Later life in over 100 slides (August 2012)


Published on

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Later life in over 100 slides (August 2012)

  1. 1. Later Life 2012 National and International Trends: Later Life in 116 slides Prepared by Age UK Research Department Last updated 1 August 2012 For source information, see the Later Life factsheets in the Age UK Knowledge Hub
  2. 2. Overview Demographics and population trends Health and wellbeing Money matters Home and care Social Inclusion Public policy challenges The older consumer Attitudes and discrimination Opportunities
  3. 3. Demographics andPopulation Trends
  4. 4. Ageing in the UK  TODAY – 10.3 million aged over 65 – 1.4 million aged over 85 – 12,500 aged over 100  THE FUTURE – 12.5 million over-65s by 2020, 16 million by 2030 – Fastest growth post-85 – 250,000 aged over 100 by 2050 UK Population estimates and projections (2010- based), ONS 2011
  5. 5. UK population pyramid (mid-2010 estimate) Source: ONS 2011
  6. 6. Ageing of the UK population Source: ONS 2010
  7. 7. Life Expectancy at birth (UK) “At current rates, life expectancy in the UK is increasing at the rate of about two years for each decade that passes” Source: House of Lords Science and Technology Committee 2005 Ageing: Scientific Aspects
  8. 8. Life expectancy at birth (UK) 1980 2000 2011 Males 70.8 75.3 78.2 Females 76.9 80.1 82.3 Source: World Bank Development Indicators 20 Nov 09 and ONS Oct 2011
  9. 9. Life Expectancy at Birth 1980-82 to 2006-08 Source: ONS 2011
  10. 10. In the UK, the over 85s are the fastest growing age-band, and the numbers have only just started risingrapidly: Population of the UK aged 85 or over 1961 - 2061 Source: Of f ice f or Nat ional St at ist ics populat ion project ions people, t housands 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 2021 2031 2041 2051 2061
  11. 11. The pattern is the same for women: Population projections for FEMALES aged 85 or over 1961 - 2061 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 2021 2031 2041 2051 2061
  12. 12. and for men: Population projections for MALES aged 85 or over, UK 1961 - 2061 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 2021 2031 2041 2051 2061
  13. 13. And it doesn’t stop at 85: Census 2011(preliminary results for England and Wales, July 2012) Number of people aged 65 or over: up 11% from the 2001 Census aged 85 or over: up 24% from the 2001 Census aged 90 or over: up 28% from the 2001 Census
  14. 14. Ageing - Internationally  Across EU population growth over next 25 years: – 81% over-60s – 7% 18-59 year olds  Across the world, by 2050 people over 60 will make up – 1/3 of rich world – 1/5 of developing world Sources: see Age UK Later Life International Fact Sheet 2011
  15. 15. Longevity Revolution - Global Global Population – Aged 80+ years 1950 – 14 million Today – 300 million Source: WHO 2010
  16. 16. The World’s ‘Oldest’ Countries (2009) Country Aged 60+ (%) Japan 30 Germany 26 Italy 26 Sweden 25 Bulgaria 24 Finland 24 Greece 24 Austria 23 Belgium 23 Croatia 23 Denmark 23 France 23 Portugal 23 Switzerland 23 Czech Republic 22 Estonia 22 Hungary 22 Latvia 22 Slovenia 22 Spain 22 United Kingdom 22 Source: WHO WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS, 2011
  17. 17. Longevity Revolution - Japan “The number of centenarians in Japan increased almost one-hundredfold from 154 in 1963 to more than 13,000 at the beginning of this century and is projected to increase to almost 1,000,000 by 2050” Source: Ageing Horizons, 3,1 (2005) N.B. This is assuming that records are accurate and there has not been any large scale fraudulent reporting (some uncovered in Japan, August 2010)
  18. 18. Italy – population pyramidSource: US Census Bureau 2011
  19. 19. China – population pyramids (millions, by age and sex) 1950 2000 2050 Age Age 80+ 80+ 75-79 75-79 Male Female 70-74 Male Female 70-74 Male Female 65-69 65-69 60-64 60-64 55-59 55-59 50-54 50-54 45-49 45-49 40-44 40-44 35-39 35-39 30-34 30-34 25-29 25-29 20-24 20-24 15-19 15-19 10-14 10-14 5-9 5-9 0-4 0-415 10 5 0 5 10 15 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 Source: World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision (2005).
