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Anup nepal eq 2015 naples

Introduction to Nepal and Nepal Earthquake 2015

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Anup nepal eq 2015 naples

  1. 1. • Home Town : Thimi, Bhaktapur • Education : Bachelor in Civil Engineering (2011) Purbanchal University Khwopa Engineering College • Professional Career: Internship and Site engineer at Housing company Assistant Str. Engineer and Site Er. for a Hotel Construction Assistant Str. Engineer for GoN Reconstruction project implementation unit Introduction
  2. 2. • Structure Related Subjects Studied: Theory of Structures, Strength of Materials Concrete Technology, Design of RC Structures Design of Steel and Timber Structures Soil and Foundation Engineering Elective I (Introduction to Finite Element Method), Elective II (Earthquake Engineering an introduction) Final Year Thesis project: “Structural Analysis and Design of Apartment cum Shopping Complex” of Proposed Crystal City Apartments – Kathmandu (only Linear Static method used) • Erasmus Mundus Masters course (SUSCOS 2016-18) Introduction
  3. 3. • Nepal (Where it is?) Nepal At A Glance
  4. 4.  Area: 147,181 sq. km  Capital: Kathmandu  Population: 29 Million  Geography: Situated between China and India Introduction
  5. 5. • Nepal At a Glance Introduction 55m above sea level Mt Everest (8848m) 200 KM N-S Distance
  6. 6.  Language: Nepali national language. (More than 32 other dialects). Travel-trade people understand and speak English and Hindi as well.  Religion: Hinduism Major, Buddhism Second, Other (Islam, Christian etc)  Climate: 4 major seasons (1) Winter: December-February, (2) Spring: March-May, (3) Summer: June-August, (4) Autumn: September-November.  Birth Place of Lord Buddha  Major portion of Himalayas (8 out of 10 highest peak in world)  Huge diversity in flora and fauna  Rich in cultural diversity, Kathmandu famous for many festivals and Newari (Ethnic) Cuisine Introduction
  7. 7. Seismic Hazard in Nepal • Situated in the boundary between two active tectonic plates - the Indian Plate in the south and Eurasian plate in the North. • Indian plate sub-ducting under Eurasian plate by 20-25mm every year • Seismically prone area: major earthquakes occurred in the past
  8. 8. Seismic Hazard in Nepal Plate tectonics map of the world (source: http://geology.com).
  9. 9. Seismic Hazard in Nepal
  10. 10. Seismic Hazard in Nepal • Past earthquake disasters in the past 7 June 1255 AD (~8.0 M): First and possibly the deadliest earthquake disaster documented in the Nepalese history. About 30,000 people (30% of the total population of around 100,000) were killed in Kathmandu, including King Abhaya Malla. 6 June 1505 AD (~8.2 M) 26 August 1833 AD (~7.8 M) 16 January 1934 AD (8.4 M): The Great Nepal-Bihar Earthquake. Large number of buildings and heritage structures collapsed. Killed about 17,000 people in Nepal and India, 4,500 died in the Kathmandu Valley. 25 April 2015 AD (7.8 M) and 12 May 2015 (7.3 M): Gorkha Earthquake (Recent)
  11. 11. Seismic Hazard in Nepal • Past earthquake disasters in the past Epicentres of Significant Earthquakes in central Himalayan region based on data from NCEI (2015), Rao et al. (2006) and Gahalaut (2009)
  12. 12. Seismic Hazard in Nepal • Common Building Types in Nepal Adobe Masonry Building Brick Mud Mortar/Stone Mud Mortar Masonry Building (BM/SM) Brick Cement Mortar/ Stone Cement Mortar Masonry Building (BC/SC) Timber Houses Reinforced Concrete Buildings with infill masonry walls Non – Engineered (Owner Built) Pre – Engineered (Using NBC 205 MRT method) Engineered (NBC and IS codes)
  13. 13. Seismic Hazard in Nepal • Common Building Types in Nepal
  14. 14. Seismic Hazard in Nepal • Common Building Types in Nepal Adobe Building Brick Masonry Building Reinforced concrete Building Stone Masonry Building
  15. 15. Seismic Hazard in Nepal • Heritage Building in Nepal Temples Historical buildings
  16. 16. Seismic Hazard in Nepal • Traditional Anti-Seismic Technologies Timber Joist connection cleat to load bearing walls in traditional heritage buildin
  17. 17. Seismic Vulnerability in Kathmandu Valley • Kathmandu (Haphazard Urbanisation)
  18. 18.  A 7.8M earthquake occurred in Nepal on April 25, 2015 at 11:56 AM (Nepal Standard Time). Epicenter 77 KM NW of Kathmandu at Barpark, Village of Gorkha District and focal depth of 11 KM.  Followed by strong after shocks (more than 300 of over 4.0M in a month period) with some significant ones having a magnitude of 6.7 on April 26 and 7.3 on May 12  31 out of 75 districts effected,  Some Effects also in India, China and Bangladesh  Deaths more than 8,900, Injuries more than 22,000  Over 500,000 public houses were fully destroyed and about 270,000 were partially destroyed, over 5000 schools damaged  Avalanche in Mt. Everest (19 killed)  Avalanche in Langtang Valley (250 killed/missing)  Total Financial Loss : 7 Billion USD (Direct Loss) NEPAL EARTHQUAKE 2015
