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Finalreport

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Google's Drivereless car report

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Finalreport

  1. 1. Google Driverless Car Dept. of ISE 2014-2015 Page 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The system combines information gathered from Google street view with artificial intelligence software that combines input from video camera inside the car, a LIDAR sensor on the top of the vehicle, RADAR sensors on the front of the vehicle and a position sensor attached to one of the rear wheel that helps to locate the car position on the map. At the same time some hardware components are used in the car these are APPIANIX PCS, VELODYNE, SWITCH, TOPCON, REAR MONITOR, COMPUTER, ROUTER, FAN, INVERTER and BATTERY along with some software program is installed in it. By all the components combined together to operate the car without the DRIVER. i.e., the car drives itself only. Figure 1.1 Driverless Car 1.1 Overview The overview of this project is to implement a driverless car is an autonomous vehicle that can drive itself from one point to another without assistance from a driver. One of the main impetuses behind the call for driverless cars is safety. An autonomous vehicle is fundamentally defined as a passenger vehicle. An autonomous vehicle is also referred to as an autopilot, driverless car, auto-drive car, or automated guided vehicle (AGV).
  2. 2. Dept. of ISE Most prototypes that have been sensing the painted lines in theroad or 1.2 Purpose Purpose of the current work is to study and analyze the driverless car technology. This mobilityis usually taken for granted by most people and they realize that transportation forms basis of our civilization. The need for a more efficient, balanced and safer transportation system isobvious. This need can be best met by the implementation of autonomous transportation systems. 1.3 Scope Current work focuses on how to use the Future Car Technology That's On the Road Today. Inthe future, automated system will help to avoid accidents and reduce congestion. The futurevehicles will be capable of determining the best route and warn each other about the cond ahead. Many companies and institutions working together in countless projects in order to implement the intelligent vehicles and transportation networks of the future. Google Driverless Car 2014-2015 been built so far performed automatic steering that or magnetic monorails embedded in the road. Purpose of the current work is to study and analyze the driverless car technology. This mobilityis usually taken for granted by most people and they realize that transportation forms our civilization. The need for a more efficient, balanced and safer transportation system be best met by the implementation of autonomous transportation systems. Figure 1.2 Driverless Car focuses on how to use the Future Car Technology That's On the Road Today. Inthe future, automated system will help to avoid accidents and reduce congestion. The futurevehicles will be capable of determining the best route and warn each other about the cond Many companies and institutions working together in countless projects in order to implement the intelligent vehicles and transportation networks of the future. Google Driverless Car Page 2 that were based on Purpose of the current work is to study and analyze the driverless car technology. This mobilityis usually taken for granted by most people and they realize that transportation forms the our civilization. The need for a more efficient, balanced and safer transportation system be best met by the implementation of autonomous transportation systems. focuses on how to use the Future Car Technology That's On the Road Today. Inthe future, automated system will help to avoid accidents and reduce congestion. The futurevehicles will be capable of determining the best route and warn each other about the conditions Many companies and institutions working together in countless projects in order to
  3. 3. Google Driverless Car Dept. of ISE 2014-2015 Page 3 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY A driverless car is an autonomous vehicle that can drive itself from one point to another without assistance from a driver. Some believe that autonomous vehicles have the potential to transform the transportation industry while virtually eliminating accidents and cleaning up the environment. According to urban designer and futurist Michael E. Arth, driverless electricvehicles—in conjunction with the increased use of virtual reality for work, travel, and pleasure— could reduce the world's 800,000,000 vehicles to a fraction of that number within a few decades. Arth claims that this would be possible if almost all private cars requiring drivers, which are not in use and parked 90% of the time, would be traded for public self-driving taxis that would be in near constant use. This would also allow for getting the appropriate vehicle for the particular need —a bus could come for a group of people, a limousine could come for a special night out, and aSegway could come for a short trip down thestreet for one person. Children could be chauffeured in supervised safety, DUIs would no longer exist, and 41,000 lives could be save death year in the