  20. 20. Later life in the UK- an overview  Over 1.3 million people are aged 85 or over. One in four children born today will live to 100  People aged 65 now have an average life expectancy of 82-85 years, the last 7-9 years with a disability  Nearly 2.5 million people aged 65+ in England have care needs  3.7 million people aged 65+ currently live alone  750,000 people aged 65+ currently have dementia. is This is projected to more than double in less than 40 years Sources available in Age UK Later Life in UK fact sheet August 2012
  21. 21. Later Life – internationally: an overview  Of the current total world population of over 6.8 billion, there are over 790 million people aged 60 and over  Life expectancy at birth ranges from 82.6 years in Japan to 39.6 years in Swaziland  70% of the world‟s older people (60+) live in less developed countries 60% of people with dementia live in developing countries, and this is expected to rise to 71% by 2040  70% of mortality in low income countries is due to communicable disease and 30% to chronic long term illness; this will be reversed by 2030 Sources available in Age UK International Later Life fact sheet 2011
  22. 22. Health and wellbeing
  23. 23. Health
  24. 24. In eight years’ time, demographic change alone would mean that there would be: • Nearly 2.7 million people aged 75+ with at least one limiting long term illness and over 4.3 million people aged 65+ with LLTI • People living an average of 7-9 years at the end of their lives with a disability • Nearly seven million older people who cannot walk up one flight of stairs without resting • One-and-a-half million older people who cannot see well enough to recognise a friend across a road • Over 4 million with major hearing problems • Up to a third of a million people aged 75+ with dual sensory loss • A third of a million who have difficulty bathing • Nearly a million with dementia • Between 4-7 million with urinary incontinence • One-and-a-half million suffering from depression Demographic projections based on ONS population projections for the UK and currently available prevalence figures (sources in Age UK Later Life in UK fact sheet, August 2012
  25. 25. Why is this important? While health is clearly an outcome in itself, it is also a key driver of outcomes in other domains, including employment and ability to contribute.  ELSA (Wave 2, 2006) indicates the two-way relationship between health and wealth: greater financial resources reduce the chances of poor health, and good health has a positive relationship to financial wellbeing  Services are hospital focused, prioritising cure rather than prevention or complex case management, commissioning is in early stages of development, question marks over value for money, realisation that some target-driven achievements occurred at the expense of quality.  National priorities remain but emphasis on local decision making  Choice as a patient right and a tool to drive up quality along with contestability between providers for contracts framed by ambition to provide care closer to home
  26. 26. What do older people think? • Mental health – older people’s preference for services include peer support; a range of activities and opportunities of things to do; 24- hour help in a crisis that helps you maintain everyday life; supported housing options, technologies and skills and learning opportunities that enable independent living. More broadly older people suggest the following to improve mental health and wellbeing: improve public attitudes; provision of activities for older people; befriending schemes (esp. those aged 90+); improved access to quality public services, and improving standard of living (mostly younger respondents). • Community Services –priority areas for action include: improving the range of support for carers; making services personalised and holistic; joining up health and social care so there is one point of call; considering the transport implications of any changes to services • Intermediate care – help with keeping out of long term care is important e.g. mentoring and advocacy to help them through the health and social care system; more time from care assistants; more availability and affordability of high quality home and telecare; help with practical matters such as laundry, adequate refreshments and warmth.
  27. 27. Long Term Health Conditions:The Strategic Challenge There are over 15 million people in England with long-term health needs. Long term conditions are those that cannot, at present, be cured, but can be controlled by medication and other therapies. The impact on the NHS and social care for supporting people with long term conditions is significant. Currently 69% of the total health and social care spend in England is spent on the treatment and care of people with long term conditions (DH Annual Report 2008). By 2025 the number of people will at least one long term condition will rise by 3 million to 18 million (DoH 2008). This will be due to a rise in the ageing population and the increased survival of pre-term babies. Sources available in Age UK Later Life in UK fact sheet August 2012 unless otherwise stated
  28. 28. Prevalence of Long Term Conditions (1) Coronary Heart Disease – 2.6 million people are living with CHD in the UK (89% of 190,000 deaths per year were in people 65 years or older) Stroke – 80% of 150,000 cases per year are over 65. Stroke is the leading cause of severe adult disability Diabetes – 2 million people in the UK are diagnosed. Prevalence rises with age from one in 20 people over age of 65 to one in five in people over 85 years Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary (Lung) Disease – 3 million people in the UK diagnosed. There are approximately 25,000 deaths from this every year, with over 90% occurring in people 65 years and older Sources available in Age UK Later Life in UK fact sheet August 2012
  29. 29. Prevalence of Long Term Conditions (2) Cancer – incidence increases with age – of the 155,000 deaths each year, three quarters occurred in people aged 65 and over. Arthritis – Osteoarthritis affects over half the population by age 65, and 10% of people aged 65+ have a major disability due to OA. Osteoporosis – Up to 21,000 people die following osteoporotic hip fractures each year in the UK. Parkinson’s Disease – The second most common neuro-degenerative disorder (120,000 have clinical diagnosis in the UK). The incidence increases with age. Sensory impairments - 1 in 5 people over 75 years old has a significant visual impairment. Over 7 million people over 60 years are deaf or hard of hearing. Sources available in Age UK Later Life in UK fact sheet August 2012
