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Blockchain for Intelligent Systems
Research Perspectives
Andrea Omicini
andrea.omicini@unibo.it
Giovanni Ciatto
giovanni.c...
Outline
1 MAS vs. BCT: The Match
2 Take the Long Way Home
Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Sy...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match
Next in Line. . .
1 MAS vs. BCT: The Match
2 Take the Long Way Home
Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 20...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match
Old News vs. New News
Blockchain Technologies (BCT)
BCT as the new kid on the block
everybody is do...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match
Is it Just BCT4MAS?
Do BCT and MAS match somehow?
is it a marriage made in (computational) heaven?
...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match
Why Intelligent Systems?
MAS for intelligent system engineering
abstractions for distributed system...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Match
Focus on. . .
1 MAS vs. BCT: The Match
The Match
Shake & Bake
The Misses
2 Take the Long ...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Match
Distributed Systems (DS)
BCT for distributed systems
BCT is a technology for DS
providing...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Match
Autonomy & Decentralisation
Autonomy & decentralisation in BCT
BCT is a decentralised inf...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Match
Interaction
Interaction in BCT
interaction among distributed autonomous nodes is the key ...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Match
Openness
Openness in BCT
no a priori assumption on the number of nodes—or components, in
...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Match
Environment
Environment in BCT
unpredictability and uncertainty are dealt with based on c...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match Shake & Bake
Focus on. . .
1 MAS vs. BCT: The Match
The Match
Shake & Bake
The Misses
2 Take the Lo...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match Shake & Bake
How MAS & BCT Complement Each Other?
Which are the features for intelligent systems. ....
MAS vs. BCT: The Match Shake & Bake
Technology vs. Model I
BCT technologies
+ BCT is a young yet (relatively) well-known t...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match Shake & Bake
Technology vs. Model II
MAS models
+ after years of research, the essence of agent-ori...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match Shake & Bake
Technology vs. Model III
Engineering intelligent systems
MAS-based (formal) models and...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match Shake & Bake
Useful Features for Intelligent Systems I
BCT features
trust & reputation
privacy & se...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match Shake & Bake
Useful Features for Intelligent Systems II
MAS features
computational autonomy
goal-or...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match Shake & Bake
Glocal Knowledge
BCT global
consensus on distributed ledger provide all nodes with glo...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match Shake & Bake
Embodied vs. Disembodied
MAS embodied computation
situated agents and MAS promote situ...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match Shake & Bake
Resources
MAS resources
environment, objects, artefacts, . . .
subject to and means fo...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Misses
Focus on. . .
1 MAS vs. BCT: The Match
The Match
Shake & Bake
The Misses
2 Take the Long...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Misses
Fragmented Technologies
Technologies for intelligent systems
Real-world intelligent syst...
MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Misses
Weak Standards
Standards for intelligent systems
Integration of intelligent systems in h...
Take the Long Way Home
Next in Line. . .
1 MAS vs. BCT: The Match
2 Take the Long Way Home
Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 20...
Take the Long Way Home Logic-based Ledger
Focus on. . .
1 MAS vs. BCT: The Match
The Match
Shake & Bake
The Misses
2 Take ...
Take the Long Way Home Logic-based Ledger
Why LP for Intelligent Systems?
Logic programming (LP)
Programming as goal-orien...
Take the Long Way Home Logic-based Ledger
Agents & Knowledge
Omniscience
in the same way as as distributed algorithms, age...
Take the Long Way Home Logic-based Ledger
BCT as a Logic Theory I
Making all knowledge available to every agent
BCT provid...
Take the Long Way Home Logic-based Ledger
BCT as a Logic Theory II
Updating the distributed logic theory
BCT provide consi...
Take the Long Way Home Logic-based Ledger
BCT as a Logic Theory III
Using the distributed logic theory
Clients may issue g...
Take the Long Way Home Logic-based SC
Focus on. . .
1 MAS vs. BCT: The Match
The Match
Shake & Bake
The Misses
2 Take the ...
Take the Long Way Home Logic-based SC
Programming Languages for Smart Contracts (SC)
the language used to write SC affects ...
Take the Long Way Home Logic-based SC
Logic-based Smart Contracts I
Potential benefits
Exploiting a logic language such as ...