U.S. alone. Driverless passenger car programs include the 800 million EC EUREKA Prometheus Project on autonomous vehicles (1987-1995), the 2getthere passenger vehicles (using the FROG-navigation technology) from the Netherlands, the ARGO research project from Italy, andthe DARPA Grand Challenge from the USA. For then wider application of artificial intelligence to automobiles smart cars. Most autonomous vehicle projects made use of stock cars and modified them adding “smart” hardware to create automated cars. The advantage of using stock cars is the ease of obtaining the car through sponsors. The stocks cars help convey the message autonomous vehicles are not science fiction anymore and these systems can be implemented on normal cars. “Google’s Driverless Car Draws Political Power: Internet Giant Hones Its Lobbying Skills in State Capitols; Giving Test Drives to Lawmakers”, WSJ, 12 October 2012: Overall, Google spent nearly $9 million in the first half of 2012 lobbying in Washington for a wide variety of issues, including speaking to U.S. Department of Transportation officials and lawmakers about autonomous vehicle technology, according to federal records, nearing the $9.68
  4. 4. Google Driverless Car Dept. of ISE 2014-2015 Page 4 million it spent on lobbying in all of 2011. It is unclear how much Google has spent in total on lobbying state officials; the company doesn’t disclose such data. In most states, autonomous vehicles are neither prohibited nor permitted-a key reason why Google’s fleet of autonomous cars secretly drove more than 100,000 miles on the road before the company announced the initiative in fall 2010. Last month, Mr. Brin said he expects self-driving cars to be publicly available within five years. In January 2011, Mr. Goldwater approached Ms. Dondero Loop and the Nevada assembly transportation committee about proposing a bill to direct the state’s department of motor vehicles to draft regulations around the self-driving vehicles. “We’re not saying, ‘Put this on the road,’” he said he told the lawmakers. “We’re saying, ‘This is legitimate technology,’ and we’re letting the DMV test it and certify it.” Following the Nevada bill’s passage, legislators from other states began showing interest in similar legislation. So Google repeated its original recipe and added an extra ingredient: giving lawmakers the chance to ride in one of its about a dozen self-driving cars…In California, an autonomous-vehicle bill became law last month despite opposition from the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers, which includes 12 top auto makers such as GM, BMW and Toyota. The group had approved of the Florida bill. Dan Gage, a spokesman for the group, said the California legislation would allow companies and individuals to modify existing vehicles with self-driving technology that could be faulty, and that auto makers wouldn’t be legally protected from resulting lawsuits. “They’re not all Google, and they could convert our vehicles in a manner not intended,” Mr. Gage said. But Google helped push the bill through after spending about $140,000 over the past year to lobby legislators and California agencies, according to public records. As with California’s recently enacted law, Cheh’s [Washington D.C.] bill requires that a licensed driver be present in the driver’s seat of these vehicles. While seemingly inconsequential, this effectively outlaws one of the more promising functions of autonomous vehicle technology: allowing disabled people to enjoy the personal mobility that most people take for granted. Google highlighted this benefit when one of its driverless cars drove a legally blind man to a Taco Bell. Bizarrely, Cheh’s bill also requires that autonomous vehicles operate only on alternative fuels. While the Google Self-Driving Car may manifest itself as an eco-conscious Prius, self- driving vehicle technology has nothing to do with hybrids, plug-in electrics or vehicles fueled with natural gas. The technology does not depend on vehicle make or model, but Cheh is seeking to
  5. 5. Google Driverless Car Dept. of ISE 2014-2015 Page 5 mandate as much. That could delay the technology’s widespread adoption for no good reason. Another flaw in Cheh’s bill is that it would impose a special tax on drivers of autonomous vehicles. Instead of paying fuel taxes, “Owners of autonomous vehicles shall pay a vehicle-miles travelled (VMT) fee of 1.875 cents per mile.” Administrative details aside, a VMT tax would require drivers to install a recording device to be periodically audited by the government. There may be good reasons to replace fuel taxes with VMT fees, but greatly restricting the use of a potentially revolutionary new technology by singling it out for a new tax system would be a mistake. The State of Nevada has adopted one policy approach to dealing with these technical and policy issues. At the urging of Google, a new Nevada law directs the Nevada Department of Motor Vehicles (NDMV) to issue regulations for the testing and possible licensing of autonomous vehicles and for licensing the owners/drivers of these vehicles. There is also a similar law being proposed in California with details not covered by Nevada AB 511. This paper evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the Nevada and California approaches Another problem