  30. 30. Prevalence of Long Term Conditions (3) Depression – The commonest mental health condition in the older population. A quarter of older people living in the community have symptoms which warrant intervention, but it is estimated that 85% of people over 65 do not receive any help from the NHS. Dementia – Over 820,000 people are estimated to be suffering from late onset dementia in the UK. This overall figure is forecast to increase to 1,735,087 by 2051. Dementia affects 1 person in 6 over 80 and 1 in 3 over 95. Sources available in Age UK Later Life in UK fact sheet August 2012
  31. 31. Disability, Age and Activities of Daily Living % Dependent
  32. 32. Older people and functional limitations  37% of men and 40% of women aged 65 and over have at least one functional limitation (seeing, hearing, communication, walking, or using stairs).  This increases to 57% and 65% respectively in those aged 85 and over.  More than half of men and women reporting any functional disability were unable to walk 200 yards or more unaided without stopping or discomfort. Both prevalence and severity increased with age.  The number of functional limitations also increased with age with 17% of men and 19% of women aged 85 and over with three or more functional limitations.  Functional limitations can result in depression and social isolation. Analysis of English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Waves 1-3
  33. 33. Severe Cognitive Limitationby Age and Gender (US) 25% 20% Males Females Percent 15% Total 10% 5% 0% 51-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80-84 85+ Age
  34. 34. Healthy Life Expectancy  Life expectancy is increasing and until recently, healthy life expectancy has been increasing at a slower rate  This has meant that many older people are living longer in poor health  There is little evidence of consistent success in compressing morbidity and some evidence that disability rates are declining, but an average 65-year-old can expect to live 7- 9 years with a disability Age UK analysis of life expectancy and healthy life expectancies at age 65, ONS 2011 published in Agenda for Later Life 2011
  35. 35. Wellbeing
  36. 36. Measuring National Wellbeing (UK) Office for National Statistics July 2012 Setting a benchmark nationally(all age)United Kingdom Percentages Very low Low Medium High Average (0–4) (5–6) (7–8) (9–10) (mean)Life satisfaction 6 .6 17.5 49.8 26.1 7.4Worthwhile 4.9 15.1 48.6 31.4 7.7Happy yesterday 10.9 18.0 39.3 31.8 7.3 Very high High Medium Low Average (6–10) (4–5) (2–3) (0–1) (mean)Anxious yesterday 21.8 18.1 23.5 36.6 3.1
  37. 37. Measuring National Wellbeing (UK) Office for National Statistics July 2012General Life satisfaction: retirement is a relatively satisfying time, but the U- shaped (smile-shaped) curve turns down again after 80
  38. 38. Measuring National Wellbeing (UK)Office for National Statistics July 2012 Self esteem (feeling what you do in life is worthwhile):again, a rise in the sixties and seventies and a marked drop-off at 80+
  39. 39. Measuring National Wellbeing (UK)Office for National Statistics July 2012 Current happiness: how happy were you yesterday? Retirement is a relatively happy time, even at 80+
  40. 40. Measuring National Wellbeing (UK) Office for National Statistics July 2012 Anxiety: How anxious did you feel yesterday?Even in one’s eighties and nineties, later life is a time of relatively low anxiety
  41. 41. Measuring National Wellbeing (UK)Office for National Statistics July 2012 Some possible explanations of these trends (only available currently for life satisfaction at all-age level): Health and disability play a major part
  42. 42. Measuring National Wellbeing (UK)Office for National Statistics July 2012 Some possible explanations of these trends Marital status (having a partner) is also important
  43. 43. Measuring National Wellbeing (UK)Office for National Statistics July 2012 Some possible explanations of these trends as is unemployment
  44. 44. Work and Learning
  45. 45. Education and ageOlder workers are particularly disadvantaged by lack of educationalqualifications - employment rates are significantly lower for those withno qualifications whatsoever.Access to learning centres becomes more difficult with age, with FEcolleges, adult education centres and the home being main locations oflearning Economic activity by highest qualification, 50-69 y/o 100% Employed 80% Inactive: Retired Unemployed 60% Inactive: Other Those 50+ with no qualifications experience Inactive: sick or disabled employment rates over 20% lower than those with 40% qualifications – much of the difference explained by illness or disability Inactive: looking after 20% family/home 0% Degree/ Higher A-Level GCSE A*- Other No Qual equiv edu /equiv C/equiv Source: NIACE annual surveys of learning
  46. 46. Continuing learning The number of people undertaking learning decreases significantly with age But mental activity like learning can slow cognitive decline, reduce morbidity, and facilitate healthier lives. 80% 2005 2006 70% 2005 2006 60% 50% 2005 2006 40% 2005 2006 30% 2005 2006 20% 10% 0% 16-49 50-64 65-79 80+ 50+ 2005 2006 Source: NIACE annual surveys of learning. The 2011 and 2012 reports follow this trend
  47. 47. Advantages of learning in later life (1)In the community The Benefits of lifelong learning for adults over 50 have been categorized under the following headings: FINANCIAL  Helps to reduce poverty through various mechanisms, including new employment and improved knowledge (NIACE IFLL Thematic Paper 6 2010)  Money saving (DIY savings on contractors‟ labour) SOCIAL • Helps to reduce isolation through improved social contacts (Age UK 2011)  Offers an inexpensive way to try new activities  Improved self esteem (achievement of set goal)  New topic of conversation with family and friends (anecdotal evidence only) MEDICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL  May help to slow cognitive decline. So far, limited evidence, much of it anecdotal, about keeping your mind sharp, improving some aspects of memory (recall)  Self-reported reduction in symptoms of depression (Age UK 2011)  There is no authenticated proof yet of physical benefits related directly to learning activities except where they involve extra exercise or sport (e.g. Tai Chi classes, Morris Docker 2006) Note: Although there is a great deal of research on the benefits of learning in general, there is a shortage of reliable data on improvements to the health (physical and mental/ psychological) to older learners. The best summary is Age UK summary learning/New%20challenges%20new%20chances%20%20IACL%20(Oct%202011).p df?dtrk=true
