The Lithosphere   Chapter 9
Geologic Time• Human time is mere seconds when  compared to the time frame over which  geologic processes have been operat...
Geologic Time
How do we date rocks?                    4
How do we date rocks?–Relative time                        4
How do we date rocks?–Relative time • Superpostion                        4
How do we date rocks?–Relative time • Superpostion   –Oldest rocks on the bottom, youngest rocks on the top               ...
How do we date rocks?–Relative time • Superpostion   –Oldest rocks on the bottom, youngest rocks on the top–Absolute time ...
How do we date rocks?–Relative time • Superpostion   –Oldest rocks on the bottom, youngest rocks on the top–Absolute time ...
How do we date rocks?–Relative time • Superpostion   –Oldest rocks on the bottom, youngest rocks on the top–Absolute time ...
How do we date rocks?–Relative time • Superpostion   –Oldest rocks on the bottom, youngest rocks on the top–Absolute time ...
How do we date rocks?–Relative time • Superpostion   –Oldest rocks on the bottom, youngest rocks on the top–Absolute time ...
How do we date rocks?–Relative time • Superpostion   –Oldest rocks on the bottom, youngest rocks on the top–Absolute time ...
The oldest rocks                   5
The oldest rocks Earth      first condensed and formed into a planet about 4.6 billion years ago.                         ...
The oldest rocks Earth first condensed and formed into a  planet about 4.6 billion years ago. Oldest rocks are from the A...
The oldest rocks Earth first condensed and formed into a  planet about 4.6 billion years ago. Oldest rocks are from the A...
Uniformitarianism• Uniformitarianism –“The present is the key to the past.”
Uniformitarianism• Uniformitarianism –“The present is the key to the past.” –In other words: The same physical processes  ...
Earth’s Interior Structure
Earth’s magnetic field• Circulations within Earth’s inner and outer  cores may be the mechanism for the  magnetic field, c...
Earth’s magnetic field• Circulations within Earth’s inner and outer  cores may be the mechanism for the  magnetic field, c...
Earth’s magnetic field• Circulations within Earth’s inner and outer  cores may be the mechanism for the  magnetic field, c...
From the crust on down
Which elements make up          Earth’s crust?• Core –Fe, Ni, Si (and/or) O• Mantle –O, Si, Mg, Fe, Ca, Al• 99% of the cru...
What is a Mineral?
What is a Mineral?A mineral is…
What is a Mineral?A mineral is…  a naturally-occurring,
What is a Mineral?A mineral is…  a naturally-occurring,          homogeneous solid
What is a Mineral?A mineral is…  a naturally-occurring,          homogeneous solid  with a definite
What is a Mineral?A mineral is…  a naturally-occurring,           homogeneous solid  with a definite      (but generally n...
What is a Mineral?A mineral is…  a naturally-occurring,           homogeneous solid  with a definite      (but generally n...
What is a Mineral?A mineral is…  a naturally-occurring,           homogeneous solid  with a definite      (but generally n...
What is a Mineral?A mineral is…    a naturally-occurring,             homogeneous solid    with a definite        (but gen...
Okay…quick quiz…
Okay…quick quiz…Does ice fit the definition of a mineral?
Okay…quick quiz…Does ice fit the definition of a mineral?
Okay…quick quiz…Does ice fit the definition of a mineral?
Okay…quick quiz…Does ice fit the definition of a mineral?
...naturally-occurring...
...naturally-occurring...• Diamonds
...naturally-occurring...• Diamonds
...naturally-occurring...• Diamonds
...naturally-occurring...• Diamonds
...naturally-occurring...• Diamonds
...homogeneous solid...• It can’t start out as one mineral and become  another mineral halfway through (but it can  change...
...homogeneous solid...• It can’t start out as one mineral and become  another mineral halfway through (but it can  change...
...definite (but generally not fixed)      chemical composition...
...definite (but generally not fixed)          chemical composition...• Quartz
...definite (but generally not fixed)          chemical composition...• Quartz –SiO2 (silicon dioxide)
...definite (but generally not fixed)           chemical composition...• Quartz  –SiO2 (silicon dioxide)• Olivine
...definite (but generally not fixed)           chemical composition...• Quartz  –SiO2 (silicon dioxide)• Olivine  –(Mg, F...
...highly-ordered atomic              arrangement.• Carbon dioxide gas is made up of atoms that  are not all bonded togeth...
...highly-ordered atomic              arrangement.• Carbon dioxide gas is made up of atoms that  are not all bonded togeth...
...highly-ordered atomic              arrangement.• Carbon dioxide gas is made up of atoms that  are not all bonded togeth...
...highly-ordered atomic              arrangement.• Carbon dioxide gas is made up of atoms that  are not all bonded togeth...
The shape of the mineral crystal is the result of   its internal atomic structure.                                        ...
What if a substance doesn’t fit the         whole definition?
What if a substance doesn’t fit the          whole definition?• It’s a mineraloid.
What if a substance doesn’t fit the          whole definition?• It’s a mineraloid. Some substances look like minerals--but...
What if a substance doesn’t fit the          whole definition?• It’s a mineraloid. Some substances look like minerals--but...
What if a substance doesn’t fit the          whole definition?• It’s a mineraloid. Some substances look like minerals--but...
As light passes through the glass panels, it is distortedby the ripples in the glass. Which panel is the new one?
Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to the “inorganic processes” rule
Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to    the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things
Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to     the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things  – The pearl and shells of oyst...
Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to     the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things  – The pearl and shells of oyst...
Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to     the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things  – The pearl and shells of oyst...
Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to     the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things  – The pearl and shells of oyst...
Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to     the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things  – The pearl and shells of oyst...
Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to     the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things  – The pearl and shells of oyst...
Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to     the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things  – The pearl and shells of oyst...
Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to     the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things  – The pearl and shells of oyst...
Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to     the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things  – The pearl and shells of oyst...
Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to     the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things  – The pearl and shells of oyst...
Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to     the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things  – The pearl and shells of oyst...
Is coal a mineral?
Is coal a mineral?
Is coal a mineral?
Is coal a mineral?
Is coal a mineral?       No.
Is coal a mineral?                      No.Coal, petroleum, and peat are NOT minerals.
Is coal a mineral?                        No.Coal, petroleum, and peat are NOT minerals. –They have no definite chemical c...