posed by the non-computer world is that human drivers frequently bend the rules by rolling through stop signs and driving above speed limits. How does a polite and law- abiding robot vehicle act in these situations? To solve this problem, the Google Car can be programmed for different driving personalities, mirroring the current conditions. On one end, it would be cautious, being more likely to yield to another car and strictly following the laws on the road. At the other end of the spectrum, the robot car would be aggressive, where it is more likely to go first at the stop sign. When going through a four-way intersection, for example, it yields to other vehicles based on road rules; but if other cars don’t reciprocate, it advances a bit to show to the other drivers its intention. However, there is a time period between a problem being diagnosed and the car being fixed. In theory, one would disable the vehicle remotely and only start it back up when the problem is fixed. However in reality, this would be extremely disruptive to a person’s life as they would have to tow their vehicle to the nearest mechanic or autonomous vehicle equivalent to solve the issue. Google has not developed the technology to approach this problem, instead relying on the human driver to take control of the vehicle if there is ever a problem in their test vehicles this can create particularly tricky situations such as deciding whether the police should have the right to pull over autonomous vehicles, a question yet to be answered. Even the chief counsel of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration admits that the federal government does not have enough information to determine how to regulate driverless technologies.
  6. 6. Google Driverless Car Dept. of ISE 2014-2015 Page 6 CHAPTER 3 HISTORY The Sebastian Thrun was invented the Google driverless car. He was director of the Stanford Artificial Intelligence laboratory. Sebastian friends were killed in car accident, so that he decided there should not be any accidents on the road by car. By that decision only the Google Driverless car was invented. Figure 1.1 Sebastian Thrun ”Our goal is to help prevent traffic accidents, free up people’s time and reduce carbon emission by fundamentally changing car use”-Sebastian Thrun.The Google Driverless car was tested in the year 2010; Google has tested several vehicles equipped with the system, driving 1,609 kilometers (1,000 mi) without any human intervention, in addition to 225,308 kilometers (140,000 mi) with occasional human intervention. Google expects that the increased accuracy of its automated driving system could help reduce the number of traffic-related injuries and deaths, while using energy and space on roadways more efficiently. It was introduced in oct-2010 and it becomes legal in Nevada at June 2011, August 2012- Accident. The project team has equipped a test fleet of at least eight vehicles. The car has traversed San Francisco's Lombard Street, famed for its steep hairpin turns and through city traffic. The vehicles have driven over the Golden Gate Bridge and on the Pacific Coast Highway, and have circled Lake Tahoe. The system drives at the speed limit it has stored on its maps and maintains its distance from other vehicles using its system of sensors. The system provides an override that allows a human driver to take control of the car by stepping on the brake or turning the wheel, similar to cruise control systems already in cars.
  7. 7. Google Driverless Car Dept. of ISE 2014-2015 Page 7 CHAPTER 4 COMPONENTS 4.1LIDAR SENSOR The LIDAR (Light detection and Ranging) sensor is a scanner. It will rotate in the circle. It is fixed on the top of the car. In the scanner contains the 64 lasers that are send surroundings of the car through the air. These the laser is hits objects around the car and again comes back to it. By these known How far that objects are from the car and also it calculates the time to reach that object. These are can see in monitor in a 3D object with the map. The monitor is fixed in front seat. “The heart of the system generates a detailed 3D map of environment (velodyne 64- beam laser). The map accessed from the GPRS connection. Figure 4.1 Lidar sensor For example , that a person was crossing the road, the LIDAR sensor will reorganized by sending the lasers in to the air as waves and waves are disturbed these it identify as some object was crossing and by these the car will be slow down. Figure 4.1 Road
  8. 8. Google Driverless Car Dept. of ISE 2014-2015 Page 8 4.2 RADAR SENSOR Figure 4.2 Radar Sensor The three RADAR sensors were fixed in front of the bumper and one in the rear bumper. These will measures the distance to various obstacles and allow the system to reduce the speed of the car. The back side of sensor will locates the position of the car on the map. Figure 4.2 Front and Back side of the road For example, when the car was travelling on the road then RADAR sensor was projected on road from front and back side of the car. 4.3 VIDEO CAMERA The video camera was fixed near the rear view mirror. That will detect traffic lights and any moving objects front of the car. For example if any vehicle or traffic detected then the car will be slow down automatically, these all will be done by the artificial intelligence software only.