  19. 19. NEPAL EARTHQUAKE 2015 Public houses Full Damage Public Houses Partial Damage 505,577 278,943 Govt. Building Full Damage Govt. Building Partial Damage 2633 3342 Hospital Full Damage Hospital Partial Damage 3 23
  20. 20.  PGA was 0.16g at the station which was amplified at other sites up to 0.4g. Background
  21. 21. Damages to Structures  Damage to Adobe and Low strength Masonry Buildings
  22. 22. Damages to Structures Damage to Brick Masonry Buildings
  23. 23.  Damage to Reinforced Concrete Buildings Damages to Structures
  24. 24.  Damage to Reinforced Concrete Buildings Damages to Structures
  25. 25. Damages to High Rise Buildings
  26. 26. Damages to High Rise Buildings
  27. 27. Damages to School Buildings • Earthquake was on Saturday so many children were on holiday.
  28. 28. Damages to Structures  Damages to Historical Buildings and Monuments in Kathmandu
  29. 29. Damages to Structures Damages to Historical Buildings and Monuments in Kathmandu
  30. 30. Damages to Structures BEFORE AFTER BEFOREAFTER
  31. 31. Damages to Structures
  32. 32. Damages to Structures • Temporary Shoring
  33. 33. Geotechnical Damages BEFORE (LANGTANG VALLEY) AFTER
  34. 34. Seismic Code practice in Nepal • Nepal Building codes (Not well Developed) – Most of the parts Derived from Indian Code  ACI code – NBC 101 to 104 (Design Load Calculation) – NBC 201,202,203,204,205 (Mandatory Rule of Thumb for various type design of residential buildings). – NBC 105 (Seismic Design): Only Linear Methods Derived from IS code { Lateral Force Method and Modal Response Spectrum Method} in 1994 AD – No any provision for Non Linear design approaches till date – Guidelines for Seismic Strengthening of Masonry and RC Buildings (Recent 2017) for construction engineers. – For all other design problems and approaches it refers to other developed country codes mostly Indian standard code and American Code
  35. 35. Possible Thesis Topic for SUSCOS Masters Course Degree 1. Rehabilitation of A Historical Building located in Kathmandu Nepal or in Europe Seto Durbar (White Palace) built in 1893 AD
  36. 36. Possible Thesis Topic for SUSCOS Masters Course Degree 1. Rehabilitation of A Historical Building located in Kathmandu Nepal or in Europe Seto Durbar (White Palace) built in 1893 AD
  37. 37. Possible Thesis Topic for SUSCOS Masters Course Degree 2. Seismic Design comparison of a RC building (NBC 105 /IS 1893 vs Eurocode 8) • Building built in 2012 AD • Designed using Linear Static Method (Nepal standard and IS 1893 code) • Compare with Eurocode 8 design approach. • If building does not satisfy EC-8 provisions then apply appropriate retrofitting interventions.
  38. 38. Possible Thesis Topic for SUSCOS Masters Course Degree 2. Seismic Design comparison of a RC building (NBC 105 /IS 1893 vs Eurocode 8)
  39. 39. REFERENCES  “Building damage patterns in Kathmandu Valley due to 25th April Earthquake” - Kiran Acharya (acharyakiranraj@gmail.com)  “Common structural and construction deficiencies of Nepalese buildings”- Dipendra Gautam, Hugo Rodrigues, Krishna Kumar Bhetwal, Pramod Neupane, Yashusi Sanada  “EARTHQUAKE RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY IN NEPAL OF THE MAGNITUDE 7.8 GORKHA EARTHQUAKE OF APRIL 25, 2015” - Anil C. Wijeyewickrema, H. A. D. Samith Buddika, Satish Bhagat, Rohit Kumar Adhikari, Anuja Shrestha, Sanjeema Bajracharya, Jenisha Singh, Department of Civil Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology  “Reconnaissance report on geotechnical and structural damage caused by the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake, Nepal” - Gabriele Chiaroa, Takashi Kiyota, Rama Mohan Pokhrel, Katsuichiro Goda, Toshihiko Katagiri, Keshab Sharma  “BUILDING TYPOLOGIES AND FAILURE MODES OBSERVED IN THE 2015 GORKHA (NEPAL) EARTHQUAKE” - Dmytro Dizhur, University of Auckland, R. P. Dhakal, University of Canterbury, Jitendra Bothara, Miyamoto International NZ Ltd, Jason Ingham, University of Auckland  http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-04-27/nepal-earthquake-before-after-photos/6424570  CBS Sensus, Government of Nepal  Google and other various web pages

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