  48. 48. Advantages of learning in later life (2)In care settings In care settings, learning opportunities for older people can:  reduce isolation;  improve both physical and mental health;  reduce dependence on medication;  improve recovery rates; reduce dependency on others and  lead to a greater enjoyment of life which gives residents something to look forward to. Source: “Enhancing Informal Adult Learning for Older People in Care” NIACE 2010
  49. 49. Barriers to learning  Lack of interest and feeling too old are the main barriers to learning as people get older.  Poor information about availability of learning opportunities and inappropriate courses may explain lack of interest.  One survey found 43% of older people agree that there is not enough information on what education courses are available and 30% believe courses on offer are not appropriate for older learners. 45 40 35 45-54Percentage 30 25 55-64 20 65-74 15 75+ 10 5 0 reste d ssure too ol d ibility learn Cost isability t int e Time Pre Feel responts need to th/D No aring Feel o Heal Source: NIACE C
  50. 50. Employment trends  7,368,000 people aged from 50 to State Pension Age (SPA, currently 60 for women and 65 for men) are in employment  849,000 people aged 65 or over were employed in July – September 2011, a rise of 0.1 per cent over the last year; this is about 3% of the UK labour force  The employment rate for 50 to SPA is 65% and for SPA+ it is 8.4%  The latest figures (Jul-Sep 2011) show the unemployment rate for people aged 50+ in the UK is 4.7%  In October 2011, 241,100 people aged 50 or over claimed Jobseekers Allowance.  Median hourly pay for workers in their 50s is £12.00 and £10.00 for workers aged 60+, as opposed to £13.03 for workers in their 30s  There has been a trend of people leaving the workforce (presumably for retirement) later. For men, the estimate of average age of withdrawal increased from 63.8 years in 2004 to 64.5 in 2009. For women, it increased from 61.2 years in 2004 to 62.0 years in 2009 Sources: Labour Market Statistics, ONS 2009 - 2011
  51. 51. What do older people think? More people enjoy work: • The majority of those aged 55 and over would prefer to be working full time than not working at all, and it is common for older people to view working as the ‘ideal’ situation for them … and want to keep working:  A 2003 survey found over two-thirds of respondents aged between 50-70 who were in, or looking for, a job planned to work in some capacity during retirement or never retire • The average age at which workers over 50 retired reached its highest level for men (64.6 years) since 1984. For women comparable figures showed an increase from 60.7 in 1984 to 61.9 in 2008. Sources in Age UK Later Life in UK fact sheet, August 2012
  52. 52. Why is this important? • Employment supports an individual’s ability to contribute in addition to their material wellbeing (ELSA Wave 3 presentation, Banks and Tetlow 2008). • All those who want to work need to be in work – and work needs to be promoted as a mechanism for achieving wellbeing and independence in later life • The impact of projected pension shortfalls on the timing of retirement is not yet clear, but concern about financial security is likely to bring about a further rise in working past SPA.
  53. 53. Money Matters
  54. 54. Trends • Increasing reliance on private sector, complexity in products on offer • More individuals are directly exposed to risk: a significant percentage of 50-65 year olds are in danger of having replacement rates below benchmarks of adequacy • Increase in need for info and advice to access entitlements and make appropriate decisions about finances • Increasing use by organisations of websites as the main channel rather than (more expensive) face to face (although Pension Service home visits) • Digital exclusion now leading to increase in financial exclusion, not just in banking, but increasingly public services and private care funding (poor risks?) • Greater exposure to financial abuse • Gaps in support for frail vulnerable older people, especially around money management.
  55. 55. What do older people think? • Confusion regarding choices of pensions, savings and care • Lack of interest in accessing products online • Concern about pensions (55-65 year-olds currently finding out that their pensions will not be adequate): 50% 40% 30% Final report 1st report 20% 10% Source: Turner final report, 2005 0% Pension Pension + All non- + Half of + All participation income pension housing anticipated financial wealth inheritances wealth liquidated liquidated liquidated
  56. 56. Why is this important? • An individual’s income clearly supports their material wellbeing. It also enables independent living and appropriate housing • ELSA (2006 and 2008) provides strong evidence of a positive correlation between higher income/ wealth and reduced risk of developing most of the age-related chronic conditions, including type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, raised cholesterol, disability (reduced strength and mobility)
  57. 57. Health and financial status  1.8 million pensioners live in poverty. Nearly two-thirds of these are women.  Older people on higher incomes are more likely to report their health as ‘good’ or ‘very good’.  People on lower incomes are more likely to report asthma, chronic lung disease and diabetes. High blood pressure is more common among poorer older people. Sources: Households below Average Income and Pensioner Income Series, DWP 2011
  58. 58. Wealth and health:Odds of poor health increase with poverty
  59. 59. Net Worth by Health of Husband and Wife 450 (in Thousands) 400 350 Net Worth 300 250 200 Excellent 150 V Good 100 50 Good 0 Fair Husbands Poor Health t n d le oo d l ce ir oo G Fa or Ex G V Po Wifes Health
  60. 60. Pension coverage in UK Occupational pension Both Personal pension No private pension 100 80Percentage 60 40 20 0 gs t 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 st es he in or rn ric po ea Earnings ro Ze For the latest figures on pensions and pension coverage, see Age UK Later Life in UK fact sheet, August 2012
