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Pattern of reproduction in plant

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Pattern of reproduction in plant

  1. 1. Patterns of Reproduction in Plants
  2. 2. Purely Organic In The News
  3. 3. Alternate Generations of Plants <ul><li>Plant life cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two multicellular generations that alternate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One phase includes sexual reproduction </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Plant Life Cycles <ul><li>Diploid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usual complement of chromosome pairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes zygote & sporophyte </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Haploid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One set of chromosomes only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes spores, gametophyte, egg, & sperm </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Gametophytes <ul><li>Haploid </li></ul><ul><li>Haploid spores form gametophyte </li></ul><ul><li>Form gametes by mitosis </li></ul>
  6. 6. Gamete Formation <ul><li>Eggs formed in archegonia </li></ul><ul><li>Sperm produced in antheridium </li></ul><ul><li>Fuse to form zygote </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sporophyte <ul><li>Zygote undergoes mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>Multicellular sporophyte undergoes meiosis </li></ul><ul><li>Spores often in cases called sporangia </li></ul>
  8. 8. One Generation Dominates <ul><li>Gametophyte in nonvascular plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liverworts & hornwort </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sporophyte in vascular plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ferns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conifers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowering plants </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Nonvascular Plants <ul><li>Three phyla </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bryophyta – mosses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hepatophyta – liverworts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthocerophyta – hornwort </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gametophyte nutritionally independent </li></ul><ul><li>Sporophyte grows out of gametophyte </li></ul>
  10. 10. Vascular Plants <ul><li>Seedless vascular plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whisk ferns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Club mosses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horsetails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ferns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plants with naked seeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conifers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ginkos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protected seeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Angiosperms </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Seedless Vascular Plants <ul><li>Seeds contain sporophyte embryos & food </li></ul><ul><li>Seedless plants compensate for no seed by being tied to favorable habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Sporophyte is dominant stage </li></ul>
  12. 12. Moss Life cycle
  13. 13. Gymnosperms <ul><li>Exposed (naked) seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Sporophyte generation dominates </li></ul><ul><li>Includes conifers, cycads & ginkos </li></ul>
  14. 14. Pine Life Cycle
  15. 15. Angiosperms <ul><li>Protected seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Flowering plants </li></ul><ul><li>Largest number of plants </li></ul>
  16. 17. Flowers <ul><li>Organ for sexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Sepals = outer modified leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Petals attract pollinators </li></ul><ul><li>Male stamen </li></ul><ul><li>Female pistil </li></ul>
  17. 18. Angiosperm Life Cycle
  18. 19. Pollination <ul><li>Method to combine egg & sperm </li></ul><ul><li>Wind pollination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gymnosperms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some angiosperms like grasses </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Pollination <ul><li>Insect & animal pollination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollen carried from one flower to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common in many angiosperms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some are self pollinated </li></ul>
  20. 21. Seed Development <ul><li>Zygote is plant embryo </li></ul><ul><li>Endosperm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From other sperm nuclei </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeds embryo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Embryo develops cotyledons (seed leaves) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monocot = single cotyledon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dicot = double cotyledon </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Fruit <ul><li>Mature ovary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeds, tissues, and coverings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fruits may allow for animal dispersal </li></ul>
  22. 23. Seed Dispersal Methods <ul><li>Animals, wind, & water </li></ul>
  23. 24. Germination <ul><li>Begins when seed takes up water </li></ul><ul><li>Initially uses stored food of seed </li></ul><ul><li>Begins to sprout </li></ul>
  24. 25. Monocots Vs. Dicots <ul><li>Differ in recognizable features </li></ul><ul><li>Dicots – food stored in cotyledons </li></ul><ul><li>Monocots – food stored in endosperm </li></ul>
  25. 26. Seedling Development <ul><li>Radicle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First portion to emerge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchors seedling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Epicotyl </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portion of shoot above cotyledon </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Seedling Development <ul><li>Coleoptile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheath protecting new leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypocotyl </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shoot below cotyledens </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Vegetative Propogation <ul><li>Asexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>New plant develops from portion of parent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhizomes = underground stems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stolons = above ground stems </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Vegetative Propogation <ul><li>Leaves can produce new plants </li></ul>
  29. 30. Cell Culture of Plants <ul><li>Plant production from a single cell </li></ul><ul><li>Produces genetic clones </li></ul>

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