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  1. 1. E-Governance in India M. P. Satija Prof & Head Dept. of Lib. Inf. Sc. Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar-143005 [email_address]
  2. 2. <ul><li>E-governance is to provide online access to government services, schemes, and information to all the citizens. Formally it is defined as delivery of government services and information to the citizens through info-networks. </li></ul><ul><li>      Govt. is large and huge, but governance has been little. We are called a soft state. </li></ul><ul><li>      By definition e- governance goes beyond the application of IT in govt. functioning, yet </li></ul><ul><li>IT is backbone of the whole process. </li></ul><ul><li>      Internally it is to increase the inter and intra-departmental flow of information for both coordination and efficiency. It builds a bridge between various government departments and the people. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces papers work and cuts red tapism. </li></ul><ul><li>Its applications are varied and always expanding to: </li></ul><ul><li>Taxation, revenue and land records </li></ul><ul><li>Law enforcement and Courts. </li></ul><ul><li>E-Commerce, banking and business regulations, </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Research </li></ul><ul><li>Retails,Transport and E-ticketing </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture, Health and Community Services </li></ul>Definition and Scope
  3. 3. Advantages <ul><li>      It promotes economy and efficiency for good governance , equal and widened access to government officials and information. </li></ul><ul><li>   It facilities Govt-Citizen interface; it promotes transparency and consequently accountability, and reduces corruption. Govt is now a facilitator instead of a controller </li></ul><ul><li>        It is public management and citizen participation by marking the services citizen-centric </li></ul><ul><li>In overall it saves common citizen from harassment and ultimately brings economy and efficiency in administration. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Evolution and Pre-requisites <ul><li>It is turning Public administration into public management. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Rajiv Gandhi and Sam Pitroda can be truly credited to be fathers of Telecommunication in 1980s. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand for liberalization and open economy credit goes to PV Narsimha Rao and Dr Manmohan Singh in 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>The credit for IT revolution and E- governance and the information society goes to late Parmod Mahajan and his mentor Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee in early 2000s. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact it was as idea whose time had come. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>In pace with these global trends, India has also undertaken massive initiatives to introduce e-governance at the national, state and local levels. In fact India was one of the few developing countries venturing into e-governance by legislating IT Act in 2001. In terms of the total number of government websites, although the advanced industrial countries top the list, India is still ranked 7 th in the global list </li></ul>IT Act 2001
  6. 6. Connectivity <ul><li>Computerization and connectivity were defined as the main goals of the 10 th Five Year Plan (2002-2007). The Government had set the target of delivering at least 25% of its dealings and services electronically by taking all needed measures . Obviously goal has not been reached. </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion is on going. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Initiatives and Institutions at the National Level <ul><li>On the recommendations of the National Task Force on IT, a new Ministry of Communication and Information Technology was created in 1999 to act as a nodal agency for implementing official policies on IT and to facilitate the growth of the IT sector. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Centre for E-Governance <ul><li>On 15 th August 2000(DIT), Department of Information Technology under the above ministry set up a centre for e-governance at its premises “Electronics Niketan” in Delhi ( www. mit . gov .in/ceg1/ index.asp ) The primary activities of the centre are: </li></ul><ul><li>    a).       to showcase the best practices in the area of e-governance; </li></ul><ul><li>b). Demonstrate the feasibility of e-Governance </li></ul><ul><li>to decision markers. </li></ul><ul><li>c). Help the centre and state govts in implementing the e-gov. processes. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Right to Information Act(2005) <ul><li>Another closely related legislation is the Right to Information Act. </li></ul><ul><li>Information is the most treasured and potent tool in the hands of rulers to maintain political power. </li></ul><ul><li>Govt. information to public was usually denied under the pretext of the official Secret Act of 1889 amended in 1923. </li></ul><ul><li>Now the Right to Information Act 2005 passed by the Parliament on 15 June 2005 mandates timely provision of information to any citizen requested from any government office. </li></ul><ul><li>The act also requires every public authority to computerize their records and proactively publish certain of information. </li></ul><ul><li>In enormously facilitates e-Governance . </li></ul>
  10. 10. National E-Governance (NeGP) Action Plan <ul><li>The government had approved the National e-governance plan for its implementation during the year 2003-2007. The plan laid the foundation and provided the impetus for long term growth of e-governance in the country. The plan had a budget of Rs. 6000 million with a matching amount allotted by the Planning Commission. The World Bank provided $500 million assistance for various e-governance plans. </li></ul>
  11. 11. An Overview of Central Ministries and Departments <ul><li>DIT is driving the national e-governance plan, which seeks to create the right governance and institutional mechanisms, and implement a number of Mission Mode projects at the centre and state government level. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all ministers and departments have their Web pages on the NIC website displaying objectives, responsibilities, contact person, their policy and other decisions. A few of them have launched their electronic newsletters for widespread awareness of their operations. (Kaushik, 2004, p. 212). Closely watching the websites of some leading IT savvy ministries, following update has come to view: </li></ul><ul><li>Ministries of Communication and Information technology, Civil aviation, External affairs, Finance, Labour, Law, Home affairs, Health and some other are using IT extensively in their offices. Necessary infrastructure has been set up with the help of National Information Centre (NIC). Connectivity with various Government Departments is available including internal connectivity, e-mail, video conferencing, etc. They have also set up facilitation counter where information required by public is disseminated. </li></ul>
