Reshaping the world of scholarly communication by Dr. Usha Munshi


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Paper presented at PLA International Conference 2010, Islamabad

October 13-14, 2010

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Reshaping the world of scholarly communication by Dr. Usha Munshi

  1. 1. R e shaping the W o rld of S c holarly C ommunications : E nhanced A c cess to I n formation R esources Indian Institute of Public Administration New Delhi U sha M ujoo M unshi International Conference on “ 21 st C entury Vision for L ibraries “ Islamabad, October 13-14, 2010
  2. 2. <ul><li>Information Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Open Access to Information </li></ul><ul><li>Driver of innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Driving Force </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ensuring Universal Access for the Global Information Flow & </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to the Demands of Scholarship in the Digital Age </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Landscape </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Library <ul><li>O ne of the oldest types of institutions </li></ul><ul><li>I n the midst of rapid change </li></ul><ul><li>C hanges mirror those going on in other institutions and in society as a whole </li></ul>Questions? <ul><li>Library and Librarian part of intellectual infrastructure of previous centuries </li></ul><ul><li>What is their role in the 21 st Century? </li></ul><ul><li>Google-generation researcher very different to ourselves – social networking, mobile computing, collaborative working, basically anti-IPR, expects everything free & equates what’s free with everything. </li></ul><ul><li>Is there something special the academic/research library,librarian can still offer ? </li></ul><ul><li>Mediation, trust, guardianship of authenticity, more........................................ </li></ul><ul><li>Do we have the necessary skill sets? </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps ..................................... </li></ul><ul><li>(How) Are we Selecting new & effective mechanisms for developing an ongoing dialogue with researchers to validate the development of the Library’s content strategy on a regular basis? </li></ul><ul><li>Someways................. </li></ul><ul><li>How far have we decided (at least) moderate shifts in collecting that can be accommodated within existing resources </li></ul><ul><li>Some where.... </li></ul>
  4. 4. W hat distinguishes an Academic/Research library today? <ul><li>W hat would differentiate them would be : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Degree of connection to subscription services & “managed” access to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>freely accessible content on the internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other services provided </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Library of the future will combine … ... a managed place … … with a managed digital space .”
  6. 6. From Database/Repository to Environment (Managed Digital Space) Seamless (fully integrated with digital learning and research; beyond?) Community (resources, people, interaction, process, activities, services) Omnipresent (it will be wherever the users are) Dynamic & Organic (the users will construct it as much as we will) Trusted Information Systems (status, reputation, influence, impact) Personal Information Systems (discovery, assistance, utility) Smart Information ( telemetry, propagation )
  7. 7. Scholarly Information Systems Portfolios Information Landscape Personal Info. Manager Portals Identity And Access Management Content Managers Object Libraries Library Catalogue Scholarly Publishing Learning Management Systems Digital Repositories
  8. 8. Signaling value to the institution in an open-ended fashion
  9. 9. Culture of Openness Most modern libraries are “ hybrid” libraries Continuing the past and integrating new methods of storage and transmission of information into an already existing structure
  10. 10. Culture of Openness Expressions of this culture <ul><li>Commitment to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generating, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disseminating, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserving knowledge, & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working with others to bring this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge to bear on the world's great challenges. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mission directly related to widest dissemination </li></ul><ul><li>Describing Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Creating & sustaining a trusted information environment </li></ul><ul><li>Developing strategies & systems that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>promote discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>facilitate worldwide scholarly communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategies and Systems that Promote Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating, developing, investing in value-added discovery & delivery tools, especially open source tools </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata Creation & Management </li></ul>Buying Access Creating IRs Facilitating Access Provide - One Stop shop Access for Information Resources
  11. 11. <ul><li>Need to create the environment in which open access will become the norm for distributing research </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of openness has been spreading its wings far & wide in many guises </li></ul><ul><li>Popularity (open Source) highest among academia due to underlying philosophy based on sharing (enrich giver & receiver) </li></ul><ul><li>Need to sustain and nurture – through a sustained cycle of human resources & efforts to help it continue what it has been able to do so far </li></ul>