Is coal a mineral?                        No.Coal, petroleum, and peat are NOT minerals. –They have no definite chemical c...
Is coal a mineral?                        No.Coal, petroleum, and peat are NOT minerals. –They have no definite chemical c...
Is coal a mineral?                         No.Coal, petroleum, and peat are NOT minerals.  –They have no definite chemical...
Is coal a mineral?                           No.Coal, petroleum, and peat are NOT minerals.  –They have no definite chemic...
Mineral Formation:Non-organic formation
Mineral Formation:         Non-organic formation• Minerals can form from:
Mineral Formation:          Non-organic formation• Minerals can form from: –Magma
Mineral Formation:          Non-organic formation• Minerals can form from: –Magma –Steam (these minerals are called vapori...
Mineral Formation:          Non-organic formation• Minerals can form from: –Magma –Steam (these minerals are called vapori...
Mineral Formation:          Non-organic formation• Minerals can form from: –Magma –Steam (these minerals are called vapori...
From cooled magma• The mineral components come together in the  melt and harden as molten rock material  solidifies
From steam: vaporites
From steam: vaporites• Vaporite
From steam: vaporites• Vaporite –Water near a magma source heats up, dissolves  mineral components in surrounding rocks, a...
From steam: vaporites• Vaporite –Water near a magma source heats up, dissolves  mineral components in surrounding rocks, a...
From steam: vaporites• Vaporite –Water near a magma source heats up, dissolves  mineral components in surrounding rocks, a...
From steam: vaporites• Vaporite       Harvesting sulfur crystals from a volcano in Indonesia   –Water near a magma source ...
From steam: vaporitesHarvesting sulfur crystals from a volcano in Indonesia
From evaporating water: evaporites
From evaporating water: evaporites• Evaporite
From evaporating water: evaporites• Evaporite –Water evaporates, but leaves behind any mineral  compounds that were dissol...
From evaporating water: evaporites• Evaporite –Water evaporates, but leaves behind any mineral  compounds that were dissol...
From evaporating water: evaporites• Evaporite –Water evaporates, but leaves behind any mineral  compounds that were dissol...
From evaporating water: evaporites• Evaporite –Water evaporates, but leaves behind any mineral  compounds that were dissol...
Mineral Formation:Non-organic formation
Mineral Formation:         Non-organic formation• Precipitate
Mineral Formation:         Non-organic formation• Precipitate –When in too high a concentration to remain  dissolved in a ...
Mineral Formation:         Non-organic formation• Precipitate –When in too high a concentration to remain  dissolved in a ...
From dissolved solids: precipitatesOolitic beach sand from the Caribbean, the Bahamas,and Great Salt Lake in Utah form fro...
From dissolved solids: precipitatesOolitic beach sand from the Caribbean, the Bahamas,and Great Salt Lake in Utah form fro...
From dissolved solids: precipitatesOolitic beach sand from the Caribbean, the Bahamas,and Great Salt Lake in Utah form fro...
From dissolved solids: precipitatesOolitic beach sand from the Caribbean, the Bahamas,and Great Salt Lake in Utah form fro...
From dissolved solids: precipitatesPyrite “sand dollars” form in sea water and collect on theocean floor
Experiment• Make a precipitate mineral at home...
Experiment• Make a precipitate mineral at home...
Experiment• Make a precipitate mineral at home...
What is a Rock?
What is a Rock?• A solid, cohesive aggregate of one or  more minerals or mineral materials –A few rock varieties are made ...
What is a Rock?• A solid, cohesive aggregate of one or  more minerals or mineral materials –A few rock varieties are made ...
The Rock Cycle• Rocks have been continuously forming and  reforming over millions and millions of years• The rock cycle is...
The Rock Cycle
What drives the rock cycle?
What drives the rock cycle?• Earth’s internal heat
What drives the rock cycle?• Earth’s internal heat –Radioactive decay from its initial formation
What drives the rock cycle?• Earth’s internal heat –Radioactive decay from its initial formation   • the power source for ...
What drives the rock cycle?• Earth’s internal heat –Radioactive decay from its initial formation   • the power source for ...
What drives the rock cycle?• Earth’s internal heat –Radioactive decay from its initial formation   • the power source for ...
What drives the rock cycle?• Earth’s internal heat –Radioactive decay from its initial formation   • the power source for ...
Convection Currents
Convection Currents• Slow-moving convection  currents within the mantle  transfer heat from the outer  core to the upper m...
Convection Currents• Slow-moving convection  currents within the mantle  transfer heat from the outer  core to the upper m...
Convection Currents• Slow-moving convection  currents within the mantle  transfer heat from the outer  core to the upper m...
The 3 Classes of Rock
The 3 Classes of Rock• Classified based on the processes which  form them
The 3 Classes of Rock• Classified based on the processes which  form them –Igneous rocks
The 3 Classes of Rock• Classified based on the processes which  form them –Igneous rocks –Sedimentary rocks
The 3 Classes of Rock• Classified based on the processes which  form them –Igneous rocks –Sedimentary rocks –Metamorphic r...
Igneous Rocks            from cooling magmas• The kinds of rocks you end up with (and  ultimately the kinds of structures ...
Felsic Magmas
Felsic Magmas• The “fel” is for feldspar (made from Si, Al, O), “si” is for  silicates (made from Si and O)
Felsic Magmas• The “fel” is for feldspar (made from Si, Al, O), “si” is for  silicates (made from Si and O)• Lighter in co...
Felsic Magmas• The “fel” is for feldspar (made from Si, Al, O), “si” is for  silicates (made from Si and O)• Lighter in co...
Felsic Magmas• The “fel” is for feldspar (made from Si, Al, O), “si” is for  silicates (made from Si and O)• Lighter in co...
Felsic Magmas• The “fel” is for feldspar (made from Si, Al, O), “si” is for  silicates (made from Si and O)• Lighter in co...
Felsic Magmas• The “fel” is for feldspar (made from Si, Al, O), “si” is for  silicates (made from Si and O)• Lighter in co...
Felsic Magmas• The “fel” is for feldspar (made from Si, Al, O), “si” is for  silicates (made from Si and O)• Lighter in co...
Felsic Magmas• The “fel” is for feldspar (made from Si, Al, O), “si” is for  silicates (made from Si and O)• Lighter in co...
Felsic Magmas• The “fel” is for feldspar (made from Si, Al, O), “si” is for  silicates (made from Si and O)• Lighter in co...