Take the Long Way Home Logic-based SC
Logic-based Smart Contracts II
Further issues
should the computational economic cost...
Take the Long Way Home SC as Coordination Abstractions
Focus on. . .
1 MAS vs. BCT: The Match
The Match
Shake & Bake
The M...
Take the Long Way Home SC as Coordination Abstractions
Blackboard-based Approaches & Smart Contracts
Opportunity
Shared bl...
Take the Long Way Home SC as Coordination Abstractions
SC for Coordination & Social Intelligence I
MAS coordination & BCT
...
Take the Long Way Home SC as Coordination Abstractions
SC for Coordination & Social Intelligence II
Social Intelligence ba...
Take the Long Way Home SC as Coordination Abstractions
Tuple-based Coordination upon the Blockchain
Can we build the arche...
Take the Long Way Home Autonomous SC
Focus on. . .
1 MAS vs. BCT: The Match
The Match
Shake & Bake
The Misses
2 Take the L...
Take the Long Way Home Autonomous SC
Languages Mechanisms for Smart Contracts
some language issues are related to their un...
Take the Long Way Home Autonomous SC
Smart Contracts & MAS I
MAS provide a rich (yet coherent) set of abstractions—richer ...
Take the Long Way Home Autonomous SC
Smart Contracts & MAS II
The issue of autonomy
since they are implemented as threads,...
Take the Long Way Home Autonomous SC
SC as Intelligent Agents I
SC reasoning
SC rule interaction in an automated way
howev...
Take the Long Way Home Autonomous SC
SC as Intelligent Agents II
SC as intelligent agents
Enhancing SC with
computational ...
Take the Long Way Home Autonomous SC
SC as Intelligent Agents III
SC as intelligent agents: issues
what is the environment...
Conclusion
Run, Boy, Run
everybody (was and) is (still) doing MAS
everybody is doing BCT nowadays
more than everything els...
References
References I
Bellifemine, F. L., Caire, G., and Greenwood, D. (2007).
Developing Multi-Agent Systems with JADE....
References
References II
Calvaresi, D., Dubovitskaya, A., Calbimonte, J. P., Taveter, K., and Schumacher, M.
(2018).
Multi...
References
References III
Denti, E., Natali, A., and Omicini, A. (1997).
Programmable coordination media.
In Garlan, D. an...
References
References IV
Odell, J. (2002).
Objects and agents compared.
Journal of Object Technologies, 1(1):41–53.
Omicin...
References
References V
Omicini, A., Ricci, A., and Viroli, M. (2008).
Artifacts in the A&A meta-model for multi-agent sys...
References
References VI
Rao, A. S. and Georgeff, M. P. (1995).
BDI agents: From theory to practice.
In Lesser, V. R. and G...
Blockchain for Intelligent Systems
Research Perspectives
Andrea Omicini
andrea.omicini@unibo.it
Giovanni Ciatto
giovanni.c...
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Blockchain for Intelligent Systems: Research Perspectives

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We summarise and compare features of MAS and BCT, and discuss how they could be fruitfully integrated in the engineering of intelligent systems by adopting a long-term research perspective.