  9. 9. Google Driverless Car Dept. of ISE 2014-2015 Page 9 Figure 4.3 Video Camera By that the computer will recognize moving obstacles like pedestrians and bicyclists. Its position on the map. The position of the car can be seen on the monitor. 4.4 POSITION ESTIMATOR Figure 4.4 Position Estimator A sensor mounted on the left rear wheel. By these sensor only measures small movements made by the car and helps to accurately locate its position on the map. The position of the car can be seen on the monitor.
  10. 10. Google Driverless Car Dept. of ISE 2014-2015 Page 10 CHAPTER 5 IMPLEMENTATION 5.1 How does it Work…? The “driver” sets a destination. The car’s software calculates a route and starts the car on its way. A rotating, roof-mounted LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging - a technology similar to radar) sensor monitors a 60-meter range around the car and creates a dynamic 3D map of the car’s current environment. A sensor on the left rear wheel monitors sideways movement to detect the car’s position relative to the 3-D map. Radar systems in the front and rear bumpers calculate distances to obstacles. Artificial intelligence (AI) software in the car is connected to all the sensors and has input from Google Street View and video cameras inside the car. The Department of Motor Vehicles must set safety regulations by the start of 2015 Automakers must get their self-driving cars approved by the DMV. Drivers must get a special permit from the DMV to operate the self-driving cars. People must sit behind the wheel of the cars in case a real live driver is suddenly needed. Figure 5.1 Working
  11. 11. Google Driverless Car Dept. of ISE 2014-2015 Page 11 CHAPTER 6 APPLICATIONS • The greater precision of an automatic system could improve traffic flow. • It would eliminate accidents caused by driver error. • Increasing roadway capacity by reducing the distances between cars. • The current location of vehicle can be determined using global positioning system (G.P.S). • Dramatically increases highway capacity and reduce or eliminate traffic jams. • Time will be saved in the traffic. • The car itself park at the parking area. • No license will be needed for driver because it is self-driver.
  12. 12. Google Driverless Car Dept. of ISE 2014-2015 Page 12 CHAPTER 7 LIMITATIONS • If the vehicle is using internet which is have less security then from the hackers point of view in some cases the vehicle can be switched off on the road(in rare cases). • Hackers can change the rout which is plotted in the system (in rare cases). • In case of failure of main sensor and backup sensors the vehicle can create a chance of accident. • The cost of car is high. • By coming Google driverless car into the market so many taxi drivers can lose their jobs.
  13. 13. Google Driverless Car Dept. of ISE 2014-2015 Page 13 CHAPTER 8 PREDICTIONS ABOUT THE FUTURE OF DRIVERLESS CAR In a few short decades, new automotive technology might eliminate the need for drivers to wait at red lights. It may eliminate the need for steering wheels. It may even eliminate the need for drivers to carry licenses. Those are some of the bold predictions coming from members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, which predicts that 3 of 4 cars on the road will be driverless by 2040. Figure 8.1 Driverless Car "Over the next 28 years, use of more automated technologies will spark a snowball effect of acceptance and driverless vehicles will dominate the road," says Jeffrey Miller, an IEEE member and associate professor at the University of Alaska Anchorage.
