• India & many other Countries are now passing
through the phase of Population explosion.
• This situation has arisen because Economic
development failed to maintain pace with population
• Rapid growth of population causes…….
Current Population of Gujarat in
2013 is 62,700,003
• Population problem is an inevitable result of
reproductive behavior of man.
• But theory of Demographic Transition rejects this
view, it talks about population explosion is result of
sudden spurt in the rate of population growth & a
rapid fall in the mortality rate.
• According to this theory every country passes through
THREE stages of Demographic Transition.
• In the first stage, both birth & death rates are high.
Hence, the population remains more or less stable.
• In backward economies where agriculture is main
occupation of the people…
• Mass population deprived of even basic necessities.
• A large number of people live on inadequate &
• Under these circumstances medical facilities are limited
this results in high mortality rate.
• Lack of education, superstitions social evils are cause of
high birth rate.
• The second stage is characterized by rapid growth of
population because despite substantial reduction in the
mortality rate there is no corresponding decline the
• With beginning the process of development….
• Government will make special efforts for medical
• These development generally bring down the mortality
• But the society might not have been changed.
• In this situation the population increases at an
• In the 2nd stage generally birth rate stays around 35 to
40 per thousand where as death rate comes down to
roughly 15 per thousand.
• Consequently population increases at an annual rate of
about 2 % or more.
• In the 3rd stage of demographic transition the birth rate
declines significantly & thus the rate of population
growth remains low.
• A country can hope to overcome the problem of
urbanization & education becomes widespread.
• In this situation birth rate declines from 35-40 to 15-20
• Once this happens to the country…..
India’s Population the
1. Absolute level of Population
Tim Dyson has estimated the population in 2026 at about
The UN’s recent “medium” projection puts the level of
population in 2051 at 165 crores & “high” projection puts
it at 196.4 crores
India may become the most populous country in the world
It might be only the country ever to contain 200 crore
2. Regional pattern
3. Fertility & Mortality
4. Double Burden of Disease
5. Urbanization projections
6. Consequences for economic growth
7. Pressure on environment
8. Political & administrative challenges
Causes for Rapid Growth of
Causes of decline in the Mortality Rate
Causes of high Birth Rate
1. Causes of decline in the Mortality Rate
I. Elimination of Famines
II. Control of epidemics & decline in the incidences
of malaria & tuberculosis
III. Other factors
– Supply of pure drinking water
– Sanitation & Hygiene
– Education & expanded medical facilitates
2. Causes of high Birth Rate
I. Economic Factors
1. Predominance of agriculture
2. Slow urbanization process
II. Social Factors
Near universality of marriage
Lower age at the time of marriage
Religious & social superstitions
Lack of education
Remedies for Population
• Three fold measures:
3.The Family Planning Measures
1. Economic Measures
I. Expansion of the industrial sector
II. Creation of employment opportunities
III. Equitable distribution of income
2. Social Measures
2. Improving the Status of women
3. Raising the minimum age of Marriage
3.The Family Planning
1. Public Information Programme
2. Incentives & Disincentives
3. Family Planning Centers