Published in: Science
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Blockchain for Intelligent Systems: Research Perspectives

  1. 1. Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Research Perspectives Andrea Omicini andrea.omicini@unibo.it Giovanni Ciatto giovanni.ciatto@unibo.it Keynote @ BCT4MAS 2018 Santiago, Cile – 3 December 2018 Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 1 / 56
  2. 2. Outline 1 MAS vs. BCT: The Match 2 Take the Long Way Home Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 2 / 56
  3. 3. MAS vs. BCT: The Match Next in Line. . . 1 MAS vs. BCT: The Match 2 Take the Long Way Home Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 3 / 56
  4. 4. MAS vs. BCT: The Match Old News vs. New News Blockchain Technologies (BCT) BCT as the new kid on the block everybody is doing BCT nowadays even myself. Multi-agent systems (MAS) MAS as the perennial man-child everybody (was and) is (still) doing MAS, too yet, no longer as cool as it was, and already a bit awkward exception made for myself :) Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 4 / 56
  5. 5. MAS vs. BCT: The Match Is it Just BCT4MAS? Do BCT and MAS match somehow? is it a marriage made in (computational) heaven? is it an arranged marriage for the sake of children (papers)? do they love each other, actually? What about MAS4BCT? benefits from the marriage are easy to see some of them mutual possibly not all of them so obvious Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 5 / 56
  6. 6. MAS vs. BCT: The Match Why Intelligent Systems? MAS for intelligent system engineering abstractions for distributed systems agent abstraction for integration of different AI techniques agent cognition & logics agent society for social intelligence MAS environment for situatedness BCT against shortcomings of intelligent systems accountability trust & reputation privacy & security . . . see e.g. [Calvaresi et al., 2018] Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 6 / 56
  7. 7. MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Match Focus on. . . 1 MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Match Shake & Bake The Misses 2 Take the Long Way Home Logic-based Ledger Logic-based SC SC as Coordination Abstractions Autonomous SC Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 7 / 56
  8. 8. MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Match Distributed Systems (DS) BCT for distributed systems BCT is a technology for DS providing fundamental mechanisms for DS through a distributed middleware and features for DS such as transparency MAS for distributed systems agent-oriented computing is a paradigm for DS provide fundamental abstractions for DS through agent middleware and features for DS such as transparency Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 8 / 56
  9. 9. MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Match Autonomy & Decentralisation Autonomy & decentralisation in BCT BCT is a decentralised infrastructure nodes are supposed to behave autonomously in a BCT their inner computation is required to be neither predictable nor observable Autonomy & decentralisation in MAS MAS are essentially decentralised in control agents are assumed to behave autonomously in a MAS their inner computation is required to be neither predictable nor observable Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 9 / 56
  10. 10. MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Match Interaction Interaction in BCT interaction among distributed autonomous nodes is the key to BCT behaviour around simple notions such as value exchange or more complex abstractions such as smart contracts (SC) Interaction in MAS interaction among distributed autonomous agents is the key to MAS behaviour around simple notions such as message exchange or more complex abstractions such as agent coordination Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 10 / 56
  11. 11. MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Match Openness Openness in BCT no a priori assumption on the number of nodes—or components, in general Openness in MAS no a priori assumption on the number of agents—or components, in general Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 11 / 56
  12. 12. MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Match Environment Environment in BCT unpredictability and uncertainty are dealt with based on consensus to build a common view of the environment Environment in MAS intelligent agents are assumed to work within a dynamic and unpredictable environment based on their autonomy and reactiveness Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 12 / 56
  13. 13. MAS vs. BCT: The Match Shake & Bake Focus on. . . 1 MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Match Shake & Bake The Misses 2 Take the Long Way Home Logic-based Ledger Logic-based SC SC as Coordination Abstractions Autonomous SC Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 13 / 56
  14. 14. MAS vs. BCT: The Match Shake & Bake How MAS & BCT Complement Each Other? Which are the features for intelligent systems. . . missing from BCT, that MAS could provide or? missing from MAS, that BCT could provide or? The goal here. . . is then to put everything together possibly preserving all the combined benefits Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 14 / 56