Felsic Magmas• The “fel” is for feldspar (made from Si, Al, O), “si” is for  silicates (made from Si and O)• Lighter in co...
Mount Saint Helens• The explosion blew off 1,300 feet of the mountains top  and sent ash and debris more than 12 miles int...
Felsic MagmasExplosive Mount St. Helens         (Pre-eruption)
Felsic MagmasExplosive Mount St. Helens        (May 18, 1980)
Felsic MagmasExplosive Mount St. Helens        Mt. St. Helens Today
Mafic Minerals and Rocks
Mafic Minerals and Rocks• The “ma” is for magnesium, the “f” for iron  (Fe--ferris); contains more metallic, heavy  elemen...
Mafic Minerals and Rocks• The “ma” is for magnesium, the “f” for iron  (Fe--ferris); contains more metallic, heavy  elemen...
Mafic Minerals and Rocks• The “ma” is for magnesium, the “f” for iron  (Fe--ferris); contains more metallic, heavy  elemen...
Mafic Minerals and Rocks• The “ma” is for magnesium, the “f” for iron  (Fe--ferris); contains more metallic, heavy  elemen...
Mafic Minerals and Rocks• The “ma” is for magnesium, the “f” for iron  (Fe--ferris); contains more metallic, heavy  elemen...
Mafic Minerals and Rocks• The “ma” is for magnesium, the “f” for iron  (Fe--ferris); contains more metallic, heavy  elemen...
Mafic Minerals and Rocks• The “ma” is for magnesium, the “f” for iron  (Fe--ferris); contains more metallic, heavy  elemen...
Mafic Magmas                   Hawaii2002-10-11 view northwest across coastal plain of Kilauea from West      Highcastle l...
Intrusive vs. Extrusive    Igneous Rocks
Intrusive vs. Extrusive             Igneous Rocks• Intrusive igneous rocks—magma cools  beneath the crust; crystals have m...
Intrusive vs. Extrusive             Igneous Rocks• Intrusive igneous rocks—magma cools  beneath the crust; crystals have m...
Extrusive Igneous Rocks  Basalt and Obsidian
Intrusive Igneous Rock        Granite
Intrusive Igneous Rock        Granite                …vs. extrusive rhyolite
Sedimentary Rocks  From hardened sediment
Sedimentary Rocks
Sedimentary Rocks• The result of erosion, transportation, deposition, and  lithification
Sedimentary Rocks• The result of erosion, transportation, deposition, and  lithification
Sedimentary Rocks• The result of erosion, transportation, deposition, and  lithification• Sediment—Weathered rock fragment...
ErosionMechanical or Chemical
Erosion         Mechanical or Chemical• Mechanical weathering—The physical force of a  particular process acting on rocks,...
Erosion         Mechanical or Chemical• Mechanical weathering—The physical force of a  particular process acting on rocks,...
Erosion         Mechanical or Chemical• Mechanical weathering—The physical force of a  particular process acting on rocks,...
Transportation• Distance of transport and speed of the fluid  medium determine size, roundness and  sorting of transported...
Transportation• Distance of transport and speed of the fluid  medium determine size, roundness and  sorting of transported...
Deposition
Deposition• Deposition generally occurs in flat layers  called strata (or “beds”)• Principle of Original Horizontality    ...
Deposition• Deposition generally occurs in flat layers  called strata (or “beds”)• Principle of Original Horizontality    ...
Deposition• Deposition generally occurs in flat layers  called strata (or “beds”)• Principle of Original Horizontality    ...
Sedimentary RocksBadlands National Park, SD
Horizontal layersafter tectonic movement
Lithification
LithificationCompaction and cementation
LithificationCompaction and cementation• Lithification is the process of turning  sediment into rock
LithificationCompaction and cementation• Lithification is the process of turning  sediment into rock –As sediment is depos...
LithificationCompaction and cementation• Lithification is the process of turning  sediment into rock –As sediment is depos...
LithificationCompaction and cementation• Lithification is the process of turning  sediment into rock –As sediment is depos...
LithificationCompaction and cementation• Lithification is the process of turning  sediment into rock –As sediment is depos...
Three Main Types ofSedimentary Rocks
Three Main Types of             Sedimentary Rocks• Clastic (or detrital)
Three Main Types of             Sedimentary Rocks• Clastic (or detrital)  – Formed from pieces of    other rocks
Three Main Types of             Sedimentary Rocks• Clastic (or detrital)  – Formed from pieces of    other rocks• Chemical
Three Main Types of             Sedimentary Rocks• Clastic (or detrital)  – Formed from pieces of    other rocks• Chemical...
Three Main Types of             Sedimentary Rocks• Clastic (or detrital)  – Formed from pieces of    other rocks• Chemical...
Three Main Types of             Sedimentary Rocks• Clastic (or detrital)  – Formed from pieces of    other rocks• Chemical...
Metamorphic RocksAny kind of rock subjected to heat and/or pressure
Two types of metamorphism
Two types of metamorphism• Regional metamorphism
Two types of metamorphism• Regional metamorphism –Occurs over 100s or 1000s of sq. miles
Two types of metamorphism• Regional metamorphism –Occurs over 100s or 1000s of sq. miles –Common in subduction zones
Two types of metamorphism• Regional metamorphism –Occurs over 100s or 1000s of sq. miles –Common in subduction zones• Cont...
Two types of metamorphism• Regional metamorphism –Occurs over 100s or 1000s of sq. miles –Common in subduction zones• Cont...
Two types of metamorphism• Regional metamorphism –Occurs over 100s or 1000s of sq. miles –Common in subduction zones• Cont...
Contact Metamorphism
Parent Rock• Parent rock—Name given to the original rock before  the addition of heat and/or pressure  – what you start wi...
Parent Rock• Parent rock—Name given to the original rock before  the addition of heat and/or pressure  – what you start wi...
Foliation
Foliation• The arrangement of mineral crystals into  parallel or nearly parallel bands
Foliation• The arrangement of mineral crystals into  parallel or nearly parallel bands –The classification of metamorphic ...
