Jaina philosophy


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Jaina philosophy

  2. 2. The unity of moral and spiritual outlook among the system.<br />
  3. 3. The practical motive present in all systems.<br />
  4. 4. Permissions in Indian philosophy is initial, not final.<br />The attitude of mind which looks at the dark side of things is known as permission.<br />
  5. 5. The essence of Buddha’s enlightenment-the four noble truths-sum ups and voices the real view of every Indian school in this respect; namely : There is suffering.-There is a cause of suffering.-There is cessation of suffering. There is a way to attain it . Pessimism in the Indian systems is only initial and final.<br />
  6. 6. The belief in an ‘ eternal moral order in the universe.<br />“an eternal moral order” dominates the entire history of Indian philosophy, barring the solitary exception of the Carvaka materialist.<br />
  7. 7. The Law of Karma<br />The word Karma means both this law and also the force generated by an action and having the potency of bearing fruit. Karma in second scene is variously classified. <br />
  8. 8. Kinds of Karma<br />According to one principle, karmas are broadly divided into (a) those which have not begun to bear fruits (anarabdha karma), and (b) those which have already begun to bear fruits like the present body and its accompaniment (arabdha or prarabdha karma).<br />
  9. 9. The universe as the moral stage.<br />
  10. 10. Ignorance is the cause of bondage and knowledge is necessary for liberation.<br />
  11. 11. Continued meditation on truths learnt is needed to remove deep-rooted false beliefs.<br />
  12. 12. Self-control is needed to remove passions that obstruct concentration and good conduct.<br />
  13. 13. Self-control implies the bringing of the lower self under the control of the higher.<br />
  14. 14. It does not kill the natural impulses, but trains them to be yoke of reason.<br />
  15. 15. Morality is not merely negative, but needs the cultivation of positive virtues.<br />
  16. 16. Belief in the possibility of liberation is common to the systems. Liberation is regarded as the highest good.<br />
  17. 17. THE JAINA PHILOSOPHY<br />The Jainas recount the names of twenty four teachers (tirthankaras) through whom their faith is believed to have come down from unknown antiquity. The first of these teachers was Rsabhadeva. The last was Vardhamana, also styled Mahavira.<br />The word “Jina” etymologically means a conqueror.<br />
  18. 18. The Jainas believe that every spirit (jiva), that is in bondage now can follow the example set by the Jainas and attain, like them, perfect knowledge power and joy.<br />
  19. 19. The two sets of jainism-svetambara & digambara<br />In course of time the followers of Jainism were divided into two sects well known now as the Svetambaras and the Digambaras.<br />
  20. 20. DIGAMBARAS V/S SVETAMBARAS<br />DIGAMBARAS<br />SVETAMBARAS<br />More rigorous & puritanic<br />According to them ascetics should give up all possessions, even clothes.<br />In their views, a saint who has obtained perfect knowledge needs no food, and women cannot obtain liberation (without being once more as men)<br />More accommodating to the common frailties of men.<br />According to them they should put on clothes.<br />The Svetambaras do not accept these views<br />
  21. 21. JAINAS LITERATURE<br />The philosophical outlook of Jainism is common-sense realism and pluralism. The objects perceived by us are real, and they are many. The world consists of two kinds of reality, living and non-living.<br />
  22. 22. THE PHILOSOPHICAL OUTLOOK OF JAINISM <br />Every living being has a spirit or a soul (jiva), however imperfect its body may be.<br />
  23. 23. THE JAINAS THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE<br />Consciousness is the essence of every soul according to the Jainas; it is not, a the Carvakas hold, a mere accidental property, arising only under some property conditions.<br />It manifests itself and other objects.<br />
  24. 24. IMMEDIATE & MEDIATE KNOWLEDGE<br />Like other thinkers, the Jainas admit the twofold classification of knowledge into immediate and mediate (aparoksa and paroksa).<br />Perception of external or internal objects through the senses (indriya) or mind (manas) is immediate as compared with inference.<br />
