrite quartz colour hardness streak cleavage HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK GO BACK
  19. 19. Physical properties of minerals hardness 7 hardness 6 hardness 7 hardness 2.5 HARDNESS feldspar halite olivine quartz MOHS SCALE colour lustre streak cleavage HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK GO BACK
  20. 20. Physical properties of minerals reddish streak STREAK hematite colour lustre hardness cleavage HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENT MAP CLOSE BACK GO BACK
  21. 21. muscovite Physical properties of minerals CLEAVAGE Mica cleaves in sheets. colour lustre hardness streak HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK GO BACK
  22. 22. Mohs scale talc gypsum 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 calcite fluorite apatite orthoclase quartz topaz corundum diamond Can be scratched with a fingernail Can be scratched with a knife Can be scratched with a piece of glass Can scratch glass HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK GO BACK
  23. 23. 3. Inside the Earth’s crust: In solid rocks which undergo intense heat and pressure 2. Inside the Earth’s crust: In a mass of melted rock 1. At the surface: Crystallisation of substances dissolved in water How are minerals formed? 2 <ul><li>Components in the right amounts </li></ul><ul><li>Heat and pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Time (millions of years) </li></ul>Certain conditions are necessary: 3 1 Stalactites formed by calcite olivine (top); feldspar (bottom) ENLARGE IMAGE HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK
  24. 24. How are minerals formed? <ul><li>Components in the right amounts </li></ul><ul><li>Heat and pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Time (millions of years) </li></ul>Certain conditions are necessary: ↑ PRESSURE ↑ HEAT TRANSFORMATION 3 clay minerals muscovites HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK GO BACK
  25. 25. Interactive activity: What do you know about minerals? HOME HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK
  26. 26. Links HOME HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK GO TO WEBSITE What is a mineral? GO TO WEBSITE Common minerals

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