Module I - Introduction
<ul><li>MODULE – 1 : INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Five chapters </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic Features </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>MODULE I  </li></ul><ul><li>CHAPTER 1 : DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES </li></ul>Trends in Population Growth Causes of Popul...
<ul><li>INDIA HAS 2.4% OF THE WORLD SUEFACE AREA </li></ul><ul><li>BUT IT HAS 17.5% OF WORLD POPULATION </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Trends in population growth </li></ul>1175 million by 2010; 1331 million by 2020; 2050 most populous country BEFOR...
<ul><li>Causes of Population Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Survival rate = B.R – D.R. </li></ul>High B.R  Falling D.R. Universa...
<ul><li>Demographic Features </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of Growth  :  almost 2% p.a.IN 2011, 1.64% </li></ul><ul><li>Age Compo...
<ul><li>Government Measures </li></ul><ul><li>INDIA, pioneer in population control…………. </li></ul><ul><li>Population polic...
<ul><li>1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive measures were withdrawn. </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare measures were included like cre...
<ul><li>NATIONAL COMMISSION ON POPULATION WAS SET UP TO REVIEW IMPLEMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>PROMOTIONAL INCENTIVES  WE...
Chp.2 Poverty Module 1 Concept and extent (incidence) Causes Poverty alleviation & It’s critical evaluation
<ul><li>Concept of poverty </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank  : ‘inability of people to attain a </li></ul><ul><li>minimum stan...
<ul><li>Extent or incidence of Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Planning commission under 55 th  round of NSSO, population below ...
<ul><li>steady decline </li></ul><ul><li>Number of poor is more </li></ul><ul><li>Rural urban disparity </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>NSSO 61 st  round, in 2004-05, as per Uniform Recall Period (URP), 28%. URP- consumption expenditure on all items ...
<ul><li>CAUSES OF POVERTY </li></ul><ul><li>low per capita income ( 1.5%) </li></ul><ul><li>High growth rate of population...
<ul><li>Poverty Alleviation Programme </li></ul><ul><li>Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojna (JGSY) April 1999  – in place of JRY ...
<ul><li>Swarnajayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojna (SSRY) 1997  –self employment for urban unemployed on 75:25 basis. 1) urban sel...
<ul><li>Antyodaya Anna Yojna (AAY) 25 th  Dec 2000  – subsidized rate of Rs. 3/- per kg for rice & Rs. 2/- per kg for whea...
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Population

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Population

  1. 1. Module I - Introduction
  2. 2. <ul><li>MODULE – 1 : INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Five chapters </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic Features </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Income Inequality </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization & </li></ul><ul><li>it’s effects </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>MODULE I </li></ul><ul><li>CHAPTER 1 : DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES </li></ul>Trends in Population Growth Causes of Population growth 1) causes of high B.R. 2) causes of falling D.R. Demographic Profile or Features of India Government Measures
  4. 4. <ul><li>INDIA HAS 2.4% OF THE WORLD SUEFACE AREA </li></ul><ul><li>BUT IT HAS 17.5% OF WORLD POPULATION </li></ul><ul><li>MARCH 1 st , 2011 INDIAN POPULATION WAS 121 CRORE </li></ul><ul><li>INDIA = USA+BRAZIL+PAKISTAN+INDONESIA+JAPAN </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Trends in population growth </li></ul>1175 million by 2010; 1331 million by 2020; 2050 most populous country BEFORE 1921 AFTER 1921 AFTER INDEPENDENCE Census survey 2011 Census Year Annual Growth Rate in % (over a decade) 1911 0.56 1921 - 0.03 1931 1.06 1941 1.34 1951 1.26 1961 1.93 1971 2.24 1981 2.28 1991 2.14 2001 1.93 2011 1.64 Census year Population in million 1901 238.40 1911 252.09 1921 251.32 1931 278.98 1941 318.66 1951 361.09 1961 439.23 1971 548.16 1981 683.33 1991 846.42 2001 1028.74 2011 1210.19
  6. 6. <ul><li>Causes of Population Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Survival rate = B.R – D.R. </li></ul>High B.R Falling D.R. Universal marriage, early marriage, agriculture, Poverty, illiteracy, customs, slow urbanization medical advancement, better Transport & communication, high Income, more literacy, economic Growth. year Population crores Birth Rate (per 1000) Death Rate (per 1000) 1951 36.1 39.9 27.4 1961 43.9 40.9 22.8 1971 54.82 41.1 18.9 1981 68.52 33.3 12.5 1991 84.63 29.5 9.8 2001 102.70 25.8 8.5 2009 121 22.5 7.8
