01 plantae


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01 plantae

  1. 1. Think. Pair. Share. Try thinking of some reasons that plants are so important. (Hints below) They... 1) Are the source of all of our food. 2) Produce O2 3) Are sources of medicines and materials. 4) Are habitats for many species. 5) Filter/store water. 6) Are carbon sinks, helping to control climate change.
  2. 2. Plants Plants Plants One of the first medicines known to humans was the bark of the willow tree, which was known to relieve pain when chewed. We now know it contains salicylic acid, which is almost the exact same drug found in today's Aspirin and acne creams. A willow tree, genus Salix
  3. 3. Plants, Plants, Plants Plants are producers (autotrophs) – this means they get their energy from the sun. Carnivorous plants typically grow in nutrient- poor soil. They rely on bugs as their main source of nitrogen. Since they still photosynthesize for energy, they are producers. A sundew plant, Drosera A pitcher plant
  4. 4. Plants Plants Plants The typical plant is multicellular, sessile, sexual, and autotrophic, with a cellulose cell wall. There are some exceptions.
  5. 5. Green Algae Green algae are the simplest plants. Some may be unicellular and have flagella for motility. The are believe to be the first plants on Earth. They are aquatic.
  6. 6. Plant Reproduction Plants reproduce similarly to fungi; they have a life cycle that goes through an "alternation of generations". Alternation of Generations – The organism is sometimes haploid (n) and sometimes diploid (2n). (Sporophyte)
  7. 7. Plant Reproduction The stage of a plants lifecycle is named based on whether it is in the haploid stage or the diploid stage: Sporophyte – a plant in its diploid stage Gametophyte – a plant in its haploid stage
  8. 8. Plant Reproduction A sporophyte creates spores by meiosis that grow into gametophytes.
  9. 9. Plant Reproduction A gametophyte creates sex cells (sperm and eggs, called gametes). When two sex cells fertilize each other, they become a single zygote which grows into a sporophyte.
  10. 10. Plant Reproduction Simple plants spend most of their time as gametophytes. Complex plants spend most of their time as sporophytes.
  11. 11. Non-vascular Mosses (Bryophytes) The simplest land plants are the bryophytes. They are non- vascular, which means they have way to move nutrients around the organism; no roots, steams, or leaves. This limits their growth height to ~5 cm high. Hornworts (left) and liverworts (right) are bryophytes.
  12. 12. Non-vascular Mosses (Bryophytes) Gametophyte bryophytes produce sperm in their antheridia and eggs in their archegonia. They rely on wet conditions (rain, fog) for their sperm to swim to nearby eggs and fertilize to make a gametophyte.
  13. 13. Non-vascular Mosses (Bryophytes) Like with fungi, the sporophyte stage produces spores in sporangia to grow other gametophyte plants.
  14. 14. Vascular Mosses (Lycophytes) Lycophytes are the oldest and simplest vascular plants on Earth. Their appendages (leaves) have a single unbranched vein to transport nutrients.
  15. 15. Vascular Mosses (Lycophytes) Vascular tissues are called either xylem or phloem, depending on what they are transporting. Their main functions are: xylem – carries water and some nutrients upward phloem – carries sugar and other nutrients downward
  16. 16. Vascular Mosses (Lycophytes) Spike-mosses, club-mosses, and quillworts are lycophytes. A spike-moss A club-moss A quillwort
  17. 17. Ferns (Pterophytes) Pterophytes are vascular plants that typically have branching veins in their appendages. They are commonly called ferns.
  18. 18. Seed-Bearing Plants In mosses and ferns, after the sperm from a gametophyte fertilizes the egg from another gametophyte, the new sporophyte grows and begins to make spores that can be spread to make new gametophytes. male gametophyte female gametophyte sperm egg fertilization sporophyte spores male and female gametophytes
  19. 19. Seed-Bearing Plants Seed-bearing plants, like the dandelion, are different. After the sperm fertilizes the egg, the plant makes diploid seeds that must be planted and germinate to make more sporophytes. The gametophyte stage only occurs in the part of the plant that makes the seeds. Sperm and eggs are made by the sporophyte. Seeds are made. New sporophytes grow from the seeds. Fertilization
  20. 20. Seed-Bearing Plants A seed consists of a protective coat, an embryo sporophyte, and nutrients to feed the embryo for a short time after germination.
  21. 21. Conifers (Gynosperms) Gymnosperms are seed-bearing plants that use cones as reproductive structures. Male cones contain pollen (sperm). When pollen reaches a female cone containing the ovule (eggs), the egg is fertilized and becomes a seed. The cones of Agathis philippinensis. Left: Male Right: Female
  22. 22. Conifers (Gynosperms)
  23. 23. Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) Angiosperms are plants that flower. Flowers contain pollen and/or ovaries (eggs). After fertilization, the fertilized ovary becomes surrounded by a fruit, which helps protect and disperse the seeds that are made.
  24. 24. Flowering Plants (Angiosperms)