Bangladesh's Digital Journey

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The story of Bangladesh's public service delivery transformation, prototyping to massive scaling up, change management.

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Bangladesh's Digital Journey

  1. 1. Building a Digital Nation: Transformational Change and Scaling Up Anir Chowdhury Policy Advisor Access to Information Programme Prime Minister’s Office Bangladesh May 13, 2013
  2. 2. Bangladesh Context: ‘Glass Half Empty’  Income: $700 GDP per capita, 30%+ under $1/day  Literacy: 50% Bangla (English insignificant)  Electricity grid: 40% of area under grid, very unreliable!  Solar increasing  Service delivery  Not need responsive  Complicated/fragmented process  Extremely male biased  Endemic corruption and „rent-seeking‟
  3. 3. Bangladesh Context: ‘Glass Half Full’ • Social: Facebook, urbanization • Economic: PPP Policy • Technological: Mobile, internet • Legal: ICT Act, RTI Act • Political: Highest level, new young leadership • Government Readiness: mindset change, data centre, new IT-savvy recruits 1,4M 2,8M 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 March December Thousands Facebook, 2011-12
  4. 4. 3 Key Issues for Service Improvement Service Delivery Model • Complicated Process/Forms/ Notarization • Face-to-face delivery Capacity of Civil Servants • Change management and innovation is limited/discouraged • Private sector in the last mile is absent Enabling Environment • Public registers (people & assets) to target, validate, & monitor service • Digital data/information to support decision • Comprehensive policies and laws Understanding root causes of service inefficiency
  5. 5. Improve Service Delivery to the Underserved “The reasonable man adapts himself to the world; the unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt the world to himself. Therefore all progress depends on the unreasonable man.” ― George Bernard Shaw
  6. 6. Reached Agreement Focus on Innovations that lead to Service Delivery Improvement Continuous improvement 1. Time 2. Cost 3. No. of visits 4. Expected quality
  7. 7. Preventing Digital Divide: Citizens Access Points in 4,500+ UPs – True Bottom-Up Development  Birth and death registration  Examination results  Government forms download  Job information  Visa application and tracking  Digital photography  Computer training  Mobile banking  Life insurance  English training centres  Payments for government services  Tax collection  Remittance4.5 mil users/month USD 600K/month Start with the underserved first!
  8. 8. One-Stop Service in all 64 DC Offices  Certified copy of land records delivery increased by 40%  Time for citizens reduced from several weeks to 2-5 days  Decision making time reduced by 80- 90%Transform services and provider behaviour
  9. 9. UN Chiefs Inaugurating 2 Landmark Initiatives in Bangladesh International recognition and involvement
  10. 10. Comprehensive National e-Service System (NESS) in 16,000 offices in 2 years Apply Receive notification & Track progress
  11. 11. Retirement of e-Governance e-Governance Service at Doorsteps Business Process Re- engineering (BPR) Service Process Simplification (SPS)
  12. 12. Information Portals in all 64 DC Offices being Extended to 24,000 Govt. Offices Utilize Right to Information Act
  13. 13. e-Service, e-Office and NPF
  14. 14. Bangla Content a Priority • 100,000+ pages • Agri, health, edu, law and human rights, disaster mgmt, tourism, employment • 300 orgs (govt., for- profit, non-profit) Enable massive Bangla content People don‟t have desks!
