ch3 attitudes and job satisfaction


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ch3 attitudes and job satisfaction

  1. 1. Chapter3 Attitudes and Job Satisfication 心碩二 何育甄
  2. 2. Attitudes <ul><li>Attitudes are evaluative statements - either favorable or unfavorable - concerning objects, people, or events. </li></ul><ul><li>They reflect how one feels about something. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I like my job.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Attitudes <ul><li>What are the main components of attitudes ? </li></ul><ul><li>How consistent are attitudes ? </li></ul><ul><li>Does behavior always follow from attitudes ? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the major attitudes ? </li></ul><ul><li>How are employee attitudes measured ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the importance of attitudes to workplace diversity ? </li></ul>
  4. 4. What are the main components of attitudes ? <ul><li>Cogniyive component </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The opinion or belief segment of an attitude . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affective component </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioral component </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In organization, attitudes are important because of their behavioral component. </li></ul>
  5. 5. How consistent are attitudes ? <ul><li>Cognitive dissonance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Festinger argued that any form of inconsistency in uncomfortable and that individuals will attempt to reduce the dissotency and, hence, the discomfort. </li></ul><ul><li>No individual can completely avoid dissonce. </li></ul><ul><li>So how do people cope ? </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The desire to desire reduce dissonce would be determined by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of the elementscreating the dissonance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rewards that may be involved in dissonance. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Does behavior always follow from attitudes ? <ul><li>The assumed relationship between attitudes and behavior was challenged by a review of the research in the late 1960s. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most powerful moderators of the attitudes-behavior relationship have been found to be the importance of the attitude, its specificity, its accessibility, whether there exist social pressures, and whether a person has direct experience with attitude. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-Perception Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes are used after the fact to make sence out of an action that has already occurred. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. What are the major job attitudes ? <ul><li>Job satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A positive feeling about one’s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job involvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The degree to which a person identifies with a job, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self-worth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological empowerment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The degree to which an employee indentifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Organizational commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Affective commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An emotional attachment to the organization and a belief in its values. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continuance commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The percieved economics values of remaining with an organization compared to leaving it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Normative commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An obligation to remain with the organization for moral or ethical reasons. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Organizational commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a positive relationship between organizational commitment ang job producttivity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There us a negative relationships between organizational commitment and both absenteeism and turnover. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affective commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective commitment is more strongly related to organizational outcomes like performance and turnover than the other two commitment dimensions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective commitment was a predictor of various outcomes than the other two commitment dimensions. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Other job attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Percieved organizational support ( POS ) </li></ul><ul><li>Employee engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Are thes job attitudes really all that distinct ? </li></ul>
  12. 12. How are employee attitudes measured ? <ul><li>Attitude surveys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires on how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, and the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of regular attitude surveys can alert management to potential problems and employees’ intentions early. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. What is the importance of attitudes to workplace diversity ? <ul><li>Managers are increasingly concerned with changing employee attitudes to reflect shifting perspectives on racial, gender, and other diversuty issues. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Job Satisfaction <ul><li>How do we measure job satisfaction ? </li></ul><ul><li>How satisfied are employees in their jobs ? </li></ul><ul><li>What causes an employee to have a high level of job satisfaction ? </li></ul><ul><li>How do dissatisfied and satisfied employees affect an organization ? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Measuring job satisfaction ? <ul><li>A single global rating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reply by circling a number between 1and 5 that corresponds to answers from “highly satisfied ” to “high dissatisfied”. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A sumation score made up of number of job facets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It identifies key elements in a job and ask for the employee’s feelings about each. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These factors are relaed on a standardized scale and than added up to creat an overall score. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is one of the foregoing approaches superior to the other ? </li></ul>
  16. 16. How satisfied are people in their jobs ? <ul><li>Are most people satisfied with there jobs ? </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows that satisfaction levels vary a lot depending on which facet of job satisfaction you’re talking about. </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibit 3-2 </li></ul>
  17. 17. What cause job satisfaction ? <ul><li>Enjoying the work itself is almost always the facet most strongly correlated with high level of overall job satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay ( Exhibit 3-3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Personality also plays a role. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The impact of dissatisfied and satisfied employees on the workplace ? <ul><li>Exhibit 3-5 </li></ul>Active Destructive Passive Constructive
  19. 19. <ul><li>Active/ passive </li></ul><ul><li>Constructive/ destructive </li></ul><ul><li>Exit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior directed toward leaving the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Loyalty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neglect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passively allowing conditions to worsen. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Job satisfaction and job performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Myth or Science ? ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Organizations with more satisfied employees tend to be more effective than organizations with fewer satisfied employees. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction and OCB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction should be a major determinant of an employee’s organizational citizenship behavior ( OCB ) . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But satisfaction is unrelated to OCB when fairness is controlled. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Job satisfaction and customer satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissatified customers can increase an employee’s job dissatisfaction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Service-oriented bussiness obsess about pleasing their customers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction and absenteeism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is consistent negtive relationship between satisfaction and obsenteeism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-The relation is moderate to weak : organizations that provide liberal sick leave benefits. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Job satisfaction and turnover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction is also negatively related to turnover. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Some factors are important constrains on the actual decision to leave one’s current job. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction and workplace deviance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job dissatisfaction predicts a lot of specific behaviors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The key is that if employees don’t like their work environment, they’ll respond somehow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-It is not always easy to forecast exactly how they’ll </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>respond. </li></ul></ul></ul>