  12. 12. State Level Initiatives <ul><li>29 Indian states and union territories have their own IT policies in place with the aim of evolving themselves from being an IT aware to an IT enabled government. </li></ul><ul><li>The central government has adopted certain measures to assist various states in pursuing e-governance. The state governments themselves have also undertaken massive initiatives to transform their governance system based on IT. Some of the leading states are Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, New Delhi and Tamil Nadu. In implementation of the projects Maharashtra has emerged as a leader with 38 projects, followed by West Bengal (29), Tripura (27), Haryana (25), Andhra Pradesh (23), Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh with 21 each. Nearly 13 states or UTs have not implemented even a single project. </li></ul><ul><li>1.         APSWAN (Andhra Pradesh State Wide Area Network): These are one stop integrated citizen services centres where citizens can access information about state and central governments, pay utility bills, property taxes, purchase certificates and licenses and receive information regarding building permits, property registration, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>2.        GYANDOOT: Literally meaning knowledge messenger, through this project services are provided to about 10 to 15 village panchayats and around 20 to 30 villages in Madhya Pradesh. Gyandoot connects 21 rural cyber cafes called Soochanalayas meaning information centers, where pay based information services like agriculture produce auction centre rates, copies of land records, online registration of applications and public grievances redressal are given. It won Stockholm Challenge award for public services and democracy. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>3.     Bhoomi and Khajane: These Government of Karnataka projects which involve computerization of all the treasuries and land record system in the state. Bhoomi is the most successful e-governance project of India started by a missionary bureaucrat R Chawla (Singh,2007,p.13). </li></ul><ul><li>4.     Kisan Call Centres (KCC): The Department of Agriculture and Cooperation has launched Kisan Call Centres with a view to leverage the extensive telecom infrastructure in the country to deliver extension services to the farming community. The purpose of these centres is to respond to queries raised by the farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>5. E-Chaupal: A Chaupal is a place in the village where elders meet, gossip and share information. This Internet based rural project of the Indian Tobacco Company (ITC) enables farmers to readily access crop-specific real time information and customized knowledge in their native language. It has bagged the United Nations Development Programmes (UNDP) First Global Business Award in recognition of the role of the corporate community in implementation of UN targets of reducing poverty. </li></ul>
  14. 14. NGOs and Private Endeavours <ul><li>A public-private partnership is the bedrock to make e-Community services a reality. Some existing such Programs are: </li></ul><ul><li>Tara haat : It is a project to provide online services to large number of rural people of north India. It has been promoted by the Development Alternatives (DA), a Delhi based NGO. Its pilot projects are in place at several locations in Bundelkhand, MP and a in Punjab.. A wide range of services like E-news, E-commerce, E-governance, e-education, e-health and e-entertainment are provided through computerized ‘TARA dhabas’. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Drishtee <ul><li>Meaning vision, it offers e-governance, education and health services through a software package which facilitates communication and information interchange within a localized intranet between villages and a district centre. </li></ul><ul><li>This is operational in five Indian states, namely, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. The objective of the project is to use IT to serve rural people directly rather than through civil servants </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ikisan.com <ul><li>1.     The Nagarjuna Group has developed this website which offers weather forecasts, commodity news, products availability online loan facilities, chat rooms and network with other farmers. It has also initiated setting up websites for farmers in 13 Indian states to provide agriculture advice as well as commodity prices for farmers in their own languages (htttp://www.ikisan.com). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Budgetary provisions for Information Technology for 2008-2009 <ul><li>Government’s forward looking policy is driving the growth of Information Technology Enabled Services. Allocation to the Department of Information Technology has been enhanced from Rs. 1, 500 crore in 2007-2008 to Rs. 1, 680 crore in 2008-2009. </li></ul><ul><li>Schemes for establishing 100,000 broadband Internet-enabled Common Service Centres connecting six lakh villages and for establishing State Wide Area Networks(SWANs) with Central assistance are under implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>A new scheme for State Data Centres has also been approved. </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal is to provide Rs. 75 crore for the common services centres, Rs. 450 crore for SWAN and Rs. 275 crore for the Sate Data Centres. </li></ul>
  18. 18. National Knowledge Commission Recommendations <ul><li>“ E-governance is more about an opportunity for administrative reforms than merely about electronics and information technology and infrastructure”. The NKC recommendations to the government broadly relate to processes and standards, infrastructure and organizations. It focuses on the need to reengineer the process first, to change our basic governance pattern for simplicity, transparency, productivity, with less paper and more efficiency. The Commission has suggested that the government should select 10 to 20 important services that make a critical difference, offer web-based services, develop common standards and deploy common platform/infrastructure for e-governance to make it citizen centric. It has also proposed that new national programmes like Bharat Nirman, Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, etc. should be begun with well-engineered e-governance with strong committed leadership, autonomy, flexibility, clarity of purpose, predefined deliverables, measurable milestones and periodic monitoring. ( www. knowledgecommission .org ). </li></ul>
  19. 19. Causes of Concern <ul><li>In spite of some encouraging ranking and responses, the e-governance in India has not shown any promising results even in terms of service delivery. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The gains in India are on the technical side and the organizational and behavioral dimensions of the process of governance are ignored. The result is that application of IT is half-hearted and it has delivered less than optimal results”. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a general feeling that the key challenges with e-governance are not technology or Internet issues, but organizational issues like redefining rules and procedures, information transparency, legal issues, infrastructure, skill and awareness, info literacy access to authentic sources through enforcement of the right to information, interdepartmental collaboration and tendency to resist the work culture. Adopting a holistic approach can give desirable results. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a big challenge as our Ex. President Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam says, “ providing e-governance services to over one billion people is a big challenge. No country has ever implemented it.” </li></ul>
  20. 20. Credits <ul><li>Agarwal, Ashok E-Goverence: case studies Hyderabad: University Press, 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Ghosh, D. K. Digital India: New Delhi: UPSPD, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>www.mit.gov.in </li></ul><ul><li>www.nic.in </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you </li></ul><ul><li>MPS </li></ul>