Metamorphic Rock Foliation
GEOG 100--Lecture 11--The Lithosphere
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GEOG 100--Lecture 11--The Lithosphere

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  • GEOG 100--Lecture 11--The Lithosphere

    1. 1. The Lithosphere Chapter 9
    2. 2. Geologic Time• Human time is mere seconds when compared to the time frame over which geologic processes have been operating to develop landforms
    3. 3. Geologic Time
    4. 4. How do we date rocks? 4
    5. 5. How do we date rocks?–Relative time 4
    6. 6. How do we date rocks?–Relative time • Superpostion 4
    7. 7. How do we date rocks?–Relative time • Superpostion –Oldest rocks on the bottom, youngest rocks on the top 4
    8. 8. How do we date rocks?–Relative time • Superpostion –Oldest rocks on the bottom, youngest rocks on the top–Absolute time 4
    9. 9. How do we date rocks?–Relative time • Superpostion –Oldest rocks on the bottom, youngest rocks on the top–Absolute time • Radiometric dating 4
    10. 10. How do we date rocks?–Relative time • Superpostion –Oldest rocks on the bottom, youngest rocks on the top–Absolute time • Radiometric dating –Atoms with unstable nuclei (isotopes) decay into stable forms 4
    11. 11. How do we date rocks?–Relative time • Superpostion –Oldest rocks on the bottom, youngest rocks on the top–Absolute time • Radiometric dating –Atoms with unstable nuclei (isotopes) decay into stable forms –Each isotope has a specific decay rate 4
    12. 12. How do we date rocks?–Relative time • Superpostion –Oldest rocks on the bottom, youngest rocks on the top–Absolute time • Radiometric dating –Atoms with unstable nuclei (isotopes) decay into stable forms –Each isotope has a specific decay rate –Half-life--the length of time it takes one half the isotope to decay 4
    13. 13. How do we date rocks?–Relative time • Superpostion –Oldest rocks on the bottom, youngest rocks on the top–Absolute time • Radiometric dating –Atoms with unstable nuclei (isotopes) decay into stable forms –Each isotope has a specific decay rate –Half-life--the length of time it takes one half the isotope to decay –Measuring the ratio of unstable to stable material gives a date (1:1 means one half-life has passed) 4
    14. 14. The oldest rocks 5
    15. 15. The oldest rocks Earth first condensed and formed into a planet about 4.6 billion years ago. 5
    16. 16. The oldest rocks Earth first condensed and formed into a planet about 4.6 billion years ago. Oldest rocks are from the Acasta Gneiss in northwestern Canada: 3.96 billion years old 5
    17. 17. The oldest rocks Earth first condensed and formed into a planet about 4.6 billion years ago. Oldest rocks are from the Acasta Gneiss in northwestern Canada: 3.96 billion years old Oldest grains of rock, from Western Australia: bet. 4.2 and 4.4 billion years old 5
    18. 18. Uniformitarianism• Uniformitarianism –“The present is the key to the past.”
    19. 19. Uniformitarianism• Uniformitarianism –“The present is the key to the past.” –In other words: The same physical processes active in the environment today have been operating throughout geologic time.
    20. 20. Earth’s Interior Structure
    21. 21. Earth’s magnetic field• Circulations within Earth’s inner and outer cores may be the mechanism for the magnetic field, called the magnetosphere, that protects Earth from solar wind and cosmic radiation. 8
    22. 22. Earth’s magnetic field• Circulations within Earth’s inner and outer cores may be the mechanism for the magnetic field, called the magnetosphere, that protects Earth from solar wind and cosmic radiation.• The magnetic north and south poles migrate 8
    23. 23. Earth’s magnetic field• Circulations within Earth’s inner and outer cores may be the mechanism for the magnetic field, called the magnetosphere, that protects Earth from solar wind and cosmic radiation.• The magnetic north and south poles migrate• Geomagnetic reversal also happens in irregular intervals 8
    24. 24. From the crust on down
    25. 25. Which elements make up Earth’s crust?• Core –Fe, Ni, Si (and/or) O• Mantle –O, Si, Mg, Fe, Ca, Al• 99% of the crust is made up of 8 elements: –O, Si (make up 74.3%) –Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K, Mg These elements, and trace others, combine to make up Earth’s minerals and rocks... 10
    26. 26. What is a Mineral?
    27. 27. What is a Mineral?A mineral is…
    28. 28. What is a Mineral?A mineral is… a naturally-occurring,
    29. 29. What is a Mineral?A mineral is… a naturally-occurring, homogeneous solid
    30. 30. What is a Mineral?A mineral is… a naturally-occurring, homogeneous solid with a definite
    31. 31. What is a Mineral?A mineral is… a naturally-occurring, homogeneous solid with a definite (but generally not fixed)
    32. 32. What is a Mineral?A mineral is… a naturally-occurring, homogeneous solid with a definite (but generally not fixed) chemical composition
    33. 33. What is a Mineral?A mineral is… a naturally-occurring, homogeneous solid with a definite (but generally not fixed) chemical composition and a highly-ordered atomic arrangement.
    34. 34. What is a Mineral?A mineral is… a naturally-occurring, homogeneous solid with a definite (but generally not fixed) chemical composition and a highly-ordered atomic arrangement. It is usually formed through inorganic processes.
    35. 35. Okay…quick quiz…
    36. 36. Okay…quick quiz…Does ice fit the definition of a mineral?
    37. 37. Okay…quick quiz…Does ice fit the definition of a mineral?
    38. 38. Okay…quick quiz…Does ice fit the definition of a mineral?
    39. 39. Okay…quick quiz…Does ice fit the definition of a mineral?
    40. 40. ...naturally-occurring...
    41. 41. ...naturally-occurring...• Diamonds
    42. 42. ...naturally-occurring...• Diamonds
    43. 43. ...naturally-occurring...• Diamonds
    44. 44. ...naturally-occurring...• Diamonds
    45. 45. ...naturally-occurring...• Diamonds
    46. 46. ...homogeneous solid...• It can’t start out as one mineral and become another mineral halfway through (but it can change color and still be the same mineral)
    47. 47. ...homogeneous solid...• It can’t start out as one mineral and become another mineral halfway through (but it can change color and still be the same mineral) Tourmaline (Elbaite variety): Na(Li1.5,Al1.5)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4
    48. 48. ...definite (but generally not fixed) chemical composition...