  15. 15. MAS vs. BCT: The Match Shake & Bake Technology vs. Model I BCT technologies + BCT is a young yet (relatively) well-known technology + already tested in critical domains – we cannot really talk of BCT models, for now – no formal models, yet Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 15 / 56
  16. 16. MAS vs. BCT: The Match Shake & Bake Technology vs. Model II MAS models + after years of research, the essence of agent-oriented architecture is well-understood + captured by models, meta-models, architecture for MAS + formal models + framing and integrating AI results – with some exceptions, agent technologies are somehow older than solid, yet – and tested in few domains Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 16 / 56
  17. 17. MAS vs. BCT: The Match Shake & Bake Technology vs. Model III Engineering intelligent systems MAS-based (formal) models and methodologies BC-based technology and middleware Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 17 / 56
  18. 18. MAS vs. BCT: The Match Shake & Bake Useful Features for Intelligent Systems I BCT features trust & reputation privacy & security distributed consensus accountability . . . Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 18 / 56
  19. 19. MAS vs. BCT: The Match Shake & Bake Useful Features for Intelligent Systems II MAS features computational autonomy goal-oriented behaviour cognitive process coordination as govern of interaction knowledge representation & management, logics, planning, machine learning, reasoning, . . . social & situated intelligence . . . Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 19 / 56
  20. 20. MAS vs. BCT: The Match Shake & Bake Glocal Knowledge BCT global consensus on distributed ledger provide all nodes with global, shared view of the world MAS local situated agents have each its own fragmented, local knowledge of the world Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 20 / 56
  21. 21. MAS vs. BCT: The Match Shake & Bake Embodied vs. Disembodied MAS embodied computation situated agents and MAS promote situated (embodied) computations BCT disembodied computation BCT distributed, replicated computations can occur anywhere, and proceed as disembodied computations Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 21 / 56
  22. 22. MAS vs. BCT: The Match Shake & Bake Resources MAS resources environment, objects, artefacts, . . . subject to and means for agent actions REST and the like resource as the general notion for acting on MAS environment and mediating agent-environment interaction BCT resources BCT value exchange PoW Ethereum’s gas as cost of computation resource as an economic value for systems Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 22 / 56
  23. 23. MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Misses Focus on. . . 1 MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Match Shake & Bake The Misses 2 Take the Long Way Home Logic-based Ledger Logic-based SC SC as Coordination Abstractions Autonomous SC Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 23 / 56
  24. 24. MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Misses Fragmented Technologies Technologies for intelligent systems Real-world intelligent systems mandate for a clear and mature technological framework BCT techs are tested yet immature and fragmented MAS techs are hugely fragmented even though often interoperable at some level Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 24 / 56
  25. 25. MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Misses Weak Standards Standards for intelligent systems Integration of intelligent systems in human processes and activities calls for standards MAS standards are in place yet not covering the full ground BCT standards are just non-existing Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 25 / 56
  26. 26. Take the Long Way Home Next in Line. . . 1 MAS vs. BCT: The Match 2 Take the Long Way Home Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 26 / 56
  27. 27. Take the Long Way Home Logic-based Ledger Focus on. . . 1 MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Match Shake & Bake The Misses 2 Take the Long Way Home Logic-based Ledger Logic-based SC SC as Coordination Abstractions Autonomous SC Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 27 / 56
  28. 28. Take the Long Way Home Logic-based Ledger Why LP for Intelligent Systems? Logic programming (LP) Programming as goal-oriented reasoning, on top of declarative language sound and complete logic inference over knowledge represented as first-order logic theories supports meta-programming provides understandable outputs (proofs) already largely adopted in MAS in cognitive agents, e.g. AgentSpeak [Rao, 1996] in agent coordination, e.g. ReSpecT [Omicini and Denti, 2001] Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 28 / 56
  29. 29. Take the Long Way Home Logic-based Ledger Agents & Knowledge Omniscience in the same way as as distributed algorithms, agents perform better with complete knowledge since MAS are dwelling mostly in uncertain distributed domains such as the IoT, however, the very notion of agent omniscience have been mostly banned from MAS research in the last decade at least yet, there are distributed domains where supporting agent deliberation with all available knowledge would greatly help e.g., health care Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 29 / 56