  61. 61. Forecast change in public pension spending 2000–2040 (%) -5 0 5 10 15 Greece 11.2 Spain 6.6 Netherlands 6.2 Germany 4.8 Finland 4.7 Ireland 4.4 Portugal 4.0 Austria 3.8 France 3.7 Belgium 3.7 Denmark 3.5 Sweden 2.4 Luxembourg 1.9 Italy 1.9 UK -0.5 EU 3.2
  62. 62. Do Pension Incentives Matter?Survival probabilities, by pension status 1 UK men Survival probability 0.75 No Occupational Pension 0.5 With Occupational Pension 0.25 0 50 55 60 65 70 Age
  63. 63. Do Pension Incentives Matter?Survival probabilities, by pension status 1 UK women Survival probability 0.75 No Occupational 0.5 Pension 0.25 With Occupational Pension 0 50 55 60 65 70 Age
  64. 64. Home and Care
  65. 65. HousingWhy is this important?  Decent and appropriate housing is a key element in quality of life and good health in older age  Demographic changes, combined with changes in policy on care provision and home ownership have meant - and will continue to mean - an increasing number of the oldest old living longer, and often alone, in their own homes  Older people (especially single people aged 75+) are more likely than younger people to live in older, non- decent homes) Source: Older People, Decent Homes and Fuel Poverty. An Analysis of the English House Condition Survey, Help the Aged and BRE, 2006
  66. 66. Policy context  Government encouraging institutional investment more in private rented sector to make up the shortfall in social housing.  Growing debate around reconciling housing related support, social care and health services to deliver independence at home (role of common assessment framework)  Cuts in preventative services - housing related support - more funding diverted to social care Further decline in retirement housing in the social sector - increased focus on the most vulnerable  Reforms to security of tenure (see Hills report) possibly less security for both private and social residents – issue around offering settled accommodation to older people  Calls for improved coordination - partnership with LAs and PCTs increasing focus on the role of retirement communities - some growth  Increasing push towards assistive technology to replace or reduce  housing support workers - increased pressure to cut labour costs through assistive technology but likely to remain marginal for next 5-10 years (except top end of market)
  67. 67. What older people think  92% of adults say they envisage living in a home they have for life, but 23% said their current home was unsuitable to live in in old age (B&Q survey, 2008)  More older people refusing to purchase preventative services to save money as the result of increased choice and rising charges  Opinions sharply divided between those who benefit from Assistive Technology and those who see reduced contact with human support  Concern about inheritance tax is not necessarily exclusive to the very rich. ELSA (Wave 3, Emmerson Muriel 2008) found that 1 in 8 of their representative 50+ sample have assets above the IHT threshold  Whatever the merits of residential in comparison with living in the community, over 70% of adults surveyed view it negatively: 48% of homeowners 18+ say they can‟t think of anything worse than moving into a care home.  A further 14% say they would be nervous and 9% frightened (B&Q survey 2008)  5% of people aged 65+ in the UK need but do not receive help with everyday jobs such as hoovering or changing a light bulb
  68. 68. Trends  Continued push on homeownership - experience of Right to Buy generation unable to maintain housing should provide lessons  Growth in need for local housing advice and advocacy – opportunities for one-stop shop services  Growing inequality of retirement provision between private and public sectors  Growing regional and local inequality in regard to poor housing Expansion in private rented sector - more older people living in insecure tenancies  Increasingly difficult to obtain additional resources from PCTs  Housing support and service charges - growing divide between those receiving benefits and those paying for themselves - likely to increase friction within retirement housing  Likely increase in numbers of older homeless people resettled in poor temporary accommodation  Public sector will focus on the most vulnerable  Possible further decline in specialist housing. Growing debate around mobility (moving to be nearer friends and relatives offering support) and flexibility within social rented sector
  69. 69. Health and Home The majority of older people live within the community. 26% of households with someone aged over 75 live in social housing and 68% are home owners. 6% of older households live in sheltered housing 4% of older people live in a care home. Poor housing has a detrimental impact on both physical and mental health. 2.7 million households with at least one person aged over 60 are living in a non-decent home. Older people are more likely to be living in non- decent homes in the private sector if they are over 75, or aged 60 or more and living alone. 1.5 million women aged 75 and over live alone compared to 0.5 million men of the same age. Sources: see Age UK Later Life in UK fact sheet, August 2012
  70. 70. Care and support at home There are 6 million carers in the UK. 2.8 million people aged 50 and over provide unpaid care; nearly 1 million of these are aged 65+ and nearly 50,000 are aged 85+. There are 8,000 carers aged 90+ (4000 providing 50+ hours of care per week. Unpaid carers currently provide 65% of care compared to 25% paid for by the state (10% is privately purchased). 73% of English local authorities have plans to limit care to people with substantial and critical needs only. The growing number of older people means that the need for support from unpaid carers could rise by 30% over the next 35 years (9.1 million). Sources: see Age UK Later Life in UK fact sheet, August 2012
  71. 71. Supported self-care  Older people and their carers want services that will: – improve their quality of life, health and well-being and enable them to be more independent. – Be supported and enable them to self care and have active involvement in decisions about their care and support. – To have choice and control – services built around the needs of individuals and carers.  The 2006 White Paper Our health, our care, our say, promoted telecare and assistive technology in helping people retain their independence and improve their quality of life.  The use of the internet by older people, particularly over 75s is increasing steadily but over half of all older people continue to be excluded from the benefits of new technologies. Source: Internet Access Quarterly Update Q3 2011, ONS 2011
