Seven Different Traditions In The Field Of Communication

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Seven Different Traditions In The Field Of Communication

  1. 1. Seven Different Traditions in the Field of Communication Theory
  2. 2. Socio-Psychological Tradition <ul><li>Emphasizes scientific perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with Carl Hovland and the Yale team </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrated on the source and the content of persuasive messages, and the audience characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Source credibility rests on expertness and character; expertness had the bigger effect on credibility, but did not last. </li></ul><ul><li>The “sleeper effect” : the impact of credibility does not last. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cybernetic Tradition <ul><li>Wiener coined the term, in the field of artificial intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced the concept of feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Claude Shannon established the idea of communication as information processing </li></ul><ul><li>Goal was to maximize line capacity with minimum distortion </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce uncertainty through redundancy; more redundancy=reduced capacity. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Rhetorical Tradition <ul><li>Speech distinguishes humans </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence in efficacy of public address </li></ul><ul><li>Setting: one speaker addressing large audience with intention to persuade </li></ul><ul><li>Oratorical training for leader’s education </li></ul><ul><li>Power and beauty of language moves people emotionally and stir them to action </li></ul><ul><li>Rhetoric as male province </li></ul>
  5. 5. Semiotic Tradition <ul><li>The study of signs (Richards, Ogden, Saussure). </li></ul><ul><li>Signs signify by indication, representation or by arbitrary convention (symbol) </li></ul><ul><li>Words are symbols (arbitrary) </li></ul><ul><li>Words do not have precise meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Meanings reside in people not words or symbols </li></ul><ul><li>A symbol is indirectly related to its referent </li></ul>
  6. 6. Socio-Cultural Tradition <ul><li>Communication produces and reproduces culture </li></ul><ul><li>Sapir-Whorf hypothesis says structure of language shapes what people do and think </li></ul><ul><li>Language is not a neutral conduit </li></ul><ul><li>Through language, reality is produced, maintained, repaired and transformed. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Critical Tradition <ul><li>Associated with Frankfurt School </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on history as the unjust distribution of power and suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Control of language (discourses) perpetuates power imbalances </li></ul><ul><li>Mass media dull sensitivity to repression </li></ul><ul><li>Blind reliance on scientific method and empiricism blunts critical thinking </li></ul>
  8. 8. Phenomenological Tradition <ul><li>Intentional analysis of everyday life from the standpoint of the person who is living it </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes people’s perceptions and interpretations of their own subjective experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Rogers: 3 conditions for personality and relationship change – congruence, unconditional positive regard, empathic understanding </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ethical Tradition <ul><li>NCA Credo for Communication Ethics: </li></ul><ul><li>Truthfulness, accuracy, honesty, reason </li></ul><ul><li>Accepts responsibility for short-term and long-term consequences of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Strives to understand and respect other communicators before evaluating and responding to their messages. </li></ul>

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