  14. 14. Google Driverless Car Dept. of ISE 2014-2015 Page 14 He notes that such technologies are already seeping into the mainstream market, including parallel parking assist, automatic braking and even the seemingly antiquated cruise control. Handing over the entire scope of driving duties is another matter, but already, programs such as Google's driverless car have completed 300,000 miles of accident-free driving and California, Nevada and Florida have passed laws that allow autonomous vehicles on their roads. Other predictions about the future of driverless cars from the IEEE: No drivers' licenses will be needed. Since people of all ages and abilities can use these vehicles, no specific driver certifications are needed. "People do not need a license to sit on a train or bus," said Dr. AzimEskandarian, director of the Center for Intelligent Systems Research. " ... So there will not be any special requirements for drivers or occupants to use the vehicle as a form of transportation." Car-sharing programs will become more main stream. They'll take you to your destination and then be readied for another occupant. "Since cars today are parked for more than 90 percent of their lifetime, shred car services will promote more continuous movement, garner more efficient operation and use less gas," said Dr. Alberto Broggi, IEEE senior member. Infrastructure won't be prohibitive. Existing roads can already handle the advent of autonomous vehicles. No major overhaul is needed. Broggi directed a project in 2010 that led two driverless cars to complete an 8,000-mile trip between Italy and Shanghai. Say farewell to red lights and stop signs. Once cars are driverless, intersections will be equipped with sensors, cameras and radar that controls traffic flow. That will not only end collisions, but promote fuel-efficient flow of traffic. High-Occupancy Vehicle lanes might be replaced by Driverless Car lanes, which would not only promote autonomous travel, but help driverless cars travel both more safely and faster, reaching speeds of perhaps 100 mph by 2040.
  15. 15. Google Driverless Car Dept. of ISE 2014-2015 Page 15 CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION It is so useful for the humans when driving the car. By the Google driverless car can avoid the accidents on the roads and can reduce the traffic time at the traffic signals, can prevent the drinking driving on the roads. The car itself can driver at night times also. At the same time so many taxi drivers can lose their jobs. The driver less car’s technologies improves vehicles stability helps to minimize loss of control. Driver less cars are designed to minimize accidents by addressing the main causes of collisions: • Driving error • Distraction • Drowsiness
  16. 16. Google Driverless Car Dept. of ISE 2014-2015 Page 16 REFERENCES • [1] Chea, T. California governor signs driverless cars bill [Internet]. The Associated Press; 2012 Sep 26 [cited 2013 Feb 2]. Available from:http://news.yahoo.com/california-governor-signs-driverless-cars-bill-225332278– finance.html • [2] United States Department of Energy. 2005 Compare Side by Side: Fuel Economy [Internet]. Environmental Protection Agency; 2005 [cited 2013 March 2]. Available from: http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/Find.do?action=sbs&id=20934 • [3] United States Department of Energy. 2013 Most and Least Efficient Cars [Internet]. Environmental Protection Agency; 2013 April 11 [cited 2013 March 1]. Available from: http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/best/bestworstNF.shtml • [4] Newman, G. A Future Filled with Driverless Cars [Internet]. Insurance Journal; 2013 Feb 11 [cited 2013 Mar 2]. Available from:http://www.insurancejournal.com/magazines/features/2013/02/11/280151.htm • [5] Odest Jenkins. 2013. March 26. • [6] Bertam, M., Jenkins, O., & Littman, M. Interviewed by Peseri, Alexandra. 2013. April 11. • [7] Use patterns among early adopters of adaptive cruise control.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23156618 • [8] Marcus, G. Moral Machines [Internet]. The New Yorker; 2012 Nov 27[cited 2013 April 15] 2012 Nov 27. Available from:http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/newsdesk/2012/11/google-driverless-car-morality.html • [9] Wikipedia. Ernst Dickmanns [Internet]. Wikipedia; 2013 Mar 13 [cited 2013 April 11]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernst_Dickmanns • [10] Mariacher, E. 3 driverless cars trends in 2012 [Internet]. Blogger; 2013. Jan 2 [cited 2013 April 13]. Available from: http://driverless-cars.blogspot.com/2013/01/3-driverless-cars-trends-in- 2012.html#.UWoAenCrJ0o

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