  72. 72. Social Inclusion
  73. 73. Why is this important? (1) • 3.7 million people aged 65+ live alone and 600,000 older people leave their homes once a week or less and 17% of have less than weekly contact with family, friends and neighbours • Over one million older people experience (poor social relations and) social exclusion. • Older people who live alone spend a lot of time with friends and acquaintances, but on average, they can also spend eleven hours alone on a week day and ten and a half hours alone at weekends (excluding sleep). Source: ESRC/NATCEN research (Dec 11) and Age UK Later Life in UK fact sheet, August 2012
  74. 74. Why is this important? (2)  Social isolation prevents ability to contribute. It also is a risk factor for health.  Inactivity and isolation accelerate physical and psychological declines, creating a negative spiral towards premature, preventable ill health and dependency. A recent ELSA study revealed that social detachment reduces quality of life.  Depression is associated with lack of social support (36% of men and 54% of women with severe lack of social support have high depressive symptoms) Source: ELSA waves 1-3 and Age UK Later Life in UK fact sheet, August 2012
  75. 75. Social Inclusion impacts negatively on olderpeople’s quality of life Mean Quality of Life Score 50 40 Pleasure 30 Self-realisation 20 Autonomy Control 10 0 No social exclusion Temporary social Persistent social exclusion exclusion Source: ELSA waves 1-3
  76. 76. Policy context •Social isolation is a cross-cutting issue and the responsibility for alleviating it lies with several Government departments. •Policies which may directly impact on social isolation are fragmented but include: •Linkage Plus aimed to improve outcomes for older people through better joining-up between services and linking older people to services. •Developments in transport policy including making the freedom pass available, amending community transport regulations and •Investment of £5.5 million into intergenerational volunteering •Individual budgets for those that access social care •Positive duty as applied to culture and leisure opportunities •Lifetime neighbourhoods •Neighbourhood warden schemes •Informal learning white paper
  77. 77. What do older people think? •29% of respondents to an Age Concern survey saw friends and 36% saw family a few times and month or less •However many people at mid- to later life may not consider they need to expand their social networks •44% state they do not need lots of friends •45% disagreed that they feel lonely from time to time •Analysis of ELSA wave 3 has found that life satisfaction significantly decreases after certain life events, with many underlying factors clustering around themes of social isolation and lack of support. •Satisfaction with current levels of social interaction could be a barrier to individuals building up social networks Source: Own surveys and analysis of ELSA wave 3
  78. 78. Trends One person households are projected to overtake married couple households by 2030 2,359,000 75 and over 1,659,000 1,559,000 65 - 74 1,061,000 1,792,000 55 - 64 947,000 1,415,000 45 - 54 834,000 1,460,000 2026 35 - 44 923,000 2003 1,048,000 25 - 34 797,000 254,000 Under 25 226,000 0 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 2,000,000 2,500,000 As people age, the risk of being lonely increases. For details of trends in volunteering and digital inclusion, see Appendix Source: DCLG household estimates, 2006
  79. 79. Public Policy Challenges
  80. 80. Long term challenges A decade of spending cuts – doing more with less? Demographic change – a manageable transition (working longer; pensions reform) but we must now prepare our public services Income – pensioner poverty stuck around 20% for the next decade despite pension reform Healthy life expectancy - remains an elusive goal, avoid longer periods of disability Social and technological change – changes in family life, communities and the digital divide – what next?
  81. 81. 2011/12: Uncertainty and OpportunityUNCERTAINTY OPPORTUNITY Older people not immune from  A new ageing strategy the recession  Social care reform - 2011 is – Job losses hitting older ‘make or break’ for the long workers term – Rising costs of living  The Equality Bill – new rights – Impact on savings and outside work; end forced annuities retirement? Now - a focus on employment  Pensioner poverty – Child and skills; an end to forced poverty Bill focuses minds on retirement ending pensioner poverty The aftermath – public service  Coalition pressing older cuts must not disproportionately people’s priorities harm older people
  82. 82. Equal citizens, equal rights PRIORITY: Outlaw mandatory retirement ages (2010 priority)PROPOSALS INDICATORS1. Use Equality Bill to outlaw age  68% say politicians see older discrimination in goods and people as a low priority services, rapidly and with minimal  60% say age discrimination exemptions exists in older people‟s lives2. Support EU directive on  60% say age discrimination discrimination beyond the workplace exists in the workplace3. Robust enforcement and promotion  53% say people in very old age of existing age discrimination law are treated like children4. Extend Human Rights Act to private  52% say those planning services providers of public services don‟t pay enough attention to older people
  83. 83. Enough Money PRIORITY: Roll out automatic payment of benefits PROPOSALS INDICATORS 1. Government commitment  16% (AHC) of pensioners to end pensioner poverty in poverty 2. Public services work  59-67% of those eligible together to push take-up receive Pension Credit of benefits  56% of employees covered 3. Index State Pension to by a non-state pension earnings now and  36% of over-60s avoid improve pensions for heating rooms to save women who retired money before 2010  7% of 85+ households don‟t 4. Urgent review of Fuel have a bank account Poverty Strategy