  25. 25. Two kinds of immediate knowledge, ordinary immediate and really immediate.<br />Three kinds of really immediate knowledge-avadhi, manah-paryaya and kevala.<br />
  26. 26. THE CARVAKA VIEW CRITICISED<br />Perception is the only source of valid knowledge.<br />Inference is not invalid. Even the Carvaka theory presupposes inference.<br />
  27. 27. QUESTION TO CARVAKA<br />They ask if a Carvaka were called upon to show why even perception should not be rejected as an invalid source of knowledge, what would he say? He would either remain silent and thus confess that he has no reason. <br />
  28. 28. REASON & CONCLUSION<br />If the Carvaka says to this, that any source of knowledge and testimony are sometimes misleading, then it is possible to point out that even perception is sometimes misleading.<br />So the reasonable conclusion is that any source of knowledge, be it perception or inference or testimony, should be regarded as valid in so far as yields a knowledge that does not prove misleading.<br />
  29. 29. Moreover, when the Carvaka denies the existence of non-perceptible objects like life-after-death, he goes beyond perception and infers the non-existence of the objects from the fact of their non-perception. <br />Even when the Carvaka says about perception in general that it is valid he goes beyond the perceived cases of perception found to be valid in the past and infers, from general similarity, something about the future unperceived cases of perception as well.<br />
  30. 30. THE JAINA THEORY OF JUDGEMENT<br />Syadvada or the Theory that Every Judgment is Relative.<br />Every judgment expresses one expects of reality and is therefore relative and subject to some condition.<br />Every judgment should be qualified by some word like ‘some-how’ (syat), expressing conditionality.<br />
  31. 31. SYADVADA<br />The theory of the Jainas has come to be known as Syadvada.<br />This view is accepted by western logicians. Every judgment is passed in a particular context and must be understood only inference there to. <br />
  32. 32. SAPTBHANGINAYASEVEN KINDS OF CONDITIONAL JUDGMENT<br />Somehow, S is P, (syat asti).<br />Somehow, S is not P (syat nasti).<br />Somehow, S is P, and is also not P (syat asti ca, nasti ca).<br />Somehow, S is indescribable (syat avaktavyam).<br />
  33. 33. SAPTBHANGINAYASEVEN KINDS OF CONDITIONAL JUDGMENT<br />(5) Somehow, S is P, and is also indescribable (syat asti ca, avaktavyam ca).<br />Somehow, S is not P, and is also indescribable (syat nasti ca, avaktavyam ca).<br />(7) Somehow, S is P, also not P, and also indescribable (syat asti ca, nasti ca, avaktavyam ca)<br />
  34. 34. THE JAINA METAPHYSICS<br />Every object is found to posses in-numerable character, positive and negative.<br />Moreover, it acquires new character with changes in time.<br />
  35. 35. THE JAINA CONCEPTION OF SUBSTANCE<br />A substance is possessed of some unchanging essential characters (gunas) and changing modes (paryayas).<br />
  36. 36. SUBSTANCE (DRVYA)<br />Extended (astikaya)<br />Non-Extended (anastikaya), e.g., time (Kala)<br />Animate (Jiva)<br />Inanimate (ajiva)<br />Dharma<br />Adharma<br />Akasa<br />Pdgala<br />Emancipated (mukta)<br />Fettered (baddna)<br />
  37. 37. Fettered (Baddna)<br />Pdgala<br />Moving (Trasa)<br />Non-Moving(sthavara)<br />e.g., those living in bodies of earth. Etc.<br />Atoms (anu) of earth, water, fire, air<br />Comapounds<br />(sanghata)<br />4-sensed,<br />e.g., bees<br />5-Sensed, <br />e.g., men<br />3-sensed,<br />e.g., ants<br />2-sensed,<br />e.g., worms<br />
  38. 38. THE SOUL OR JIVA<br />Jiva is a Soul.<br />Souls have varying degrees and kinds of knowledge.<br />The soul manifests itself and others. It is eternal.<br />
  39. 39. question & ANSWER<br />How can the soul occupy space?<br />The soul does not fill space like matter.<br />It is present in space like light.<br />
