Bio 124 Lab Exam 2 Study Guide

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  • roots (rhizoids) that anchor them to their substrate
  • A protonema is a thread-like chain of cells that forms the earliest stage (the haploid phase) of a bryophyte life cycle. When a moss first grows from the spore, it grows as a protonema which develops into a leafy gametophyte.
  • Sphagnum spp. specimen
  • Kingdom: PlantaeDivision: LycopodiophytaClass: LycopodiopsidaOrder: LycopodialesFamily: LycopodiaceaeGenus: Lycopodium
  • Kingdom: Plantae Division: Lycopodiophyta Class: Isoetopsida Order: Selaginellales Family: Selaginellaceae Genus: Selaginella
  • Psilotum sporophyte
  • Bio 124 Lab Exam 2 Study Guide

    1. 1. NucleusDomain Intercellular structures CytoskeletonEukarya Linear chromosomes Meiosis and Mitosis Primary EndosimbiosisSupergroup Contain plastidsArchaeplastida Chlorophyll A Contain Cellulose in cell walls Starch used as food storage Chlorophyll B, Carotene, XanthophyllKingdom FlagellaCharophycean Internal fertilization, egg retained Form phragmoplast during cell plate formation
    2. 2. NucleusDomain Intercellular structures CytoskeletonEukarya Linear chromosomes Meiosis and Mitosis Primary EndosimbiosisSupergroup Contain plastidsArchaeplastida Chlorophyll A Contain Cellulose in cell walls Starch used as food storage Diplohaplontic life cycleKingdom Apical meristemPlantae Cuticle Dispersed by seeds or spores
    3. 3. Primary EndosimbiosisSupergroup Contain plastids Chlorophyll AArchaeplastida Contain Cellulose in cell walls Starch used as food storage Diplohaplontic life cycleKingdom Apical meristemPlantae Cuticle Dispersed by seeds or spores Homosporous Non Vascular, small sizeBryophytes Flagellated Sperm Gametophyte dominant Sporophyte dependant on gametophyte No true leaves, stems or roots (anchors with rhizoids) Have Gametangia: Antheridia & Archegonium
    4. 4. • Bryophyte Life Cycle – Diplohaplontic, Homosporous• Gametophyte dominant, Sporophyte dependant on gametophyte• Gametangia (cluster of sex organs)• Sporangium
    5. 5. Female Gametangium
    6. 6. Male Gametangium
    7. 7. Moss Sporophyte• Grows out of adult gametophyte• Dependant on gametophyte• Sporangium containing spores located on the top
    8. 8. Rhizoids• A structure in plants that functions like a root in support or absorption.• Not a true root due to lack of vascular tissue
    9. 9. Diplohaplontic life cycleKingdom Apical meristem CuticlePlantae Dispersed by seeds or spores Homosporous Non Vascular, small sizeBryophytes Flagellated Sperm Gametophyte dominant Sporophyte dependant on gametophyte No true leaves, stems or roots (anchors with rhizoids) Have Gametangia: Antheridia & ArchegoniumDivisionHepatophyta Gametangia are antheridia and archegonia(liverworts) Just pores, no stomata Flattened leaf-like lobes
    10. 10. Division Hepatophyta(liverworts)• Flattened leaf-like lobes• Looks like liver, originally thought to be good for the liver when eaten• Just pores, no stomata
    11. 11. Diplohaplontic life cycleKingdom Apical meristem CuticlePlantae Dispersed by seeds or spores Homosporous Non Vascular, small sizeBryophytes Flagellated Sperm Gametophyte dominant Sporophyte dependant on gametophyte No true leaves, stems or roots (anchors with rhizoids) Have Gametangia: Antheridia & ArchegoniumDivisionAnthocerophyta Hornlike sporangia(hornworts)
    12. 12. Division Anthocerophyta (hornworts)Green top parts: Sporangia (horns)Dark slime looking bottom: Dominant Gametophyte
    13. 13. Diplohaplontic life cycleKingdom Apical meristem CuticlePlantae Dispersed by seeds or spores Homosporous Non Vascular, small size Flagellated SpermBryophytes Gametophyte dominant Sporophyte dependant on gametophyte No true leaves, stems or roots (anchors with rhizoids) Have Gametangia: Antheridia & ArchegoniumDivision Has Leaf like structuresBryophyta Sporophyte has a capsule with calyptras(mosses) Gametophyte grows from protonema Important part of the eco system
    14. 14. DivisionBryophyta(moss)Life Cycle
    15. 15. Division Bryophyta(moss) capsule• Operculum falls off when dry• Teeth open• Internal spores are released
    16. 16. Division Bryophyta (moss) capsule with calyptras