  84. 84. My life, my care PRIORITY: Spend an extra £1-2bn on older people‟s carePROPOSALS INDICATORS1. Increase investment in  410,000 people over 65 with unmet preventative support and need for help around the home information, advice and advocacy  67,000 households receiving low-2. A fair national system for level home care assessing need and allocating  347,000 people receiving home resources care3. A radical new long-term settlement  £60 gap between average weekly for care and support, which fees for a care home and the increases access and quality, and standard council payment is fair and affordable for all  27,000 people over 65 receiving Direct Payments
  85. 85. Staying well and feeling good PRIORITY: Re-direct the NHS to prevent and manage common conditions of ageing PROPOSALS INDICATORS 1. All public services to work to  24% of over-65s say quality of life promote lifetime good health has worsened in the last year 2. NHS reform to reflect older 7.3 years for men and 9.4 years for people’s needs and women of future disability at age of preferences 65 3. Improve access to primary 19% of 65-74s and 7% of over-75s care for carers and care home do recommended levels of exercise residents  149,000 75+ emergency 4. All health providers to adopt readmissions within 1 month of person-centred measures of discharge dignity  64% say health and care staff don‟t 5. Age-aware workforce always treat older people with dignity development strategies
  86. 86. Places to age in PRIORITY: a national „offer‟ and brand for local older people‟s services PROPOSALS INDICATORS 1. Local public agencies to  11% of over -65s say they are commit to ‘lifetime lonely neighbourhoods’  35% of 60+ households live in principles poor housing conditions 2. Rapid adoption of Lifetime  26,000 65+ excess winter Homes planning standard deaths 3. Review policy and funding  9-10% of over 75s find it very for supported housing difficult to access doctor, post 4. During recession, anti- office, supermarket crime initiatives for and  6% of over-65s leave home with older people once a week or less
  87. 87. Opportunities and contributions PRIORITY: „age proof‟ employment and skills support during recession PROPOSALS INDICATORS 1. Employers to adopt flexible  76% say the country fails to working and ‘age make good use of older management’ policies, with people‟s skills and talents a right to request flexible  312,000 over-50s unemployed work.  168,000 over-60s participating 2. All local public services to in state-funded learning facilitate lifelong learning  60% of over-65s have never 3. IT industry to embrace used the internet accessibility and inclusive design  39% of 65-74s and 24% of over 75s participate in formal 4. Public bodies to involve volunteering at least once a diverse groups of older month people in decisions affecting them
  88. 88. Public Policy at Age UK NATIONAL LOCAL  COMMUNITY AND SOCIETY  Supporting Age Concerns and other – Income and inequality partners influence effectively – Housing  National programmes where the key decisions are local – Communities and transport  PUBLIC SERVICES – Health and healthcare REGIONAL – Independence and support  Regional teams working with partners – Equality and human rights  PRIVATE SECTOR INTERNATIONAL – Employment and opportunities  EU and international institutions – Consumer markets  Partnership with HelpAge International – Financial services
  89. 89. The older consumer
  90. 90. A large and growing older population 000s 70000 60000 0-15 50000 16-29 40000 30-49 30000 50-59 20000 60-74 10000 75+ 0 Source: National 2002 2006 2026 2036 Statistics 2004
  91. 91. Spending, income and wealth SPENDING  Over £100 billion spent by 65+ households every year  Rich people spend same amount, whatever their age. Poor people in later life spend less than younger groups with the same income INCOME  Lower incomes on average, but similar poverty rate WEALTH  2.2 million with no savings; 3 million with over £20,000  Huge inequalities in wealth, but richer than younger age groups on average (housing) Sources: see Age UK Later Life in the UK fact sheet, August 2012
  92. 92. Distribution of wealth within and between cohorts 85+ 75-84 65-74 Total Wealth 55-64 45-54 35-44 25-34 16-24 0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 1,000,000 1,200,000 1,400,000
  93. 93. Real spending power Over 50‟s account for 80% of UK financial wealth On average, higher disposable income than under 50‟s But huge variation in terms of who accounts for it…….. Wealth concentrated among current 50 - 64‟s: – 80% home ownership – spend more per week than any other age group 65 – 75‟s already have similar spending power to under 50‟s versus… 40% of retired who rely on state pension: 60% home ownership over 75‟s Sources: see Age UK Later Life in the UK fact sheet, August 2012
  94. 94. Assumptions about older consumers  Often misrepresented, neglected, ignored  55% of over 55s agree „business and retailers have little interest in the consumer needs of older consumers‟  Ageism – stereotyping of a whole age group as – Homogenous „others‟ – Warm, friendly – Incompetent and incapable  Neglected even for products mainly for older age groups… reinforcing and responding to internalised ageism
  95. 95. Facts about older consumers (1) People get more diverse as they get older…  Full-time, part-time, retired, caring, grand-parenting, volunteering etc  8% of people over 65 are from BME backgrounds  5-7% over over-60s are LGB  A third of over-65s are disabled, rising to 2/3 of over-85s  A quarter have symptoms of depression Sources: see Age UK Later Life in the UK fact sheet, August 2012
  96. 96. Facts about older consumers (2)  Driving – half of over-70s don‟t have a driving licence  Valuing home – over-65s spend more time at home (80% of the week) and like them more. But some feel trapped at home.  Living alone – half of 75+ households live alone. 7-9% over over-65s are often or always lonely  Not exercising enough – 17% of women aged 65-74 and 20% of men meet recommended guidelines  Having cognitive difficulties – especially over 80s Sources: see Age UK Later Life in the UK fact sheet, August 2012
  97. 97. Facts about older consumers (3)  Late adopters, but get there… – 77% of 65-74 year olds use a mobile – 40% aged over 65 have used the internet, including a million almost every day – 1 in 10 60-69 year olds own an MP3 player  Spend higher share on essentials (food, energy, housing etc)  A little less susceptible to switching products, advertising etc  Hate stigmatising products… eg ugly adaptations  But mainstream products don‟t always serve their needs Sources: see Age UK Later Life in the UK fact sheet, August 2012
