Visa – or no visaCar rental – or no carTraffic guidance – to a fully booked hotelPersonal settings for hotel room – Celsius or FahrenheitTop-university course on software engineering for safety critical systems: disaster case storiesi.e. difficultWhat should we do?Our approach focuses on the practice of USE
A tribute to literal invisibilityThe EU presentation in helsinki in 2004Happy couple at helsinki 2004 presentationThis couple tried to wash their hands with this faucetable to grasp, both physically and conceptually,what technologies are doing and could do for them.We have termed this ‘palpable computing’ This wa my intro
This concludes my introBefore I go onTo illustrate: if people have difficulties figuring out how to use an automatic faucet there isn’t much room for invisible complexityEvtbelotti 2002 chi paper: no notion of error inn research prototypes on sensing systemsThe third point is that Palpable computing …I’ll discuss these issues using on major example of computer support that we have developed
And here is a picture of the police commander looking at an enlarged window with a live video-feedThese are pictures from the use of our prototype during the four day event.When we developed the prototype one the questions we faced was what kind of system we should strive forLike many before us we were fascinated by the visions of Mark WeiserAnd by the technical possibilities offered by the ongoing miniaturization and increased ubiquity of communicationSo we looked at his notion of naturalization
ubiquitous computing has striven to make machines and computing fit the human environment,to be invisible-in-use like the products of literacy technology, and to be literally invisible like the electric motors of a car. to be as refreshing as taking a walk in the woods‘literacytechnology’Learning through hard work over many yearselectric motorsLiteralinvisibililtyonlygoodwhenthingsworkwella walk in the woodspersonal experiences from early childhood, andon our sensory abilities evolved over millennia and moreDIFFICULT TO TRANSFEER EXPERIENCE technology develops fast, no stable paradigms for e.g. interactionSo we looked at how people coped
Assuming perfect match is not a valid optionWhat is actually happeningAnd how did the users get hereAnd how do they move onAdd Heidegger if you know and like his workAt lot is about competent/fitting use of computingBut people have to learn, experiment etc to become betterWhat may this mean for the architecture of ubicomAnd for the way we build systems?
Resource Awareness describes the fact that resources can be aware of one another's presence, availability and behaviour.Inspectability specifies that the structure, state and behaviour of resources may be inspected by users at different levels of detail appropriate to a particular context of use.Experimentability specifies the capability of the software architecture to facilitate and encourage exploratory experimentation by users. Assemblability specifies that resources can be assembled into multiple composite constructs and that any assembled construct may be disassembled or reassembled into alternative formations dynamically and in real time.Multiplicity specifies that any given resource may be participating in multiple simultaneous dependent or independent interactive relationships.Adaptability specifies that certain resources can dynamically change their behaviour in response to detected events or environmental conditions.Resilience specifies that, when required, architectures conforming to palpable computing principles should exhibit self-initiated behaviour that ensures a defined degree of reliability and survivability.
Overview prototype in 3D mode, including among other (a) maps and satellite photo draped over the 3D terrain (b) 3D models of existing buildings (c) live geo-referenced camera feeds (d) live tracked personnel (e) GIS models of the boats expected position during the event (f) actual positions of the boats during the event (g) compass and field of view (h) GIS models of temporary structures (bars, tents, entertainment, etc.) (i) 2D overview map.
Is this really this car on the emergency access route?
Opening Keynote at UBICOMP 2010
Making dreams come true– or how to avoid a living nightmare <br />Morten Kyng<br />Computer Science<br />email@example.com<br />With a little help from my friends/colleagues<br />
Dream?<br />Mark Weiser in Scientific American:‘Sal awakens: she smells coffee. A few minutes ago her alarm clock, alerted by her restless rolling before waking, had quietly asked “coffee?”, and she had mumbled “yes.”“Yes” and “no” are the only words it knows.’<br />From EU ISTAG: Road warrior<br />Personal communication device<br />Visa<br />Car rental<br />Traffic guidance<br />Personal settings for hotel room<br />
Or nightmare? <br />Mark Weiser in Scientific American:‘... A few minutes ago Sal’s alarm clock, alerted by her restless rolling before waking, had quietly asked “coffee?”, and …<br />From EU ISTAG: Road warrior<br />Personal communication device<br />Difficult if you don’t have a clue<br />
What is wonderful?<br /><ul><li>EU AAL 2004: Invisible computers
Difficult if you can’t sense and make sense</li></li></ul><li>What we have so far<br />We strive to create computing that excels among the best artefacts and enables everyday users to creatively appropriate this potential<br />Making such ubicom systems is difficult<br />We run the risk of making more complex and confusing systemse.g. obscuring the relation between action and reaction<br />Human action has a high degree of variability, fluidity and unpredictability<br />Errors will happen<br />Palpable computing is one approach to developing better systems<br />Palpability:supporting people in grasping physically and mentally<br />
Police, fire brigade, medics– The Tall Ships Races<br />Aarhus on 5-8 July 2007<br />6 x 3 km area of the harbor <br />800,000 people<br />Support for overview <br />3D map with overlays<br />Video cameras<br />Mobile phones withGPS & camera<br />AIS – Automatic ID System <br />
Overview prototype – The Tall Ships Races<br />
Overview prototype – The Tall Ships Races<br />
Naturalizing<br />‘literacytechnology’<br />electric motors<br />a walk in the woods<br />
Focus in human/technology relations<br />Technology focus<br />Introduced to new technology<br />Analysis<br />Fault finding<br />Exploration focus / mixed focus<br />Learning to use<br />Experiment<br />Modify<br />Activity focus<br />Work<br />Play<br />Doing: driving …<br />
Modes and qualities/capabilities<br />Technology focus<br />Discover computational resources<br />Inspect computational resources<br />Exploration focus / mixed focus<br />Cause-effect<br />Limited/reversible consequences<br />Combine, take apart, recombine<br />Activity focus<br />Resources should not thrust themselves on our attention<br />Confidence in correct operation<br />Going back<br />Overrule<br />
The Tall Ships Race<br />maps and photo draped over 3D<br />existing buildings<br />live geo-referenced camera feeds <br />live tracked personnel<br />boats expected positions<br />actual positions<br />compass and field of view<br />Temp bars, etc.<br />2D.<br />
Achieving palpability in use – developers<br />Example 1: The Automatic Identification System (AIS)<br />Planned + live positions of ships<br />Scaling down from 50 km radius <br />Inspectability, Assemblability and Multiplicity<br />Adaptabiluty<br />Experimentability<br />Example 2: The Geopath Dumper service<br />Storing GPS-tracked paths – to be used for de-briefing<br />
Picture of illegally parked car,visible in the Overview Prototype<br />
Achieving palpability in use – end-users<br />Officers have spotted a car parked on an emergency access route<br />Phone call & take picture<br />How and when to (dis-)trust technology when batteries run out<br />Picture position matches reported position<br />Phone rep “wobles” – this means receiving live signals<br />…<br />
How to improve systems and use<br />Design for Palpability supports different modes:<br />Technology focus<br />Exploration focus / mixed focus<br />Activity focus<br />