    17. 17. Division Bryophyta (moss) Protonema• When a moss first grows from the spore, it grows as a protonema which develops into a leafy gametophyte.
    18. 18. Kingdom: PlantaeDomain: BryophytaGenus: Sphagnum• Demonstrated moss absorbance in the lab• Looked at the clear, non photosynthetic, absorbent cells• Compared to green, photosynthetic cells• Absorbance important in the global ecosystem
    19. 19. Division Bryophyta (mosses) gametophyte
    20. 20. Diplohaplontic life cycleKingdom Apical meristem CuticlePlantae Dispersed by seeds or spores Structure, grow larger, nutrient movement StomataSeedless Vascular Roots, shoots and leaves (micro/megaphylls)Plants Sporophyte dominant “seen” Gametophyte dependant on Sporophyte Contain Phloem and Xylem
    21. 21. Structure, grow larger, nutrient movementSeedless Vascular Stomata Roots, shoots and leaves (micro/megaphyll)Plants Sporophyte dominant “seen” Gametophyte dependant on Sporophyte Contain Phloem and XylemDivisionLycophyta(club moss, ground pines,spike moss, quillworts)GenusLycopodium(club moss)
    22. 22. Lycopodium (club moss)specimen
    23. 23. Lycopodium leaf cross section
    24. 24. Lycopodium Life Cycle
    25. 25. LycopodiumStrobiliUnmagnifiedandMagnified
    26. 26. Structure, grow larger, nutrient movementSeedless Vascular Stomata Roots, shoots and leaves (micro/megaphyll)Plants Sporophyte dominant “seen” Gametophyte dependant on Sporophyte Contain Phloem and XylemDivisionLycophyta(club moss, ground pines,spike moss, quillworts)GenusSelaginella
    27. 27. Selaginella sporophyte
    28. 28. Selaginella Life Cycle
    29. 29. Diplohaplontic life cycleKingdom Apical meristem CuticlePlantae Dispersed by seeds or spores Structure, grow larger, nutrient movementSeedless Vascular StomataPlants Roots, shoots and leaves (micro/megaphyll) Sporophyte dominant “seen” Gametophyte dependant on Sporophyte Contain Phloem and XylemDivisionPterophyta(whisk ferns, horsetails,ferns)
    30. 30. Structure, grow larger, nutrient movementSeedless Vascular Stomata Roots, shoots and leaves (micro/megaphyll)Plants Sporophyte dominant “seen” Gametophyte dependant on Sporophyte Contain Phloem and XylemDivisionPterophytaClassPterophyta(ferns)
    31. 31. Fern Life cycle
    32. 32. FernLifecycle
    33. 33. BelowSporophyte growing fromgametophyte
    34. 34. fernsporophyte
    35. 35. fernsorusonleaf
    36. 36. Fern sorus magnified
    37. 37. fern sporangium with annulus
    38. 38. Structure, grow larger, nutrient movementSeedless Vascular Stomata Roots, shoots and leaves (micro/megaphyll)Plants Sporophyte dominant “seen” Gametophyte dependant on Sporophyte Contain Phloem and XylemDivisionPterophytaClassPsilophyta(whisk ferns)
    39. 39. PsilophytaLife cycle
    40. 40. Psilotum Sporangium
    41. 41. Structure, grow larger, nutrient movementSeedless Vascular Stomata Roots, shoots and leaves (micro/megaphyll)Plants Sporophyte dominant “seen” Gametophyte dependant on Sporophyte Contain Phloem and XylemDivisionPterophytaClassSphenophyta(horsetails)
    42. 42. Life cycle shown in lab
    43. 43. Equisetum life cycle1. Sporophyte plant2. Strobilus3. Sporangium4. Spores5. Antheridium6. Sperm7. Male gametophyte8. Female gametophyte9. Archegonium10. Egg11. Zygote12. Young sporophyte
    44. 44. Equisetum sporophyte
    45. 45. Equisetum gametophyte
    46. 46. Equisetum spores
    47. 47. Structure, grow larger, nutrient movementSeedless Vascular Stomata Roots, shoots and leaves (micro/megaphyll)Plants Sporophyte dominant “seen” Gametophyte dependant on Sporophyte Contain Phloem and XylemDivisionPterophytaClassSphenophyta(horsetails)
    48. 48. Kingdom Plantae Moss gametophyte, moss sporophyte,Division Hepatophyta moss capsule with calyptras,Division Anthocerophyta moss antheridium,Division Bryophyta moss archegonium, moss protonema,Division Lycophyta moss rhizoids,Division Pterophyta Selaginella strobilis nonmagnified & magnified,Division Ginkgophyta fern sporophyte,Division Cycadophyta fern sorus,Division Gnetophyta fern sporangium with annulus,Division Coniferophyta fern gametophyte,Division Anthophyta stomata, megaphyll, Lycopodium strobilis, fern gametophyte, Psilotum sporophyte, Selaginella sporophyte, Equisetum spores, Equisetum sporophyte

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