  12. 12. Open Access Defined
  13. 13. Open Access Movement & initiatives Statements & Declarations Budapest definition By &quot;open access&quot; to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the Internet itself. (Open Society Institute, 2002) See
  14. 14. <ul><li>Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the </li></ul><ul><li>Sciences & Humanities   October 22, 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Bethesda Statement on Open Access   20 June 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Budapest Open Access Initiative     14 February 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>NEAR      </li></ul><ul><li>OECD Final Communique </li></ul><ul><li>Tempe Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Washington DC Principles for Free Access to Science </li></ul><ul><li>Wellcome Trust Position Statement and Research Reports </li></ul><ul><li>World Summit on the Information Society Declaration of Principles and Plan </li></ul><ul><li>of Action </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul><ul><li>Open Access Statements: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Statements & Declarations OA Advocacy : A number of Initiatives
  15. 15. Openness -as a transformative value
  16. 16. Instructors rapidly build & share custom collections Learners find & explore content Authors Create & collaborate
  17. 17. <ul><li>Creative Commons </li></ul><ul><li>Free legal and technical tools to facilitate access to digital content ( </li></ul><ul><li>Licences : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution (standard in all CC licences) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Commercial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Derivative works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share Alike </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New! CC+ for commercial </li></ul>Contracts/Licences <ul><li>Strict conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Contract law overrides copyright law </li></ul><ul><li>Shrink-wrap and click-wrap contracts </li></ul><ul><li>E-databases – for paid subscribers only </li></ul><ul><li>Complete control over works </li></ul><ul><li>Science Commons </li></ul><ul><li>Focus areas – licensing, publishing & data </li></ul><ul><li>Science Commons ( plans - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to evaluate & draft open, voluntary & interoperable legal solutions for databases – ‘ some rights reserved’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to provide standard contracts and technologies for institutional-sharing and archiving </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Second Pillar Open Licensing <ul><li>Main purpose </li></ul><ul><li>to have a colossal body of work in “the commons” that is available to the public for - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free & legal sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repurposing, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remixing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CC licenses provide </li></ul><ul><li>A flexible range of protections & freedoms for authors, artists, & educators </li></ul><ul><li>Provides free, easy-to-use legal tools </li></ul><ul><li>The tools give everyone from individual creators to large companies & institutions a simple, standardized way to grant copyright permissions to their creative work. </li></ul><ul><li>Enable people to easily change their copyright terms from the default of </li></ul><ul><li>“ all rights reserved ” to “ some rights reserved .” </li></ul>
  19. 19. flickr cc As rightly said by — Evan Prodromou, Founder, “ Within a generation we can open the world’s knowledge to all of its inhabitants and reduce or eliminate the misery caused by lack of access to information, and Creative Commons is a crucial part of the cultural compact that makes that revolution possible&quot;
  20. 20. <ul><li>For authors? </li></ul><ul><li>For Institutions? </li></ul>Why Open Access <ul><li>Most research articles accessible by only a few </li></ul><ul><li>Online managed, permanent database of scholarly output </li></ul><ul><li>Open Access (OA) maximizes:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>research visibility, usage and uptake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>research applications, impact and citation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>research productivity, progress and funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>research manageability and assessability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By maximising research accessibility! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is an ethical argument that research funded by the public should be available to the public. </li></ul><ul><li>To maximise, measure & reward the uptake, usage, applications and impact of an institution’s research output </li></ul><ul><li>To collect, manage & showcase a permanent record of the institution’s research output. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Open Access ‘Routes’ GOLD = authors publish in OA journals that make their articles freely accessible online immediately upon publication. OA journals are peer-reviewed. Depending on the model, authors may have to pay publishers a fee to publish. GREEN = authors publish in a subscription journal, but also make their articles freely accessible online, usually by depositing them in either an institutional repository or central repository (either peer-reviewed postprints or non-peer-reviewed preprints).
  22. 22.