  15. 15. Focus is on ICT to Improve Education, Not ICT Literacy Transform education, not IT education All 300+ primary, secondary, v ocational, madrassa textbooks online Thousands of teachers share content through a dedicated portal
  16. 16. Improving Maternal and Child Health
  17. 17. TV Assisting in Human Development
  18. 18. Mobile Banking: Developed/Developing Country Contrast Developed: nice-to-have Developing: must-have  Strong inter-bank payment systems  Extensive bank branches  Ubiquitous ATM and POS networks  High credit/debit card penetration  High availability of internet banking.  Weak inter-bank infrastructure  Limited number of bank branches  Limited ATM and POS system  Limited internet but high penetration of mobile devices Problem with current mode of mobile banking: 1. The bank account holder must own a mobile phone – prohibitive for the very poor 2. Transaction cost if prohibitively expensive for small transactions
  19. 19.  i-Banking  Cash-In and Cash-Out  through mobile & prepaid Bank Cards  through UISC Cash Agents & POS Terminals  i-Payments  G2P: social safety net payments  P2G payments: utilities, all forms of challans  Person-2-Person fund transfers / remittances  i-Commerce  B2C & C2B services: buying seeds, fertilizers, bus tickets, paying for medical services at upazilla health complex, etc.  i-Insurance  Micro-insurance for life, disability, crops, etc.  Access to proper risk management tools over mobile devices  i-Credit  Micro-credit at lower transaction cost  lower interest Comprehensive Financial Inclusion (i-*)
  20. 20. Results in 3 years  33M e-services from UISC  36M birth registration electronically  USD16M earnings for UISC entrepreneurs  0.8M e-applications processed in district HQ  1.1M land records delivered electronically from district HQ
  21. 21.  49M results of public exams over internet, 33M over SMS  2.7M admission applications through SMS in 32 public universities, 400 colleges, 70 medical colleges  3M students (by June 2013) learning from multimedia content developed by 16,000 teachers
  22. 22. UNDP Poster Competition 2012
  23. 23. Develop Capacity and Catalyze Transformational Change “I am looking for a lot of men who have an infinite capacity to not know what can't be done.” ― Henry Ford
  24. 24. Develop Capacity of Thousands ... • Leadership mobilization Interested Honourable Members of Cabinet and Secretaries • Process simplication & change mgmt. e-Gov Focal points (Addls/Jt. Secretaries), DCs • Implementation & Technical capacity UPZ Chairmen, ADC, Quick Win focal points, Upazila Nirbahi Officer (UNOs),Deputy Director (LG) • Incentives Innovation Award Target groups • 500+ elected representatives • 2,000+ civil servants • 9,000 Entrepreneurs • Media • Citizen • Private Sector and NGOs • Demand Creation • Information Officers, Journalists, UISC Entrepreneurs, Citizens • Awareness Development • Innovation fair (divisional fair is on the card)
  25. 25. e-Governance Focal Points to Innovation Teams  Introduced the role of e-Governance Focal Points in every Ministry (50+)  Rigorous learning sessions containing visioning sessions, debates, case study analysis, service simplification exercises  Action research through Quick Wins  Recent Government gazette to form Innovation Teams in each Ministry (50+), each directorate (400+), each district (64) and each sub-district (487)
  26. 26. Info Centres in Union Parishads, Farmers‟ Clubs Upazilla doctors providing tele-consultation Computerized land management Tracking social safety nets Disaster early warning through mobile network Teacher training and e-Learning 100+ ‘Quick Wins’ launched. Another 600 in the Pipeline Encourage baby steps. Allow failure!
  27. 27. Quick Win Beginning Now e-Purchase Orders (e-Purjee) 20,000 farmers 2 sugar mills 200,000 farmers 15 sugar mills e-Service Centres in Rural LGIs (UISC) 2 UPs 4 entrepreneurs 4,500+ UPs 9,000+ entrepreneurs 4.5m citizens/mon Tk. 5 crore/mon income Multimedia classroom and teacher-led content 7 schools 22 teachers By June 2014 23,315 schools 70,000 teachers 1. Increase confidence of govt officers 2. Allow risk-taking for innovations 3. Partner with private sector and NGOs Quick Wins Scaling Up
  28. 28. Grassroots Blog Enabling Country-wide Problem Solving, Citizens Empowerment, Break-down of traditional admin hierarchy
  29. 29.  200+ e-Services  100+ govt. agencies  50+ companies Creating a Sense of Positive Competition among Ministries and Promoting International Branding  30 countries  200 speakers  150 exhibitors  7 country pavilions  17 awards Start with informal incentives like recognition
  30. 30. Planning and Coordination from the Top Leadershi p Enabling Env Services • Quick Wins/ Innovation Labs • Large e-service projects • Bangla content • Demand creation • Ownership development • Process Simplification • Digital Strategy • ICT Policy, Law, RTI Act • PPP Policy • e-Architecture • Population registry