  30. 30. Take the Long Way Home Logic-based Ledger BCT as a Logic Theory I Making all knowledge available to every agent BCT provide agent nodes with a distributed shared data space ? what if data were logic formulae? ! the whole BCT would then represent a logic theory shared by all agent nodes → every agent node would have its own complete logic theory locally available, consistently replicated Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 30 / 56
  31. 31. Take the Long Way Home Logic-based Ledger BCT as a Logic Theory II Updating the distributed logic theory BCT provide consistent read/write access to the distributed ledger ? if the whole BCT represents a logic theory, how would it evolve? ! agent nodes could issue assert / retract operations suitable handled by a properly-defined smart contracts so the the replicated logic theory is updated by any node in a consistent way → the evolution of the shared logic theory is overall consistent Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 31 / 56
  32. 32. Take the Long Way Home Logic-based Ledger BCT as a Logic Theory III Using the distributed logic theory Clients may issue goals to be proven on the BCT logic theory miners may cooperatively participate to the resolution process providing either partial or complete results possibly publishing partial results on the BCT economical incentives for a fair balancing of computational efforts e.g., discouraging already-proven goals to be proven again Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 32 / 56
  33. 33. Take the Long Way Home Logic-based SC Focus on. . . 1 MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Match Shake & Bake The Misses 2 Take the Long Way Home Logic-based Ledger Logic-based SC SC as Coordination Abstractions Autonomous SC Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 33 / 56
  34. 34. Take the Long Way Home Logic-based SC Programming Languages for Smart Contracts (SC) the language used to write SC affects the potential features of SC—e.g, [Idelberger et al., 2016] the language for programming SC is a typical line of research—e.g., [Seijas et al., 2017] issues range from underlying mechanisms to high-level language abstractions—including the programming paradigm, obviously Language issues for SC SC currently lack high-level understandability of what a SC does and accomplishes observability of the deployed source code some degree of evolvability enabling them to be modified (or fixed) Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 34 / 56
  35. 35. Take the Long Way Home Logic-based SC Logic-based Smart Contracts I Potential benefits Exploiting a logic language such as Prolog for SC brings some benefits—see, e.g., [Idelberger et al., 2016] SC language becomes declarative and goal-oriented, improving understandability—thus, explainability built out of a declarative interpreted language, SC are inspectable without disassemblers separating static KB (for the immutable code) and dynamic KB (for the mutable part) enables some sort of controlled evolvability via assert and retract (on the mutable KB) context-aware predicates for inspecting the current context similarly to Solidity’s Globally Available Variables Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 35 / 56
  36. 36. Take the Long Way Home Logic-based SC Logic-based Smart Contracts II Further issues should the computational economic cost model be re-designed to embrace logic programming basic mechanisms? given the interactive nature of LP, how should logic SC interact? LP formal semantics for BCT formal semantics? is it technically feasible? e.g., with existing languages such as tuProlog [Denti et al., 2005] on top of some existing BCT Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 36 / 56
  37. 37. Take the Long Way Home SC as Coordination Abstractions Focus on. . . 1 MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Match Shake & Bake The Misses 2 Take the Long Way Home Logic-based Ledger Logic-based SC SC as Coordination Abstractions Autonomous SC Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 37 / 56
  38. 38. Take the Long Way Home SC as Coordination Abstractions Blackboard-based Approaches & Smart Contracts Opportunity Shared blackboard architectures may take advantage of the replication and fault-tolerance features they would inherit if deployed on top of a BCT layer. For instance e.g. distributed logic programming—e.g., [Ciancarini, 1994, Calegari et al., 2018] e.g. tuple-based coordination [Rossi et al., 2001] Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 38 / 56
  39. 39. Take the Long Way Home SC as Coordination Abstractions SC for Coordination & Social Intelligence I MAS coordination & BCT generally speaking, SC are computational abstractions ruling the interaction of nodes in BCT analogously, coordination media [Ciancarini, 1996] are computational abstractions ruling the interaction of nodes in BCT → SC are amenable of a re-interpretation as coordination abstractions for BCT nodes Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 39 / 56