  23. 23. <ul><li>Several OA resources available </li></ul><ul><li>While these are getting populated regularly, new resources crop up for access by all </li></ul><ul><li>Resources: Typical Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Directories </li></ul><ul><li>Directory of Open Access Journals; </li></ul><ul><li>OpenDOAR—the Directory of Open Access Repositories ; </li></ul><ul><li>ROAR--Registry of Open Access Repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Research Resources </li></ul><ul><li>HighWire Press </li></ul><ul><li>Stanford University </li></ul><ul><li>Free Medical Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Several open access Forums, Blogs, and News are out there. Examples include : </li></ul><ul><li>American Scientist Open Access Forum: - a </li></ul><ul><li>complete Hyper-mail archive of the ongoing discussion of providing open access to the peer- </li></ul><ul><li>reviewed research literature online ; </li></ul><ul><li>Budapest Open Access Initiative Forum; </li></ul><ul><li>OA Librarian; </li></ul><ul><li>Open Access News </li></ul><ul><li>; SPARC Open Access Forum and SPARC Open Access Newsletter </li></ul>
  24. 24. SHERPA SHERPA is investigating issues in the future of scholarly communication. It is developing open-access institutional repositories in universities to facilitate the rapid and efficient worldwide dissemination of research. ROAR tracks the growth of existing OA Archives. OpenDOAR worldwide Directory of Open Access Repositories ( ROARMAP tracks the growth of institutional self-archiving policies . ROMEO tracks journal/publisher &quot;green&quot; policies on author self-archiving . RoMEO - Publisher's copyright & archiving policies ( JULIET - Research funders archiving mandates and guidelines ( ) Statistical Analysis For an indication of how UK research funders have implemented Open Access policies and level of funds affected, please see: Selected research funders' grant expenditure available at Let us take a look at some statistics associated with some of these International/National Initiatives: Open Access to Research
  25. 25. ROAR Registry of Open Access Repositories resulted in 1737 repositories Open Access to Research India: Vidyanidhi (~55000 records) IISc, Bangalore, (~23000records) (IIAstrophysics (~4211) RRI (~3546) Many not listed ROAR/Open DOAR – NISCAIR (6 Feb, 2009)
  26. 26. Open Access to Research OpenDOAR 1737 repositories ~996 Organizations ~100 countries 8 Continents India
  27. 27. Open Access to Research
  28. 28. Support Systems Organizational Programmes <ul><li>Institutional Repositories : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IR ; OSS ; multivariate content streams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Open Access Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata Harvesting Services </li></ul><ul><li>Open Courseware </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Library Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Archiving and Information Dissemination </li></ul>
  29. 29. Major OA Initiatives in India <ul><li>Institutional Repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Open Access Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata Harvesting Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Open Courseware </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital Library Initiatives: Digital Archiving and Information Dissemination </li></ul>
  30. 30. Institutional Repositories <ul><li>OA - making its impact at the level of repositories in India </li></ul><ul><li>Survey Shows -~100 repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Registered - 43 (Institutions set up their own OAI compliant institutional </li></ul><ul><li>repositories using OSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Essentially e-prints/pre-prints </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Institute of Science (IIsc) - first to set up EPrints archive </li></ul><ul><li>A few institutions like IISc, ISI, INSA, etc facilitate complete suite of open access resources like IRs , harvesting from other OA compliant distributed digital repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Mandating OA for faculty & student research publications. on cards now </li></ul>Typical Examples
  31. 31. Typical Examples
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  34. 34. National Level Open Access Repositories Subject-based central repositories - for medicine (NIC), library and information science, and catalysis National Level Open Access Repositories Catalysis Database Librarians’ Digital Library (LDL) OpenMed&NIC Principal Implementing Agency : National Centre for Catalysis Research (NCCR), Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM), Chennai Supporting Agency : Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM), Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India Web Address : Principal Implementing Agency : Documentation Research & Training Centre (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore Supporting Agency : Indian Statistical Institute, Government of India Web Address : Principal Implementing Agency : Bibliographic Informatics Division, National Informatics Centre (NIC), New Delhi Supporting Agency : National Informatics Centre, Ministry of Communication & Information Technology, Government of India; Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India Web Address :
  35. 35. 12/20/10
  36. 36. 12/20/10 Home
  37. 37. [1084]
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  39. 39.