  31. 31. Execution from the Bottom (Field admin, LGIs) Education Police Welfare Transport Tax RevenueMunicipal Body DC OfficeEnvironmentElectricity Joined-up government Cost savings Improved service Connected Citizens One-Stop ShopHarassment, Time, Cost Citizens will NOT go to services, services will come to
  32. 32. Build the Enabling Environment “I always avoid prophesying beforehand, because it is a much better policy to prophesy after the event has already taken place.” --Winston Churchill
  33. 33. Horizon Scan and Vision Documents  Horizon Scan 2007  HEAL Vision documents 2008  Health  Education  Agriculture  Local Government  Civil Service Visioning was far more important than the vision documents
  34. 34. ICT Policy 2009, RTI Act 2009 Shared Vision Social Equity Support to ICTs IntegrityHealthcare Productivity Employment Creation Environment Education & Research Strengthening Exports Universal Access 10 development sectors 306 action items for all govt agencies
  35. 35. Strategic Priorities for Digital Bangladesh Report 2010 Development • Education • Agriculture • Health • Justice • Law Enforcement • Land & Water Resources Sectors • Social Safety Nets • Disaster Management, Environment & Climate Change • Commerce & Investment • ICT Industry Enablers • Connectivity • Banking & Finance • Parliament • Local Government • Civil Service • Youth • PPP • Policy & Legal Framework „Strategic Priorities for Digital Bangladesh‟ aims at identifying the role of technology in socio-economic transformation by 2021. Mainstreamed into National Planning in 6th 5-year plan (Sector policies like Education, Health, Rural Connectivity, PPP)
  36. 36. Policy for ICT Infrastructure: Rural Connectivity Guidelines 2010 Institutions Broadband Rollout Projection Organization Total 3 yrs 6 mon 12 mon 24 mon 36 mon Govt. (district + upz) 12,000 12,000 12,000 Thana 500 500 500 Local Government (urban) 350 350 350 Local Government (rural) 4,500 4,500 4,500 Secondary School 19,000 19,000 3,000 7,000 5,000 4,000 Secondary Madrasa 9,500 9,500 1,000 2,000 2,500 4,000 Colleges 3,500 3,500 250 500 2,750 Primary School 80,000 10,000 500 500 4,000 5,000 Health Complex 1,000 1,000 1000 Community Health Clinic 18,000 18,000 1,000 3,000 14,000 Post Office 8,500 8,500 64 482 1,000 6,954 TOTAL: 156,850 86,850 23,164 11,482 18,250 33,954
  37. 37. National Population Register Police services Education Birth registration Health Voter ID LicensesSocial safety nets Loans Taxes & VAT Legal services Immigrati on Labor CCDS 2012 and NPR 2015: Interoperable e-Service Platform Across the Government
  38. 38. A2I’s Approach: Ready, Shoot, Aim … “Life is what happens to you while you're busy making other plans.” ― Allen Saunders
  39. 39. 4 Vital Realizations for Transformational Change 1. Focus on the citizens, not on the provider 2. When thinking about technology, think outside the „computer‟ box 3. Catalyze transformational change management a. By using innovation as entry point b. By leveraging existing relationships 4. Forge strong public-private partnerships
  40. 40. Citizens call a helpdesk directly Citizens come to Community e-Centres Helpdesk answer Citizens questions Information workers go to citizens Realization 1: Citizens will NOT go to services, services will come to citizens
  41. 41. Web, email MailRadio TVCounter Call Center Cell PhoneSmart Phone Why design e-Services around desktops when users don’t have desks? Realization 2: Must think outside the ‘computer’ box
  42. 42. Realization 3: Top-Down Planning, Bottom-Up Execution Performance Dashboards, Innovation Teams Technology Process People •20% Technology •35% SPS (Service Process Simplification) •40% Transformational Change Management Innovation Leadershi p Teams
  43. 43. Peopl e Privat e Publi c Technical Assistance / Resources from Development Partners Realization 4: Partnerships create multiplier effect • 50 service partners • 300 content partners • Thousands of crowdsourcers • $100M+ mobilized • Need to mobilize $1.5B
  44. 44. 3 Notable Disruptions: Taking into Account and Taking Advantage of … Tipping point? Govt. Innovatio n Labs Social Networking Crowdsourcin g Closed Grassroots (UISC) blog with 14,000 members Teachers‟ Portal with 8,000 content 700 Quick Wins with 100+launched, Many scaled up
  45. 45. a2i Innovation Cycle: Built in hindsight Generate Incubate EvaluateUpdate Replicate “You can't connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards.” ― Steve Jobs
  46. 46.  Shared visioning through participation  Breakthrough thinking through Innovation lens  Leapfrog execution through partnerships What can A2I experience provide to other countries through South-South partnerships? Knowledge Sharing
  47. 47. “A good hockey player plays where the puck is. A great hockey player plays where the puck is going to be.” ― Wayne Gretzky Thanks

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