    49. 49. ...definite (but generally not fixed) chemical composition...• Quartz
    50. 50. ...definite (but generally not fixed) chemical composition...• Quartz –SiO2 (silicon dioxide)
    51. 51. ...definite (but generally not fixed) chemical composition...• Quartz –SiO2 (silicon dioxide)• Olivine
    52. 52. ...definite (but generally not fixed) chemical composition...• Quartz –SiO2 (silicon dioxide)• Olivine –(Mg, Fe)2SiO4
    53. 53. ...highly-ordered atomic arrangement.• Carbon dioxide gas is made up of atoms that are not all bonded together into a structure.
    54. 54. ...highly-ordered atomic arrangement.• Carbon dioxide gas is made up of atoms that are not all bonded together into a structure.• When frozen, CO2 IS bonded together... forming...what?
    55. 55. ...highly-ordered atomic arrangement.• Carbon dioxide gas is made up of atoms that are not all bonded together into a structure.• When frozen, CO2 IS bonded together... forming...what?
    56. 56. ...highly-ordered atomic arrangement.• Carbon dioxide gas is made up of atoms that are not all bonded together into a structure.• When frozen, CO2 IS bonded together... forming...what?
    57. 57. The shape of the mineral crystal is the result of its internal atomic structure. rhombohedrons flat sheets muscovite mica chains cubes rhodochrositeasbestos (crocidolite) galena
    58. 58. What if a substance doesn’t fit the whole definition?
    59. 59. What if a substance doesn’t fit the whole definition?• It’s a mineraloid.
    60. 60. What if a substance doesn’t fit the whole definition?• It’s a mineraloid. Some substances look like minerals--but they LIE.
    61. 61. What if a substance doesn’t fit the whole definition?• It’s a mineraloid. Some substances look like minerals--but they LIE. • Glass is a mineraloid. It has an “amorphous” atomic structure.
    62. 62. What if a substance doesn’t fit the whole definition?• It’s a mineraloid. Some substances look like minerals--but they LIE. • Glass is a mineraloid. It has an “amorphous” atomic structure. -O - Si
    63. 63. As light passes through the glass panels, it is distortedby the ripples in the glass. Which panel is the new one?
    64. 64. Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to the “inorganic processes” rule
    65. 65. Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things
    66. 66. Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things – The pearl and shells of oysters
    67. 67. Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things – The pearl and shells of oysters
    68. 68. Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things – The pearl and shells of oysters • Aragonite
    69. 69. Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things – The pearl and shells of oysters • Aragonite – The main mineral found in human bones and teeth
    70. 70. Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things – The pearl and shells of oysters • Aragonite – The main mineral found in human bones and teeth • Apatite
    71. 71. Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things – The pearl and shells of oysters • Aragonite – The main mineral found in human bones and teeth • Apatite – Diatoms and radiolarians in the ocean
    72. 72. Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things – The pearl and shells of oysters • Aragonite – The main mineral found in human bones and teeth • Apatite – Diatoms and radiolarians in the ocean
    73. 73. Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things – The pearl and shells of oysters • Aragonite – The main mineral found in human bones and teeth • Apatite – Diatoms and radiolarians in the ocean
    74. 74. Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things – The pearl and shells of oysters • Aragonite – The main mineral found in human bones and teeth • Apatite – Diatoms and radiolarians in the ocean • Silicate minerals
    75. 75. Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things – The pearl and shells of oysters • Aragonite – The main mineral found in human bones and teeth • Apatite – Diatoms and radiolarians in the ocean • Silicate minerals • Their skeletons are used as polishing agents...
    76. 76. Biogenic minerals: Exceptions to the “inorganic processes” ruleFormed by living things – The pearl and shells of oysters • Aragonite – The main mineral found in human bones and teeth • Apatite – Diatoms and radiolarians in the ocean • Silicate minerals • Their skeletons are used as polishing agents... ...(in your toothpaste!)
    77. 77. Is coal a mineral?
    78. 78. Is coal a mineral?
    79. 79. Is coal a mineral?
    80. 80. Is coal a mineral?
    81. 81. Is coal a mineral? No.
    82. 82. Is coal a mineral? No.Coal, petroleum, and peat are NOT minerals.
    83. 83. Is coal a mineral? No.Coal, petroleum, and peat are NOT minerals. –They have no definite chemical composition
    84. 84. Is coal a mineral? No.Coal, petroleum, and peat are NOT minerals. –They have no definite chemical composition –They have no ordered atomic arrangement
    85. 85. Is coal a mineral? No.Coal, petroleum, and peat are NOT minerals. –They have no definite chemical composition –They have no ordered atomic arrangementPetroleum, coal and peat are mineraloids
    86. 86. Is coal a mineral? No.Coal, petroleum, and peat are NOT minerals. –They have no definite chemical composition –They have no ordered atomic arrangementPetroleum, coal and peat are mineraloidsBut…They can form minerals under certain conditions
    87. 87. Is coal a mineral? No.Coal, petroleum, and peat are NOT minerals. –They have no definite chemical composition –They have no ordered atomic arrangementPetroleum, coal and peat are mineraloidsBut…They can form minerals under certain conditions –If coal beds are heated to high temperatures and the carbon in them is crystallized, they can form the mineral, graphite
    88. 88. Mineral Formation:Non-organic formation
    89. 89. Mineral Formation: Non-organic formation• Minerals can form from:
    90. 90. Mineral Formation: Non-organic formation• Minerals can form from: –Magma
    91. 91. Mineral Formation: Non-organic formation• Minerals can form from: –Magma –Steam (these minerals are called vaporites)
    92. 92. Mineral Formation: Non-organic formation• Minerals can form from: –Magma –Steam (these minerals are called vaporites) –Mineral components left behind when water evaporates (these are called evaporites)
    93. 93. Mineral Formation: Non-organic formation• Minerals can form from: –Magma –Steam (these minerals are called vaporites) –Mineral components left behind when water evaporates (these are called evaporites) –Mineral components dissolved in water that solidify again (these are called precipitates)
    94. 94. From cooled magma• The mineral components come together in the melt and harden as molten rock material solidifies
    95. 95. From steam: vaporites
    96. 96. From steam: vaporites• Vaporite
    97. 97. From steam: vaporites• Vaporite –Water near a magma source heats up, dissolves mineral components in surrounding rocks, and carries them away
    98. 98. From steam: vaporites• Vaporite –Water near a magma source heats up, dissolves mineral components in surrounding rocks, and carries them away –The steam condenses at the surface. The mineral compounds also “condense” and solidify.