  40. 40. Directory of Open Access Journals : <ul><li>Service covers free, full text, quality controlled scientific and scholarly journals (more or less) cover all subjects and languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Aim to increase the visibility and ease of use of open access scientific and scholarly journals thereby promoting their increased usage and impact </li></ul><ul><li>5468 journals </li></ul><ul><li>2296 journals searchable at article level. </li></ul><ul><li>450157 articles included in the </li></ul><ul><li>DOAJ service </li></ul>Open Access Journal : We define open access journals as journals that use a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access. From the BOAI definition of &quot;open access&quot; we take the right of users to &quot;read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles&quot; as mandatory for a journal to be included in the directory Open Access to Research : OA Journals
  41. 41.
  42. 42. Open Access Journals <ul><li>Many leading journals published in India are already open access </li></ul><ul><li>Academies showed the way & set the ball rolling </li></ul><ul><li>Several organisations followed </li></ul><ul><li>~350 OA journals. Most of these hybrid – print + online </li></ul><ul><ul><li>While print is against subscription </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Indian journal charges a fee from the authors for publishing papers, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NIC, GOI & some private publishers publish OA jls on behalf of </li></ul><ul><li>about 75 societies </li></ul><ul><li>Latest in the system </li></ul><ul><li>NISCAIR – 17 jls made OA ( Other language jls, abstr. jls ) </li></ul><ul><li>Not yet listed in DOAJ </li></ul>
  43. 43. decomposition decomposition
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  48. 48. <ul><li>110 video courses and 129 web based courses. - 6 Subject Areas </li></ul><ul><li>All of the youtube videos can be found over the NPTEL-HRD Channel . </li></ul><ul><li>MPTEL-HRD channel : </li></ul><ul><li>IIT – Coming virtually Home : 400 courses across 5 subjects </li></ul>Open Courseware <ul><li>NPTEL (National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning) programme, jointly mounted by the IITs and IISc, a world-class open courseware programme. </li></ul><ul><li>Funded by MHRD, GOI </li></ul><ul><li>India - making headway at the level of open access courses too </li></ul><ul><li>OCW refers to programmes for study, which offer access to everyone, regardless of whether they are formally students or not in an institution </li></ul><ul><li>An interesting way of building skills and spreading knowledge </li></ul>
  49. 49. nptel youtube
  50. 50. Digital Library Initiatives : Digital Archiving and Information Dissemination Digital Library of India <ul><li>Three broad Categories </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Data Centres </li></ul><ul><li>Access Facilitators </li></ul><ul><li>Several Digital Library Initiatives taken up at national level. Examples Include: </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Library of India </li></ul><ul><li>National Mission for Manuscripts </li></ul>Typical Examples Digital Libraries Principal Implementing Agency : Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore Supporting Agency (Indian) : Ministry of Communication & Information Technology, Government of India Supporting Agency (Overseas) : National Science Foundation, USA Web Address :
  51. 51.
  52. 52. <ul><li>National Collection of Industrial micro-organism (NCIM) ( / ) </li></ul><ul><li>A national facility dedicated to isolation, preservation and distribution of authentic cultures – 3700 cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Biodiversity informatics ( </li></ul><ul><li>NCL Centre for Biodiversity Informatics (NCBI) is an effort to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collect, collate, analyze, predict and disseminate knowledge about Indian biota and its environ </li></ul></ul>Important Data Centres,Products & Services Typical Examples <ul><li>URDIP: CSIR Unit for Research and Development for Information Products ( </li></ul><ul><li>Open access to Indian patents and medicinal plants, pollution technologies, CSIR rural technologies, ETD and research reports </li></ul><ul><li>Gateway services for open access resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SciGate: Science Information Portal (IISc) ( / ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Resources : IGNOU, CEC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Information Facilitators </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Typical Examples Metadata Harvesting Services <ul><li>Open Archives Initiative – Protocol for Metadata Harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Harvester: </li></ul><ul><li>a client application that issues OAI-PMH requests </li></ul><ul><li>A harvester is operated by a service provider as a means of collecting metadata from repositories .   </li></ul>OAI Harvester   <ul><li>Cross Archives Search Service for Indian Repositories (CASSIR) National Centre For Science Information (NCSI), Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore </li></ul><ul><li>Har vesters for Open Repositories with Unlimited Search (HORUS) Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata </li></ul><ul><li>Search Digital Libraries (SDL) : Documentation Research & Training Centre (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore, Government of India </li></ul><ul><li>OKHARI @iipa </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Harvester@INSA … </li></ul>
  54. 54. Knowledge Harvester @ IIPA OKHARI is a suit of information services based on OAI-PMH (Open Access Initiative - Protocol for Metadata Harvesting) OKHARI collects metadata from various digital repositories dealing with subjects in Social Sciences with a strong flavour in Public Administration and provides a single stop search engine for full-text resources in the respective subjects.