  40. 40. Take the Long Way Home SC as Coordination Abstractions SC for Coordination & Social Intelligence II Social Intelligence based on SC as coordination abstractions, SC can be exploited as the core of social intelligence [Omicini and Papadopoulos, 2001] for BCT-based MAS as inspectable and malleable coordination artefacts [Omicini et al., 2006], SC can in principle provide a sound foundation for adaptive, self-organising BCT-based MAS [Omicini and Viroli, 2011] Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 40 / 56
  41. 41. Take the Long Way Home SC as Coordination Abstractions Tuple-based Coordination upon the Blockchain Can we build the archetypal Linda model [Gelernter, 1985] on top of BCTs? if yes, tuple spaces would inherit a lot of desirable properties e.g., decentralisation & replication, fault-tolerance, consistency, etc. ? which model for economical cost model for Linda primitives? ? how to handle control flow-related aspects? e.g., suspensive semantics ? can we inject programmability [Denti et al., 1997], too? Networked hosts The Blockchain Communication
 & Coordination
 services Application
 specific
 services Workflow
 management Service
 orchestration Dependencies
 resolution Data
 pipelines Internet of Things Business Intelligence Web Services Vision: BCT as the backbone on top of which communication and coordination services are built Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 41 / 56
  42. 42. Take the Long Way Home Autonomous SC Focus on. . . 1 MAS vs. BCT: The Match The Match Shake & Bake The Misses 2 Take the Long Way Home Logic-based Ledger Logic-based SC SC as Coordination Abstractions Autonomous SC Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 42 / 56
  43. 43. Take the Long Way Home Autonomous SC Languages Mechanisms for Smart Contracts some language issues are related to their underlying operational mechanisms for instance synchronous calls are usually hard coded by construction poor care for what concerns inter-SC interaction lack of control flow encapsulation lack of proactiveness Basic idea investigating the adoption of interaction-friendly paradigms such as actors or agents where some (all) of the above limitations are overcome at the fundamental programming abstraction level Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 43 / 56
  44. 44. Take the Long Way Home Autonomous SC Smart Contracts & MAS I MAS provide a rich (yet coherent) set of abstractions—richer than actors “weak” agent notion, basically exploiting agent computational autonomy [Omicini et al., 2008]—e.g., Jade [Bellifemine et al., 2007] “strong” agent notion, exploiting mentalistic notion for cognition—e.g., BDI agents [Bordini et al., 2007, Rao and Georgeff, 1995] rich MAS meta-models—e.g., Agents & Artifacts (A&A) meta-model [Omicini et al., 2008] basic MAS notions    agent environment society mapped upon BCT & SC many diverse mappings are possible beyond the straightforward agent/node, artefact/SC mappings Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 44 / 56
  45. 45. Take the Long Way Home Autonomous SC Smart Contracts & MAS II The issue of autonomy since they are implemented as threads, SC are said to be autonomous full computational autonomy requires proactiveness—as in MAS agents SC are just reactive, they do not really encapsulate control [Odell, 2002] so, SC are not really autonomous, they are not agents ? should they be? ? for what? Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 45 / 56
  46. 46. Take the Long Way Home Autonomous SC SC as Intelligent Agents I SC reasoning SC rule interaction in an automated way however, not every interaction can be governed in an automated way sometimes, it might be preferable to express the rules in terms of goals to be achieved sometimes, the the most effective enactment of the rules may depend on the environment Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 46 / 56
  47. 47. Take the Long Way Home Autonomous SC SC as Intelligent Agents II SC as intelligent agents Enhancing SC with computational autonomy—so SC can act proactively goal-oriented computations—so interaction rules can be implemented more flexibly up-to-date knowledge about the world—using both BCT ledger and (possibly) run.time oracles to rule interaction based on real-time knowledge about the environment Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 47 / 56
  48. 48. Take the Long Way Home Autonomous SC SC as Intelligent Agents III SC as intelligent agents: issues what is the environment, here? what can a SC-agent perceive? how can goal-oriented reasoning be useful here? should a SC reason about how its business logic? what about epistemic actions? should a SC ask for information to other (human) agents? would multiple intentions – i.e., multiple control flows – make sense for an SC-agent? in case, who is paying for them? who is in charge for executing them? and, using which concurrency model? Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 48 / 56
  49. 49. Conclusion Run, Boy, Run everybody (was and) is (still) doing MAS everybody is doing BCT nowadays more than everything else, everybody is doing AI nowadays so, if you are doing both MAS and BCT, you have to rush towards intelligent systems before everyone else does that! Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 49 / 56