    99. 99. From steam: vaporites• Vaporite –Water near a magma source heats up, dissolves mineral components in surrounding rocks, and carries them away –The steam condenses at the surface. The mineral compounds also “condense” and solidify.
    100. 100. From steam: vaporites• Vaporite Harvesting sulfur crystals from a volcano in Indonesia –Water near a magma source heats up, dissolves mineral components in surrounding rocks, and carries them away –The steam condenses at the surface. The mineral compounds also “condense” and solidify. –Commonly found around volcanic vents, these sulfur crystals are forming around Kilauea Crater, Hawaii. Also found near oceanic volcanic vents (at spreading centers).
    101. 101. From steam: vaporitesHarvesting sulfur crystals from a volcano in Indonesia
    102. 102. From evaporating water: evaporites
    103. 103. From evaporating water: evaporites• Evaporite
    104. 104. From evaporating water: evaporites• Evaporite –Water evaporates, but leaves behind any mineral compounds that were dissolved in the water
    105. 105. From evaporating water: evaporites• Evaporite –Water evaporates, but leaves behind any mineral compounds that were dissolved in the water
    106. 106. From evaporating water: evaporites• Evaporite –Water evaporates, but leaves behind any mineral compounds that were dissolved in the water –Hint: “Please pass the halite!”
    107. 107. From evaporating water: evaporites• Evaporite –Water evaporates, but leaves behind any mineral compounds that were dissolved in the water –Hint: “Please pass the halite!” Salt crystals like these form in salt beds along the edge of Highway 84, just before the Dumbarton Bridge.
    108. 108. Mineral Formation:Non-organic formation
    109. 109. Mineral Formation: Non-organic formation• Precipitate
    110. 110. Mineral Formation: Non-organic formation• Precipitate –When in too high a concentration to remain dissolved in a liquid, the mineral components condense and may actually “rain” out of the solution
    111. 111. Mineral Formation: Non-organic formation• Precipitate –When in too high a concentration to remain dissolved in a liquid, the mineral components condense and may actually “rain” out of the solution –Often occurs when warmer water, which can hold more dissolved solids, cools slightly
    112. 112. From dissolved solids: precipitatesOolitic beach sand from the Caribbean, the Bahamas,and Great Salt Lake in Utah form from calciumcarbonate precipitating out of the water
    113. 113. From dissolved solids: precipitatesOolitic beach sand from the Caribbean, the Bahamas,and Great Salt Lake in Utah form from calciumcarbonate precipitating out of the water
    114. 114. From dissolved solids: precipitatesOolitic beach sand from the Caribbean, the Bahamas,and Great Salt Lake in Utah form from calciumcarbonate precipitating out of the water
    115. 115. From dissolved solids: precipitatesOolitic beach sand from the Caribbean, the Bahamas,and Great Salt Lake in Utah form from calciumcarbonate precipitating out of the water
    116. 116. From dissolved solids: precipitatesPyrite “sand dollars” form in sea water and collect on theocean floor
    117. 117. Experiment• Make a precipitate mineral at home...
    118. 118. Experiment• Make a precipitate mineral at home...
    119. 119. Experiment• Make a precipitate mineral at home...
    120. 120. What is a Rock?
    121. 121. What is a Rock?• A solid, cohesive aggregate of one or more minerals or mineral materials –A few rock varieties are made up almost entirely of one mineral—this is called a pegmatite
    122. 122. What is a Rock?• A solid, cohesive aggregate of one or more minerals or mineral materials –A few rock varieties are made up almost entirely of one mineral—this is called a pegmatite • Example: massive accumulations of halite
    123. 123. The Rock Cycle• Rocks have been continuously forming and reforming over millions and millions of years• The rock cycle is a closed flow system
    124. 124. The Rock Cycle
    125. 125. What drives the rock cycle?
    126. 126. What drives the rock cycle?• Earth’s internal heat
    127. 127. What drives the rock cycle?• Earth’s internal heat –Radioactive decay from its initial formation
    128. 128. What drives the rock cycle?• Earth’s internal heat –Radioactive decay from its initial formation • the power source for the flow system
    129. 129. What drives the rock cycle?• Earth’s internal heat –Radioactive decay from its initial formation • the power source for the flow system• The sun
    130. 130. What drives the rock cycle?• Earth’s internal heat –Radioactive decay from its initial formation • the power source for the flow system• The sun –Secondary power source
    131. 131. What drives the rock cycle?• Earth’s internal heat –Radioactive decay from its initial formation • the power source for the flow system• The sun –Secondary power source –Drives weather systems that erode material
    132. 132. Convection Currents
    133. 133. Convection Currents• Slow-moving convection currents within the mantle transfer heat from the outer core to the upper mantle
    134. 134. Convection Currents• Slow-moving convection currents within the mantle transfer heat from the outer core to the upper mantle
    135. 135. Convection Currents• Slow-moving convection currents within the mantle transfer heat from the outer core to the upper mantle• The convergence and divergence of these currents near the surface is believed to be one of the driving forces behind the movement of Earth’s crustal plates
    136. 136. The 3 Classes of Rock
    137. 137. The 3 Classes of Rock• Classified based on the processes which form them
    138. 138. The 3 Classes of Rock• Classified based on the processes which form them –Igneous rocks
    139. 139. The 3 Classes of Rock• Classified based on the processes which form them –Igneous rocks –Sedimentary rocks
    140. 140. The 3 Classes of Rock• Classified based on the processes which form them –Igneous rocks –Sedimentary rocks –Metamorphic rocks
    141. 141. Igneous Rocks from cooling magmas• The kinds of rocks you end up with (and ultimately the kinds of structures built by the formation of those rocks) are determined by the chemistry of the magmas you start with
    142. 142. Felsic Magmas
    143. 143. Felsic Magmas• The “fel” is for feldspar (made from Si, Al, O), “si” is for silicates (made from Si and O)
    144. 144. Felsic Magmas• The “fel” is for feldspar (made from Si, Al, O), “si” is for silicates (made from Si and O)• Lighter in color, lower in density than mafic minerals