  55. 55. HORUS is a suit of information services based on OAI-PMH (Open Access Initiative - Protocol for Metadata Harvesting) HORUS collects metadata from various digital repositories dealing with subjects like Computer Sciences, Biological Sciences,, Social Sciences, etc. and provides a single stop search engine for full-text resources in the respective subjects.
  56. 56. Accessing Multifaceted Digital Resources The end user is forced to learn and interact with as many interfaces as products available and this leads to stress and confusion. It results in very low usage of the subscribed resources. Limitations Offer links only to content from publishers with which these companies have agreements, or that a library accesses within a specific service <ul><li>Some Solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking and Serial Management Service by other publishers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: PubMed's LinkOut, Silverplatter Silverlinker, ISI Web of Science, OCLC Electronic Collections Online, Cambridge Scientific, EBSCO </li></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-Ref </li></ul><ul><li>-- A publishing industry initiative to enable article linkages across participating publishers </li></ul><ul><li>Federated searching </li></ul><ul><li>-- Multiple vendor implementations, e.g., Ex Libris SFX and Endeavor Encompass </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>-- being developed through the Open Archives Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Serials Management </li></ul><ul><li>-- TDNet and SerialsSolutions: fulltext list generation, URL generation to load MARC-like catalog records into local catalog </li></ul>
  57. 57. OpenURL for accessing Resources OSS tools for OpenURL <ul><li>CUFTS (knowledge base) </li></ul><ul><li>GODOT (Link Resolver) </li></ul><ul><li>dbWiz (Federated Search Engine) </li></ul>
  58. 58.
  59. 59.
  60. 60.
  61. 61. <ul><ul><li>By maximising research accessibility! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>research visibility, usage and uptake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>research visibility, usage and uptake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>research applications, impact and citation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>research productivity, progress and funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>research manageability and assessability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Educate funding agencies & senior research administration on the value mechanism & best practices for building knowledge resources and facilitating access </li></ul><ul><li>The country’s investment – intellectual, effort and cash – can hope to gain a good return this way </li></ul>Not an exhaustive account <ul><li>Support and promote access to </li></ul><ul><li>scholarly information by creating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigenous digital databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional Repositories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protect ‘fair dealing’ in digital environment </li></ul><ul><li>Provide legal ‘keys’ to ‘unlock’ digital content </li></ul><ul><li>Provide access to public-funded research via </li></ul><ul><li>Open Access </li></ul><ul><li>Partners in facilitating worldwide scholarly communication in a trusted information environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Express interest in collaborating with others in taking OA archiving forward in your country . </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Librarians as Change Managers </li></ul><ul><li>The cycle of change is never-ending </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>so librarians need to accustom themselves to it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Librarians need to handle change effectively </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to survive and thrive in today’s environment </li></ul></ul></ul>User-Friendly places <ul><li>From Form To Function </li></ul><ul><li>The future for libraries can be an exciting & challenging one </li></ul><ul><li>for those libraries that are both able and open to change </li></ul>“ To remain what it is, the library must change . . . . . . if it does not change, it will not remain what it is.” David Penniman, University at Buffalo
  63. 63. 6.04.2005 Thank You