  50. 50. References References I Bellifemine, F. L., Caire, G., and Greenwood, D. (2007). Developing Multi-Agent Systems with JADE. Wiley. Bordini, R. H., H¨ubner, J. F., and Wooldridge, M. J. (2007). Programming Multi-Agent Systems in AgentSpeak using Jason. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Hardcover. Calegari, R., Denti, E., Mariani, S., and Omicini, A. (2018). Logic programming as a service. Theory and Practice of Logic Programming, In press. Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 50 / 56
  51. 51. References References II Calvaresi, D., Dubovitskaya, A., Calbimonte, J. P., Taveter, K., and Schumacher, M. (2018). Multi-agent systems and blockchain: Results from a systematic literature review. In Bajo, J., Corchado, J. M., Navarro Mart´ınez, E. M., Osaba Icedo, E., Mathieu, P., Hoffa-D¸abrowska, P., del Val, E., Giroux, S., Castro, A. J., S´anchez-Pi, N., Juli´an, V., Silveira, R. A., Fern´andez, A., Unland, R., and Fuentes-Fern´andez, R., editors, Advances in Practical Applications of Agents, Multi-Agent Systems, and Complexity: The PAAMS Collection 16th International Conference, PAAMS 2018, Toledo, Spain, June 20–22, 2018, Proceedings, volume 887 of Communications in Computer and Information Science, pages 110–126. Springer International Publishing. Ciancarini, P. (1994). Distributed programming with logic tuple spaces. New Generation Computing, 12(3):251–283. Ciancarini, P. (1996). Coordination models and languages as software integrators. ACM Computing Surveys, 28(2):300–302. Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 51 / 56
  52. 52. References References III Denti, E., Natali, A., and Omicini, A. (1997). Programmable coordination media. In Garlan, D. and Le M´etayer, D., editors, Coordination Languages and Models, volume 1282 of LNCS, pages 274–288. Springer-Verlag. 2nd International Conference (COORDINATION’97), Berlin, Germany, 1–3 September 1997. Proceedings. Denti, E., Omicini, A., and Ricci, A. (2005). Multi-paradigm Java-Prolog integration in tuProlog. Science of Computer Programming, 57(2):217–250. Gelernter, D. (1985). Generative communication in Linda. ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, 7(1):80–112. Idelberger, F., Governatori, G., Riveret, R., and Sartor, G. (2016). Evaluation of logic-based smart contracts for blockchain systems. In Alferes, J. J., Bertossi, L., Governatori, G., Fodor, P., and Roman, D., editors, Rule Technologies. Research, Tools, and Applications, volume 9718 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 167–183. Springer. Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 52 / 56
  53. 53. References References IV Odell, J. (2002). Objects and agents compared. Journal of Object Technologies, 1(1):41–53. Omicini, A. and Denti, E. (2001). From tuple spaces to tuple centres. Science of Computer Programming, 41(3):277–294. Omicini, A. and Papadopoulos, G. A. (2001). Editorial: Why coordination models and languages in AI? Applied Artificial Intelligence: An International Journal, 15(1):1–10. Special Issue: Coordination Models and Languages in AI. Omicini, A., Ricci, A., and Viroli, M. (2006). Agens Faber: Toward a theory of artefacts for MAS. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, 150(3):21–36. 1st International Workshop “Coordination and Organization” (CoOrg 2005), COORDINATION 2005, Namur, Belgium, 22 April 2005. Proceedings. Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 53 / 56
  54. 54. References References V Omicini, A., Ricci, A., and Viroli, M. (2008). Artifacts in the A&A meta-model for multi-agent systems. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 17(3):432–456. Special Issue on Foundations, Advanced Topics and Industrial Perspectives of Multi-Agent Systems. Omicini, A. and Viroli, M. (2011). Coordination models and languages: From parallel computing to self-organisation. The Knowledge Engineering Review, 26(1):53–59. Special Issue 01 (25th Anniversary Issue). Rao, A. S. (1996). AgentSpeak(L): BDI agents speak out in a logical computable language. In Van de Velde, W. and Perram, J. W., editors, Agents Breaking Away. 7th European Workshop on Modelling Autonomous Agents in a Multi-Agent World, MAAMAW ’96 Eindhoven, The Netherlands, January 22–25, 1996 Proceedings, pages 42–55, Berlin, Heidelberg. Springer. Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 54 / 56
  55. 55. References References VI Rao, A. S. and Georgeff, M. P. (1995). BDI agents: From theory to practice. In Lesser, V. R. and Gasser, L., editors, 1st International Conference on Multi Agent Systems (ICMAS 1995), pages 312–319, San Francisco, CA, USA. The MIT Press. Rossi, D., Cabri, G., and Denti, E. (2001). Tuple-based technologies for coordination. In Omicini, A., Zambonelli, F., Klusch, M., and Tolksdorf, R., editors, Coordination of Internet Agents. Models, Technologies, and Applications, chapter 4, pages 83–109. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Seijas, P. L., Thompson, S., and McAdams, D. (2017). Scripting smart contracts for distributed ledger technology. Report 2017/1156, IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive. Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 55 / 56
  56. 56. Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Research Perspectives Andrea Omicini andrea.omicini@unibo.it Giovanni Ciatto giovanni.ciatto@unibo.it Keynote @ BCT4MAS 2018 Santiago, Cile – 3 December 2018 Omicini with Ciatto (BCT4MAS 2018) Blockchain for Intelligent Systems Santiago, Cile, 3/12/2018 56 / 56

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