The Earth’s Crust Mineral Identification
Mineral Identification <ul><li>What differences can you see between these minerals that could help identify them? </li></u...
<ul><li>There are six main characteristics that we will use to identify minerals: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. col...
1. Colour <ul><li>Colour - It's pretty easy to tell the colour of a mineral and it can give a clue to the identity of the ...
<ul><li>In addition, a mineral can come in more than one colour. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, the mineral corundum can o...
2. Crystals   <ul><li>Crystal shape – Minerals sometimes occur as crystals. A crystal occurs naturally and has straight ed...
3. Hardness <ul><li>Hardness  – the hardness of a mineral can be measured and compared to other minerals using the Moh’s  ...
4. Streak <ul><li>Streak  – the colour a mineral leaves behind when it is rubbed on a hard surface (usually a streak plate...
5. Cleavage and Fracture <ul><li>Cleavage and Fracture  – Describes how a mineral breaks apart  </li></ul>
<ul><li>The way a mineral breaks apart can be a clue to its identity. </li></ul><ul><li>If it breaks along smooth, flat su...
<ul><li>If it breaks with rough or jagged edges, it is said to have fracture.  E.g. obsidian </li></ul><ul><li>Obsidian fr...
 
6. Lustre <ul><li>Lustre – the way a mineral reflects light </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot;shininess,&quot; or lustre of a mi...
<ul><li>The surface of a mineral can reflect light in many different ways including: </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Metallic Lustre...
<ul><li>2.  Vitreous Lustre  (Glassy) - the mineral reflects light like a piece of glass when it is tilted from side to si...
<ul><li>3.  Pearly Lustre - the mineral reflects light like a pearl. </li></ul>
<ul><li>4.  Dull Lustre  - the mineral scatters the light and will not appear shiny at all. </li></ul>
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The Earths Crust #2 Mineral Identification

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  • The Earths Crust #2 Mineral Identification

    1. 1. The Earth’s Crust Mineral Identification
    2. 2. Mineral Identification <ul><li>What differences can you see between these minerals that could help identify them? </li></ul><ul><li>What properties could be used to identify minerals? </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>There are six main characteristics that we will use to identify minerals: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. colour </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. crystals (the shape of) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. hardness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. streak </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. cleavage and fracture </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6. luster </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cadburys chocolate hardly stays creamy for long </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. 1. Colour <ul><li>Colour - It's pretty easy to tell the colour of a mineral and it can give a clue to the identity of the mineral. </li></ul><ul><li>However, colour alone cannot identify a mineral. For example, pyrite (fools gold) and gold are both the same colour. </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>In addition, a mineral can come in more than one colour. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, the mineral corundum can occur in several different colours due to impurities. </li></ul><ul><li>Corundum is better known as amethyst (purple), emerald (green), topaz (yellow), and ruby (red). </li></ul><ul><li>In its pure form, corundum is white. </li></ul>
    6. 6. 2. Crystals <ul><li>Crystal shape – Minerals sometimes occur as crystals. A crystal occurs naturally and has straight edges, flat sides, and regular angles. </li></ul><ul><li>Each mineral forms a specific shape of crystal so it can be used for identification purposes. </li></ul>
    7. 7. 3. Hardness <ul><li>Hardness – the hardness of a mineral can be measured and compared to other minerals using the Moh’s Hardness Scale . </li></ul><ul><li>The scale goes from one (the softest) to 10 (the hardest) and ranks minerals on their “scratchability” </li></ul>10 (hardest) diamond Emery paper (9.0) 9 corundum Sandpaper (7.5) 8 topaz Streak plate (7) 7 quartz Steel file (6.5) 6 feldspar Glass (5.5) 5 apatite Iron nail (4.5) 4 fluorite Copper penny (3.5) 3 calcite Fingernail (2.5) 2 gypsum Soft pencil point (1.5) 1 (softest) talc Hardness of Common Items Mineral Hardness Mineral
    8. 8. 4. Streak <ul><li>Streak – the colour a mineral leaves behind when it is rubbed on a hard surface (usually a streak plate) </li></ul><ul><li>Often the colour a mineral leaves behind is different from the colour of the mineral. </li></ul>
    9. 9. 5. Cleavage and Fracture <ul><li>Cleavage and Fracture – Describes how a mineral breaks apart </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>The way a mineral breaks apart can be a clue to its identity. </li></ul><ul><li>If it breaks along smooth, flat surfaces, or planes, it is said to have cleavage . </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. calcite or mica - Mica can be pulled apart into thin, flat, sheets and Halite forms flat edges when broken. </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>If it breaks with rough or jagged edges, it is said to have fracture. E.g. obsidian </li></ul><ul><li>Obsidian fractures when broken apart leaving rough, jagged edges. </li></ul>
    12. 13. 6. Lustre <ul><li>Lustre – the way a mineral reflects light </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot;shininess,&quot; or lustre of a mineral depends on how light is reflected from its surface. </li></ul>
    13. 14. <ul><li>The surface of a mineral can reflect light in many different ways including: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Metallic Lustre - the mineral reflects light like a polished piece of metal. </li></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>2. Vitreous Lustre (Glassy) - the mineral reflects light like a piece of glass when it is tilted from side to side. </li></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>3. Pearly Lustre - the mineral reflects light like a pearl. </li></ul>
    16. 17. <ul><li>4. Dull Lustre - the mineral scatters the light and will not appear shiny at all. </li></ul>

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