Communication  in History
The art & symbols of ice age man <ul><li>By: Alexander Marshack </li></ul><ul><li>Prehistoric images, symbol systems and t...
Cro-magnon bone tool <ul><li>Blanchard, France </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest known form of notation </li></ul><ul><li>Notches...
Engraved antler baton <ul><li>Montgaudier, France </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolically killed for the coming of spring? </li></u...
ANTLER TOOL <ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest known artifact containing two types of notation: cumulative markings and naturalistic...
MAMMOTH IVORY “VENUS” <ul><li>We cannot assume that these tools and figures were created by man </li></ul><ul><li>Many fem...
Tata plaque <ul><li>Was not a tool </li></ul><ul><li>A carved and symbolic object </li></ul><ul><li>All marks of carving a...
Mammoth ivory horse <ul><li>Vogelherd, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest know example of animal carving </li></ul><ul><li...
Horse engraved on pelvis <ul><li>Paglicci, Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Horse was symbolically killed 27 times </li></ul><ul><l...
Pech-merle spotted horse <ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Black outline with red and black spots and handprints </li></ul>...
The earliest precursor of writing <ul><li>By: Denise Schmandt-Besserat </li></ul><ul><li>In order to understand chapter 2,...
symbols <ul><li>Things that allow individuals to conceive, express and communicate ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Convey meaning ...
<ul><li>The creation of a new system of symbols during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic eras demonstrates the way that symbo...
Neolithic symbols  clay tokens <ul><li>Clay formed into specific shapes (cones, spheres, cylinder, etc.) and each given on...
<ul><li>Useful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific meaning for each, created an (open) system, able to deal with different prod...
Media of ancient empires <ul><li>By: Harold Innis </li></ul><ul><li>The use of papyrus and the spread of writing and liter...
The shift to papyrus <ul><li>Shift from stone to papyrus coincided with democratic revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Language b...
The effects of change <ul><li>Democratic revolution made Egypt more susceptible to invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Writing deri...
<ul><li>Need to communicate over long distances resulted in standardized characters </li></ul><ul><li>Priests held great a...
Civilization without writing <ul><li>By: Maria & Robert Ascher </li></ul><ul><li>Material used for a communication medium ...
quipu <ul><li>A collection of cords with knots tied in them </li></ul><ul><li>Early method of  </li></ul><ul><li>communica...
Contrast: the quipumaker and his Sumerian & Egyptian counterparts <ul><li>The former used no instruments to record </li></...
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Group A

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Chapters 1, 2, 3 & 4

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Group A

  1. 1. Communication in History
  2. 2. The art & symbols of ice age man <ul><li>By: Alexander Marshack </li></ul><ul><li>Prehistoric images, symbol systems and their relation to the development of writing and history </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cro-magnon bone tool <ul><li>Blanchard, France </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest known form of notation </li></ul><ul><li>Notches show that it may have been used to mark phases of the moon </li></ul>
  4. 4. Engraved antler baton <ul><li>Montgaudier, France </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolically killed for the coming of spring? </li></ul><ul><li>Marshack theorizes that these symbols were markers of periodic and continuous cultural processes, rites and myths </li></ul>
  5. 5. ANTLER TOOL <ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest known artifact containing two types of notation: cumulative markings and naturalistic sketches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separate symbol systems and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>imagery (each with a specialized meaning) could be combined </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One of the great intellectual achievements of man </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. MAMMOTH IVORY “VENUS” <ul><li>We cannot assume that these tools and figures were created by man </li></ul><ul><li>Many female images come from this period </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. “Venus” Figurines </li></ul>
  7. 7. Tata plaque <ul><li>Was not a tool </li></ul><ul><li>A carved and symbolic object </li></ul><ul><li>All marks of carving and scraping were missing </li></ul><ul><li>The plaque was carefully carved and beveled </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mammoth ivory horse <ul><li>Vogelherd, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest know example of animal carving </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic dart carved into flank </li></ul><ul><li>Could represent an act of specialized ritual killing </li></ul>
  9. 9. Horse engraved on pelvis <ul><li>Paglicci, Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Horse was symbolically killed 27 times </li></ul><ul><li>Horse becomes a symbol of all horses (hunting magic) </li></ul><ul><li>The horse could have been an important spirit animal sacrificed for a curing, death or initiation </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pech-merle spotted horse <ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Black outline with red and black spots and handprints </li></ul><ul><li>Fish and perfect circle inside also </li></ul><ul><li>Could be related to seasons and sun </li></ul>
  11. 11. The earliest precursor of writing <ul><li>By: Denise Schmandt-Besserat </li></ul><ul><li>In order to understand chapter 2, it is important to understand the meaning of symbols and signs </li></ul>
  12. 12. symbols <ul><li>Things that allow individuals to conceive, express and communicate ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Convey meaning like symbols but they carry precise meaning </li></ul>signs
  13. 13. <ul><li>The creation of a new system of symbols during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic eras demonstrates the way that symbols and signs play a significant part in the creation of writing </li></ul><ul><li>For example: symbols played a significant part in representing religious beliefs according to Gourhan </li></ul>
  14. 14. Neolithic symbols clay tokens <ul><li>Clay formed into specific shapes (cones, spheres, cylinder, etc.) and each given one specific meaning as a means to record an exact quantity of a product </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Useful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific meaning for each, created an (open) system, able to deal with different products, independent of spoken language, accurately store information, one to one correspondence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limiting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to deal with large quantities so restricted to small amounts of goods, hard to keep for permanent records (items easily moved), need a new sign for everything so can’t function with many different objects </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Media of ancient empires <ul><li>By: Harold Innis </li></ul><ul><li>The use of papyrus and the spread of writing and literacy led to a democratic and social revolution in Egypt that allowed for the emergence of new religions, but also, a weakening of defense </li></ul>
  17. 17. The shift to papyrus <ul><li>Shift from stone to papyrus coincided with democratic revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Language became simplified </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy seen as a step </li></ul><ul><li>toward opulence and high </li></ul><ul><li>social ranking </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of new </li></ul><ul><li>religious ideas </li></ul>
  18. 18. The effects of change <ul><li>Democratic revolution made Egypt more susceptible to invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Writing derived from mathematics in Sumer; high revenues in Sumer required sophisticated systems </li></ul>Pictured: Nile at Aswan
  19. 19. <ul><li>Need to communicate over long distances resulted in standardized characters </li></ul><ul><li>Priests held great authority due to connection of education and temples </li></ul>
  20. 20. Civilization without writing <ul><li>By: Maria & Robert Ascher </li></ul><ul><li>Material used for a communication medium in a civilization is often taken from a substance that is familiar and abundant in its environment </li></ul>
  21. 21. quipu <ul><li>A collection of cords with knots tied in them </li></ul><ul><li>Early method of </li></ul><ul><li>communication used </li></ul><ul><li>by the Ancient Incan </li></ul><ul><li>empire </li></ul><ul><li>Knots mainly </li></ul><ul><li>represented numbers </li></ul>
  22. 22. Contrast: the quipumaker and his Sumerian & Egyptian counterparts <ul><li>The former used no instruments to record </li></ul><ul><li>Colour: Sumerian used none, Egyptians used two (black & red) and the quipumakers used hundreds </li></ul><ul><li>Sumerian & Egyptians recorded on planar surfaces </li></ul>
  23. 23. The end

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