Unemployment & urbanisation

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Unemployment & urbanisation

  1. 1. <ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul>Types Extent Causes Effects measures
  2. 2. <ul><li>Types of unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>1) Involuntary / open unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>2) Voluntary unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>3) Seasonal unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>4) Frictional unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>5) Cyclical unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>6) Structural unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>7) Technological unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>8) Disguised unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>9) Educated unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>10) Chronic unemployment </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Extent of Unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Usual status: unemployed for the major part of the year, chronic </li></ul><ul><li>Weekly status: no work even for 1 hour during survey week </li></ul><ul><li>Daily status: unemployment for a day (>4hrs) or few days in survey time. </li></ul><ul><li>according to PC, fully employed person is the one with work of 273 days and 8 hours per day in a year. </li></ul><ul><li>64 th survey round of NSSO , during 2007-08; </li></ul>Economic survey 2010-11 STATUS % RURAL UNEMP.RT % URBAN UNEMP.RT. USUAL 2.2 4.5 CURRENT WEEKLY 3.9 5.0 CURRENT DAILY 8.4 7.4
  4. 4. <ul><li>MAGNITUDE OF UNEMPLOYMENT (CDS) </li></ul>ECONOMIC SURVEY: 07-08 MALE-FEMALE UNEMPLOYMENT RT. IN (%) BY UPS ECONOMIC SURVEY 2005-06 & 2006-07 UNEMPLOYMENT RATE AS A PERCENTAGE OF LABOUR FORCE ON CDS BASIS IN THE AGE GROUP OF 15-29 HAS INCREASED FROM 10.1 IN 1993-94 TO 12.1 IN 1999-00 YEAR NO. OF UNEMP.(MILLION) RT. AS PROPORTION OF LABOUR FORCE (%) 1993-94 20.27 6.06 2004-05 34.74 8.28 YEAR RURAL MALE FEMALE URBAN MALE FEMALE 1993-94 2.0 1.4 4.5 8.3 2004-05 2.1 3.1 4.4 9.1
  5. 5. Causes of rural unemployment. urban unemployment. Population, population pressure on land, Outdated methods of production,decline Of village industries, poverty, shortage of Capital, joint family system, sub-division & fragmentation of land Population, migration, more no. Of educated, industrial sickness, New technology, slow industrialization, inadequate Inputs, lack of labour mobility
  6. 6. <ul><li>Effects of unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>ECONOMIC SOCIAL </li></ul>Wastage of human resources, low Income, Low savings, low capital formation, low living standard, low labor productivity, Wide gap between rich & poor, class conflicts, social unrest, More illegal activities. Govt. measures <ul><li>Sampoorna Gramin Rojgar Yojna 2001 – rural areas, wages paid in </li></ul><ul><li>cash & foodgrain. Cash component share 75:25; foodgrain 100%. </li></ul><ul><li>2) National Rural employment Gurantee Programme february 2006 – </li></ul><ul><li>infrastructural projects; rural employment of not less than 100 days. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Jai Prakash Rojgar Gurantee Yojna – employment in most distressed </li></ul><ul><li>districts. </li></ul><ul><li>Other measures </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of vocational education 2)infrastructural improvement </li></ul><ul><li>3) liberalization, Privatization, Globalization </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>MODULE 1 CHP. 5: URBANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>URBAN AREAS………. </li></ul><ul><li>PLACES WHICH HAVE A MUNICIPALITY, CORPORATION, CANTONMENT BOARD OR A NOTIFIED AREA. </li></ul><ul><li>OTHER AREAS WITH – MINIMUM POPULATION 5000 </li></ul><ul><li>- DENSITY 400 PERSONS PER SQUARE KM. </li></ul><ul><li>- 75% MALE IN NON-AGRO ACTIVITIES. </li></ul>SLOW URBANIZATION - 1901, 11% urban population & 2001, 27.8% year as % of population - rural urban % 1901 89.0 11.0 1951 82.7 17.3 1961 82.0 18.0 1991 74.3 25.7 2001 72.2 27.8
  8. 8. <ul><li>Number of cities with more than 1 million </li></ul><ul><li>Population 23 in 1991 to 35 in 2001 </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Urbanization: urban population: 30% of total population (2010) rate of urbanization: 2.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>Positive effects negative effects </li></ul><ul><li>Development 1) slums </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization & more GDP 2) poverty, unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Job opportunities 3) social unrest </li></ul><ul><li>More economies of scale 4) labor scarcity in rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>reduces social friction </li></ul>

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