  98. 98. Facts about older consumers (4) Impact of ageing on activities of daily living  Impacts on hearing, sight,  Small print harder to read touch, dexterity, muscular  Call centres more difficult strength, mobility etc to navigate  28% of over-65s have  Bending and stretching to significant sight loss reach shelves  55% of over 60s have  Fiddly buttons on clothes hearing problems  Sending text messages on  One third of over-65s have mobile phones a fall each year  Shopping harder to carry  9 million people have arthritis  Packaging harder to open Sources: see Age UK Later Life in the UK fact sheet, August 2012
  99. 99. Attitudes and discrimination
  100. 100. An attitude problem As a society, we have failed to come to terms with the dramatic increase in the number of older people, both in absolute terms and proportionate to the population Denial; the difficulty we all have in coming to terms with getting older, our own ageing process Older people feel they are marginalised, ignored, stereotyped Products, marketing and communications still addressed to the younger generation
  101. 101. "I feel my opinion is taken less note of nowadays"60% 50%50% 44%40% 36% 31%30% 25%20%10%0% 45-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 80+ ACRS Lifestage Survey 2007 (R) Weighted base: 2372 adults aged 50+ Agree = Strongly Agree + Tend to Agree
  102. 102. Age discrimination in the UK is still pervasiveand widespread  60% of older people in the UK agree that age discrimination exists in the daily lives of older people  53% of adults agree that once you reach very old age, people tend to treat you as a child  52 per cent of older people agree that those who plan services do not pay enough attention to the needs of older people  68% of older people agree that politicians see older people as a low priority  76% of older people believe the country fails to make good use of the skills and talents of older people  97% of annual travel insurance policies impose an upper age limit for new customers  In a study of patients at a stroke unit (2004-06), 4 per cent of patients age 75 and above were given an MRI scan, compared to 26 per cent of those under 75 Sources: see Age UK Later Life in the UK fact sheet, August 2012
  103. 103. Ageist attitudes are considered a serious problem in Europe, especially in the UK and FranceSource: Ageism in Europe. Findingsfrom the European SocialSurvey, Age UK 2011
  104. 104. Even amongst the old themselves…. Source: Ageism in Britain, Age Concern 2006
  105. 105. Society does not place a high value on old age Sheer numbers mean there is no status or achievement in having defied the odds As a revered minority, older people used to carry the wisdom of their tribe and family. But now: – no longer natural leaders – diminishing role in extended family In a secular / Western society, there is no sense of the development of spiritual wisdom that comes with age Experience used to be a basis for respect. But with the impact of technological change the experience of age is increasingly replaced by the expertise of youth Longer life seen as a burden, not a benefit
  106. 106. Society is dominated by youth culture  Huge pressure to remain looking and feeling young: – role models are young and beautiful – men worry about loss of potency, power and success – women about a decline in their attractiveness  Business still tends to innovate and grow by focusing on the young  The majority of people working in marketing, communication and design are under 40 (including Age UK)
  107. 107. Society is bound by cultural conditioning andstereotyping of what old age means and looks like  Deterioration and decay, no sex, no fun  Traditional and conservative, not innovative, lacking in discernment, not interested in style, fashion, technology  Stereotyped prejudice written into the language: „grumpy old‟, „silly old‟, „boring old‟, „dirty old man‟  Indeed, society tends to shut old age away, rather than living with it
  108. 108. The idea and fact of ageing can be traumatic  Coping with „retirement‟  Coming to terms with loss of youth  Fear of physical and mental decay  Fear of being alone, isolated, abandoned, helpless  Of being poor  Many live in denial: suppressing and denying our own fears we do not put ourselves into the shoes of being an older person…….
  109. 109. Summary: the business case  Design inclusively and older consumers will buy  Recognise that business opportunities come with change  Recognise the complexity of the market  Think beyond age
  110. 110. Opportunities
  111. 111. The ‘Third Age’ should present rich opportunities  The changing lifestyle of „retirement‟  Different priorities and needs  More time, and different uses  New interests and opportunities  More disposable income
  112. 112. Potentially a different life and opportunities Family woman Empty Nester  Focus on the family  Focus on me (us)  Spending on them  Spending on me  Family food and toiletry products:  My food and beauty preferences; – value packs to suit all – premium toiletry products – chips and pizza – salad bags and fish  No time for me  More time for me  Family holiday  Tour of China, cruise  Swim with the kids  Swim and Yoga  DIY face pack  Weekly professional manicure  Family wagon  Sporty car  Take away  Meals at nice restaurants  Old TV and video  New DVD system Lifestages survey cluster analysis, ACRS
  113. 113. Thinking beyond age  Not helpful to think of age per se.  Ageing is an individual experience; people age in different ways  The accumulation of „damage‟ is dramatically different from one person to another  People‟s response to and ability to cope with the ageing process, differs dramatically  Basic differences in attitudes towards life become magnified
  114. 114. Attitudes are much more defining  Potentially a more complex segmentation than for younger markets: – less vulnerable to peer group pressure – less need to conform, more individualistic  Most helpful segmentation based on understanding a range of feelings about ageing  Overlaid by attitude towards life per se  Whilst spending power is clearly a critical marketing variable
  115. 115. The way forward...  Question the notion of ageing; in society, in ourselves  Ignore the calendar; chronological age is progressively less relevant  Develop services and products which are appropriate to the „third‟ and fourth ages‟  Think about how we can – enable life and living – enhance the quality of life – simplify life