    145. 145. Felsic Magmas• The “fel” is for feldspar (made from Si, Al, O), “si” is for silicates (made from Si and O)• Lighter in color, lower in density than mafic minerals• Continental crust is predominantly felsic material
    146. 146. Felsic Magmas• The “fel” is for feldspar (made from Si, Al, O), “si” is for silicates (made from Si and O)• Lighter in color, lower in density than mafic minerals• Continental crust is predominantly felsic material
    147. 147. Felsic Magmas• The “fel” is for feldspar (made from Si, Al, O), “si” is for silicates (made from Si and O)• Lighter in color, lower in density than mafic minerals• Continental crust is predominantly felsic material• Cooler magmas, containing lots of silica (SiO2)
    148. 148. Felsic Magmas• The “fel” is for feldspar (made from Si, Al, O), “si” is for silicates (made from Si and O)• Lighter in color, lower in density than mafic minerals• Continental crust is predominantly felsic material• Cooler magmas, containing lots of silica (SiO2)• Highly viscous (resistant to flow)
    149. 149. Felsic Magmas• The “fel” is for feldspar (made from Si, Al, O), “si” is for silicates (made from Si and O)• Lighter in color, lower in density than mafic minerals• Continental crust is predominantly felsic material• Cooler magmas, containing lots of silica (SiO2)• Highly viscous (resistant to flow)• High concentration of gases under high pressure
    150. 150. Felsic Magmas• The “fel” is for feldspar (made from Si, Al, O), “si” is for silicates (made from Si and O)• Lighter in color, lower in density than mafic minerals• Continental crust is predominantly felsic material• Cooler magmas, containing lots of silica (SiO2)• Highly viscous (resistant to flow)• High concentration of gases under high pressure• Gases can’t rise easily, so they stay trapped until near the surface
    151. 151. Felsic Magmas• The “fel” is for feldspar (made from Si, Al, O), “si” is for silicates (made from Si and O)• Lighter in color, lower in density than mafic minerals• Continental crust is predominantly felsic material• Cooler magmas, containing lots of silica (SiO2)• Highly viscous (resistant to flow)• High concentration of gases under high pressure• Gases can’t rise easily, so they stay trapped until near the surface• As pressure is released at the surface, these pressurized gases tend to explode
    152. 152. Felsic Magmas• The “fel” is for feldspar (made from Si, Al, O), “si” is for silicates (made from Si and O)• Lighter in color, lower in density than mafic minerals• Continental crust is predominantly felsic material• Cooler magmas, containing lots of silica (SiO2)• Highly viscous (resistant to flow)• High concentration of gases under high pressure• Gases can’t rise easily, so they stay trapped until near the surface• As pressure is released at the surface, these pressurized gases tend to explode – (Example: Mount St. Helens)
    153. 153. Mount Saint Helens• The explosion blew off 1,300 feet of the mountains top and sent ash and debris more than 12 miles into the sky covering three states - Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. Sixty two people were dead, beautiful forests and lakes were destroyed resulting in $3 billion worth of damage.• ‘[At about 10:00 a.m.] in the city of Yakima, Washington… a black cloud covered the city and "snowed" ash. [Not] a street light nor a neighbors porch light could be seen. The ash was so heavy it sank swimming pool covers and caved in old roofs. Businesses and schools were closed down and all normal activity… ceased to exist.” From Disasters: Blowing Your Top http://www.boisestate.edu/history/ ncasner/hy210/volcano.htm
    154. 154. Felsic MagmasExplosive Mount St. Helens (Pre-eruption)
    155. 155. Felsic MagmasExplosive Mount St. Helens (May 18, 1980)
    156. 156. Felsic MagmasExplosive Mount St. Helens Mt. St. Helens Today
    157. 157. Mafic Minerals and Rocks
    158. 158. Mafic Minerals and Rocks• The “ma” is for magnesium, the “f” for iron (Fe--ferris); contains more metallic, heavy elements (Al, Mg, Fe, K, Ca)
    159. 159. Mafic Minerals and Rocks• The “ma” is for magnesium, the “f” for iron (Fe--ferris); contains more metallic, heavy elements (Al, Mg, Fe, K, Ca)• Darker in color, higher in density
    160. 160. Mafic Minerals and Rocks• The “ma” is for magnesium, the “f” for iron (Fe--ferris); contains more metallic, heavy elements (Al, Mg, Fe, K, Ca)• Darker in color, higher in density• Oceanic crust is predominantly mafic
    161. 161. Mafic Minerals and Rocks• The “ma” is for magnesium, the “f” for iron (Fe--ferris); contains more metallic, heavy elements (Al, Mg, Fe, K, Ca)• Darker in color, higher in density• Oceanic crust is predominantly mafic• Low viscosity (flow easily for long distances)
    162. 162. Mafic Minerals and Rocks• The “ma” is for magnesium, the “f” for iron (Fe--ferris); contains more metallic, heavy elements (Al, Mg, Fe, K, Ca)• Darker in color, higher in density• Oceanic crust is predominantly mafic• Low viscosity (flow easily for long distances)• Very little gas content, relatively little SiO2
    163. 163. Mafic Minerals and Rocks• The “ma” is for magnesium, the “f” for iron (Fe--ferris); contains more metallic, heavy elements (Al, Mg, Fe, K, Ca)• Darker in color, higher in density• Oceanic crust is predominantly mafic• Low viscosity (flow easily for long distances)• Very little gas content, relatively little SiO2• Hotter magmas, so gasses stay dissolved
    164. 164. Mafic Minerals and Rocks• The “ma” is for magnesium, the “f” for iron (Fe--ferris); contains more metallic, heavy elements (Al, Mg, Fe, K, Ca)• Darker in color, higher in density• Oceanic crust is predominantly mafic• Low viscosity (flow easily for long distances)• Very little gas content, relatively little SiO2• Hotter magmas, so gasses stay dissolved• Rarely explosive – (Example: Hawaiian volcanoes)
    165. 165. Mafic Magmas Hawaii2002-10-11 view northwest across coastal plain of Kilauea from West Highcastle lava delta to Pu`u `O`o in upper right skyline
    166. 166. Intrusive vs. Extrusive Igneous Rocks
    167. 167. Intrusive vs. Extrusive Igneous Rocks• Intrusive igneous rocks—magma cools beneath the crust; crystals have more time to form; harder, more erosion-resistant rocks
    168. 168. Intrusive vs. Extrusive Igneous Rocks• Intrusive igneous rocks—magma cools beneath the crust; crystals have more time to form; harder, more erosion-resistant rocks• Extrusive igneous rocks—magma cools on the surface (lava); crystals don’t have time to form good crystal faces, if it cools fast enough, no crystals will form (obsidian--“volcanic glass”)
    169. 169. Extrusive Igneous Rocks Basalt and Obsidian
    170. 170. Intrusive Igneous Rock Granite