  7. 7. <ul><li>Demographic Features </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of Growth : almost 2% p.a.IN 2011, 1.64% </li></ul><ul><li>Age Composition : 50% below 25, more than 65% below 35 </li></ul><ul><li>only 4.7% above 70 yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Density of Population : no. of persons living per sq. km.- 383 </li></ul><ul><li>Bihar 1102 & A.P. only 17 </li></ul><ul><li>4) Sex composition : No. of females per thousand males 940 </li></ul><ul><li>5) Rural- Urban population : rural 72%, urban 28% </li></ul><ul><li>6) Life Expectancy : Average expected life at the time of birth </li></ul><ul><li>1951 – 32 years; current– 64 years. </li></ul><ul><li>7) Literacy Rate: total – 74%, male- 82.14%, female- 65.46% </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Government Measures </li></ul><ul><li>INDIA, pioneer in population control…………. </li></ul><ul><li>Population policy launched in 1952; Family Planning Programme . </li></ul><ul><li>50’s </li></ul><ul><li>FPP : through clinics, information & medical facilities </li></ul><ul><li>60’s </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Family Planning was established under ministry </li></ul><ul><li>Of health, family planning & urban development </li></ul><ul><li>Extension approach was adopted </li></ul><ul><li>Expenditure was increased </li></ul><ul><li>Target oriented FPP </li></ul><ul><li>70’s </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed at bringing down B.R. to 25 from 39 </li></ul><ul><li>Birth control was integrated with better sanitation, nutrition & health facilities </li></ul><ul><li>1976 </li></ul><ul><li>Shift in policy from voluntary birth control to coercive </li></ul><ul><li>Zilla parishads, village panchayats , co-operatives & voluntary agencies were involved </li></ul><ul><li>All state govt. passed legislations for compulsory sterilization </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage age for girls from 15 to 18 & for boys from 18 to 21 </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive measures were withdrawn. </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare measures were included like creating awareness amongst people, medical facilities </li></ul><ul><li>90’s </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed at BR to 26 from 30 </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives have been offered, family planning is people’s programme </li></ul><ul><li>NATIONAL POPULATION POLICY 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVE: TO IMPROVE HEALTH SERVICES </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIUM TERM OBJ.: BR TO 21 BY 2010 & TOTAL FERTILITY RATR OF 2.1 </li></ul><ul><li>LONG TERM OBJECTIVE: STABILIZE POPULATION BY 2045 </li></ul><ul><li>TARGETS OF NPP 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing maternal mortality rate below 100 per one- lakh live births </li></ul><ul><li>Providing information & counseling without discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Infant mortality to below 30 per thousand </li></ul><ul><li>Universal immunization of children </li></ul><ul><li>Delaying marriage age of girls to beyond 20 years </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention & control of all communicable diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Creating awareness about small family </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating social welfare with family planning </li></ul><ul><li>School education upto 14 years free & compulsory </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment of women through more employment & health facilities </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>NATIONAL COMMISSION ON POPULATION WAS SET UP TO REVIEW IMPLEMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>PROMOTIONAL INCENTIVES WERE INTRODUCED </li></ul><ul><li>CRITICAL EVALUATION </li></ul><ul><li>No efforts taken to improve living standard of people </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently changing government policies </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate and misused funds </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate efforts for female literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Poor implementation in rural area </li></ul><ul><li>Less attractive incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of accountability on the part of government </li></ul>
  11. 11. Chp.2 Poverty Module 1 Concept and extent (incidence) Causes Poverty alleviation & It’s critical evaluation
  12. 12. <ul><li>Concept of poverty </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank : ‘inability of people to attain a </li></ul><ul><li>minimum standard of living’. </li></ul><ul><li>M.L.Dantwala : ‘the poor are those who live </li></ul><ul><li>below what is called –the poverty line’. </li></ul><ul><li>POVERTY LINE </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Commission: ‘ mid point of the monthly per capita expenditure class having a daily calorie intake of 2,400 per person in rural areas & 2100 per person in urban areas. </li></ul><ul><li>At 1984-85 prices – Rs.107/- for rural & Rs.122/- for urban </li></ul><ul><li>annual expenditure 6,400/- per family in rural & 7,200/-in urban </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Extent or incidence of Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Planning commission under 55 th round of NSSO, population below poverty line has reduced from 48.3% in 1977-78 to 26.1% in 1999-2000 i.e. from 328 million to 260.3 million out of which 3/4 th live in rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank estimation: 38.7% rural population & 30% of urban population below poverty line in 1993-94. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic survey 2003-04 </li></ul>year poverty ratios Rural urban combined number of poor (million) Rural urban combined 1977-78 53.1 45.2 51.3 264.3 64.6 328.9 1993-94 37.3 32.4 36.0 244.0 76.3 320.3 1999-00 27.1 23.6 26.1 193.2 67.1 260.3 2007 21.1 15.1 19.3 170.5 49.6 220.1