  40. 40. PROOFS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF THE SOUL<br />The soul is immediately known in the perception of its qualities like pleasures.<br />It is also knowable mediately through many inferences.<br />The Carvaka view that unconscious material elements can produce consciousness is not verified by perception. Nor by inference.<br />
  41. 41. THE INANIMATE SUBSTANCES <br />The five inanimate substances: matter, time, space, dharma and adharma.<br />Material substances are capable of combination and separation.<br />They have the qualities of touch, taste, smell and colour.<br />
  42. 42. SPACE OR AKASA<br />Space given room for extension.<br />Without space, substances could not be extended.<br />
  43. 43. TIME OR KALA<br />Time is not extended in space.<br />Real time and empirical time.<br />
  44. 44. DHARMA AND ADHARMA<br />Dharma and Adharma are the conditions of movement and rest.<br />They are formless passive substances.<br />Space, time, dharma and adharma are remote and passive instrumental conditions.<br />
  45. 45. THE JAINA ETHICS AND RELIGION<br />Bondage of the soul.<br />The soul in itself is possessed of infinite potentiality.<br />Owing to karma it is associated with matter and thus its limitation or bondage occurs.<br />Passions attract matter to the soul.<br />The body and other conditions of an individual are all due to karma.<br />
  46. 46. THE JAINA ETHICS AND RELIGION<br />The passions causing bondage are anger, pride, infatuation and greed.<br />The influx of karma-matter into the soul.<br />Bondage of the soul to matter is due to its bondage to bad disposition or passions.<br />Interpenetration of the soul and matter is proved by the presence of consciousness in every part of the body. <br />
  47. 47. LIBERATION<br />Liberation is the expulsion of matter from the soul.<br />Ignorance is the cause of passions.<br />Knowledge alone can remove ignorance.<br />Right knowledge is obtainable from the teachings of the omniscient tirthankaras.<br />Therefore faith in them is necessary.<br />
  48. 48. LIBERATION<br />Knowledge is perfect in right conduct.<br />Hence, right faith, right knowledge, and right conduct constitute the three gems of a good life.<br />They jointly produce liberation.<br />
  49. 49. RIGHT FAITH (SAMYAG DARSANA)<br />Right faith is respect for truth.<br />It is not blind faith.<br />It is the minimum will to believe, without which no study can rationally begin.<br />Perfect faith can result only from perfect knowledge.<br />
  50. 50. RIGHT KNOWLEDGE (SAMYAG-JNANA)<br />Right knowledge consists in the detailed knowledge of all truths.<br />
  51. 51. Right conduct (samyakcharitra)<br />Right conduct is refraining from wrong and performing what is right.<br />The five great vows form the basis of right conduct.<br />The principles underlying these accepted by many other faiths.<br />
  52. 52. FIVE GREAT VOWS<br /> AHIMSA<br />The vow of ahimsa o non-injury to life.<br />It is based on the idea of potential equality of all souls.<br />Ahimsa must be practised in thought, speech and action.<br />
  53. 53. SATYAM<br />The vow of satya or truthfulness consists in speaking what is true, as well as pleasant and good.<br />
  54. 54. ASTEYAM<br />The vow of asteya or non-stealing is based on the idea of their sanctity of property.<br />
  55. 55. BRAHMACARYAM<br />The vow of brahmacarya consists in abstaining from all forms of self-indulgence.<br />
  56. 56. APARIGRAHA<br />The vow of aparigraha consists in abstaining from all attachment to sense objects.<br />Right knowledge, faith and conduct jointly bring about liberation consisting in fourfold perfection.<br />
  57. 57. JAINISM AS A RELIGION WITHOUT GOD<br />Jainism presents along with Budhhism, a religion without belief in God.<br />
  58. 58. GROUNDS OF ATHEISM OF JAINAS<br />Neither perception nor inference can prove God.<br />(I) God is not perceived, but sought to be proved through inference.<br />(II) Like the existence of God, the qualities of omnipotence, unity, eternity and perfection, generally attributed to him are doubtful.<br />
  59. 59. GROUNDS OF ATHEISM OF JAINAS<br />The Jainas worship the liberated souls possessing God-like qualities instead of God.<br />The religious fervour of the Jainas does not, therefore suffer.<br />Jainism is the religion of self-help.<br />