    171. 171. Intrusive Igneous Rock Granite …vs. extrusive rhyolite
    172. 172. Sedimentary Rocks From hardened sediment
    173. 173. Sedimentary Rocks
    174. 174. Sedimentary Rocks• The result of erosion, transportation, deposition, and lithification
    175. 175. Sedimentary Rocks• The result of erosion, transportation, deposition, and lithification
    176. 176. Sedimentary Rocks• The result of erosion, transportation, deposition, and lithification• Sediment—Weathered rock fragments that have been transported and deposited, usually by water (or by air or by glacial ice movements)
    177. 177. ErosionMechanical or Chemical
    178. 178. Erosion Mechanical or Chemical• Mechanical weathering—The physical force of a particular process acting on rocks, such as hydraulic action pounding rocks in a riverbed
    179. 179. Erosion Mechanical or Chemical• Mechanical weathering—The physical force of a particular process acting on rocks, such as hydraulic action pounding rocks in a riverbed- OR -
    180. 180. Erosion Mechanical or Chemical• Mechanical weathering—The physical force of a particular process acting on rocks, such as hydraulic action pounding rocks in a riverbed- OR -• Chemical weathering—Chemical reactions, usually in the presence of water, which operate to change the structure of the minerals, and break them apart – (Example: iron in the presence of water and oxygen, incorporating those elements into its structure, expanding as it becomes rust, breaking rock apart)
    181. 181. Transportation• Distance of transport and speed of the fluid medium determine size, roundness and sorting of transported material
    182. 182. Transportation• Distance of transport and speed of the fluid medium determine size, roundness and sorting of transported material
    183. 183. Deposition
    184. 184. Deposition• Deposition generally occurs in flat layers called strata (or “beds”)• Principle of Original Horizontality states that material is originally deposited in horizontal layers and later is shifted as it is affected by crustal movements
    185. 185. Deposition• Deposition generally occurs in flat layers called strata (or “beds”)• Principle of Original Horizontality states that material is originally deposited in horizontal layers and later is shifted as it is affected by crustal movements
    186. 186. Deposition• Deposition generally occurs in flat layers called strata (or “beds”)• Principle of Original Horizontality states that material is originally deposited in horizontal layers and later is shifted as it is affected by crustal movements
    187. 187. Sedimentary RocksBadlands National Park, SD
    188. 188. Horizontal layersafter tectonic movement
    189. 189. Lithification
    190. 190. LithificationCompaction and cementation
    191. 191. LithificationCompaction and cementation• Lithification is the process of turning sediment into rock
    192. 192. LithificationCompaction and cementation• Lithification is the process of turning sediment into rock –As sediment is deposited, the addition of more layers causes compaction
    193. 193. LithificationCompaction and cementation• Lithification is the process of turning sediment into rock –As sediment is deposited, the addition of more layers causes compaction • (“trash compactor”)
    194. 194. LithificationCompaction and cementation• Lithification is the process of turning sediment into rock –As sediment is deposited, the addition of more layers causes compaction • (“trash compactor”) –Dissolved minerals such as silica recrystallize in pore spaces
    195. 195. LithificationCompaction and cementation• Lithification is the process of turning sediment into rock –As sediment is deposited, the addition of more layers causes compaction • (“trash compactor”) –Dissolved minerals such as silica recrystallize in pore spaces –Sediment grains are cemented together
    196. 196. Three Main Types ofSedimentary Rocks
    197. 197. Three Main Types of Sedimentary Rocks• Clastic (or detrital)
    198. 198. Three Main Types of Sedimentary Rocks• Clastic (or detrital) – Formed from pieces of other rocks
    199. 199. Three Main Types of Sedimentary Rocks• Clastic (or detrital) – Formed from pieces of other rocks• Chemical
    200. 200. Three Main Types of Sedimentary Rocks• Clastic (or detrital) – Formed from pieces of other rocks• Chemical – Dissolved mineral compounds that solidify again (precipitates/ evaporites)
    201. 201. Three Main Types of Sedimentary Rocks• Clastic (or detrital) – Formed from pieces of other rocks• Chemical – Dissolved mineral compounds that solidify again (precipitates/ evaporites)• Organic
    202. 202. Three Main Types of Sedimentary Rocks• Clastic (or detrital) – Formed from pieces of other rocks• Chemical – Dissolved mineral compounds that solidify again (precipitates/ evaporites)• Organic – Formed from the tissues of living things
    203. 203. Metamorphic RocksAny kind of rock subjected to heat and/or pressure
    204. 204. Two types of metamorphism
    205. 205. Two types of metamorphism• Regional metamorphism
    206. 206. Two types of metamorphism• Regional metamorphism –Occurs over 100s or 1000s of sq. miles
    207. 207. Two types of metamorphism• Regional metamorphism –Occurs over 100s or 1000s of sq. miles –Common in subduction zones
    208. 208. Two types of metamorphism• Regional metamorphism –Occurs over 100s or 1000s of sq. miles –Common in subduction zones• Contact metamorphism
    209. 209. Two types of metamorphism• Regional metamorphism –Occurs over 100s or 1000s of sq. miles –Common in subduction zones• Contact metamorphism –Localized
    210. 210. Two types of metamorphism• Regional metamorphism –Occurs over 100s or 1000s of sq. miles –Common in subduction zones• Contact metamorphism –Localized –Heat and pressure of rising, intruding magmas “bakes” surrounding rocks
    211. 211. Contact Metamorphism
    212. 212. Parent Rock• Parent rock—Name given to the original rock before the addition of heat and/or pressure – what you start with will determine what you end up with quartzite gneiss
    213. 213. Parent Rock• Parent rock—Name given to the original rock before the addition of heat and/or pressure – what you start with will determine what you end up with quartzite gneiss
    214. 214. Foliation
    215. 215. Foliation• The arrangement of mineral crystals into parallel or nearly parallel bands
    216. 216. Foliation• The arrangement of mineral crystals into parallel or nearly parallel bands –The classification of metamorphic rocks is generally based on the amount of foliation in the rock
    217. 217. Metamorphic Rock Foliation

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