  14. 14. <ul><li>steady decline </li></ul><ul><li>Number of poor is more </li></ul><ul><li>Rural urban disparity </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-state disparity </li></ul><ul><li>PLANNING COMMISSION ESTIMATE </li></ul><ul><li>ECONOMIC SURVEY 2001-02 </li></ul>STATE COMBINED RURAL –URBAN POVERTY RATIO %1999-00 ORISSA 47.15 BIHAR 42.60 MADHYA PRADESH 37.43 SIKKIM 36.55 JAMMU & KASHMIR 3.48 GOA 4.40 PUNJAB 6.16
  15. 15. <ul><li>NSSO 61 st round, in 2004-05, as per Uniform Recall Period (URP), 28%. URP- consumption expenditure on all items for 30 days period </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>CAUSES OF POVERTY </li></ul><ul><li>low per capita income ( 1.5%) </li></ul><ul><li>High growth rate of population </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment, disguised and underemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Economic inequalities </li></ul><ul><li>Low growth of agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Illiteracy </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of infrastructural & industrial development </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative inefficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Social discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Underutilization of natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Low productivity </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Poverty Alleviation Programme </li></ul><ul><li>Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojna (JGSY) April 1999 – in place of JRY to creat durable productive community assets on 75:25 ratio basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojna ( SGSY) Apri; 1, 1999 - It aims in promoting micro enterprises & self-employment on 75:25 ratio basis. Forming SHGs of poor & motivate micro enterprises with combination of Govt. subsidy with bank credit. By Dec. 2010, 40.04 lakh SHGs, women SHGs, 68%. Rural Self employment training institute for youth of BPL. </li></ul><ul><li>Sampoorna Grameen Swarojgar Yojna (SGRY) 2001 – at sharing of 87.5: 12.5, generating 100 crores of mandays in a year. Also provision for rural assets and infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Unique Identification System (UID) –January 2009 under Unique Identification Authority of India Ltd. (UIDAI) Citizens establish their identity so get access to various benefit. Each one gets unique id num. after providing demographic & biometric details. Data stored at central database. Aims at covering 600 million by 2012. UIDAI now known as Aadhar Programme from Sep.2010, implementation by Nandan Nilankani. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Swarnajayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojna (SSRY) 1997 –self employment for urban unemployed on 75:25 basis. 1) urban self employment,2) urban women self employment 3) training 4) urban wage employment 5) urban community development </li></ul><ul><li>Indira Awaas Yojna (IAY) 1999-2000 - free dwellings to SC & ST families below poverty line on basis of 75:25 </li></ul><ul><li>Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna (PMGSY) – 25 th Dec.2000 road connectivity to 1.60 lakh inhabitants till 2007. executed in all states & union territories. 50% diesel cess is used to finance the scheme,additional assistance by WB </li></ul><ul><li>National Food for Works Yojna in Nov 2004 – covering 15 0 backward districts. Creation of productive assets </li></ul><ul><li>Annapurna 2000 – fully sponsored by central Govt. food security to senior citizens. 10 kg per person free foodgrains. 2002-03 transferred to state plan </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Antyodaya Anna Yojna (AAY) 25 th Dec 2000 – subsidized rate of Rs. 3/- per kg for rice & Rs. 2/- per kg for wheat for poor families in Targetted Public Distribution System. 25 kg per family to 35 kgs per family with effect from April 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojna (PMGY) 2000-01 – 5000/-crores allocated. Village development in case of health, primary education, drinking water, housing, rural roads </li></ul><ul><li>Walmiki Ambedkar Awaas Yojna (VAMBAY) 2 nd Dec.2001 – dwellings for urban poor (slum dwellers) , Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan – community toilets </li></ul><ul><li>National Food for Work Programme ( NFWP) Nov.14 th 2004 - in 150 backward districts, rural unskilled population 100% centrally sponsored </li></ul><ul><li>CRITICAL EVALUATION </li></ul><ul><li>WRONG IDENTIFICATION OF BENEFICIARIES, WRONG IDENTIFICATION OF ACTIVITIES, MANIPULATION OF MUSTER ROLLS, NEGLECTED SICK & DISABLE INDIVIDUALS, INADEQUATE INCOME, NEGLECTED OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS, BLIND TO SECONDARY POVERTY, POOR IMPLEMENTATION </li></ul>

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