Development interventions and adaptive capacity: the case of Kaseja  Kirsty Wilson, ACCRA-Ethiopia  Million Getnet, Harama...
What is ACCRA?   Increasing the use of evidence in policy and practice for risk reduction and climate change adaptation
ACCRA research  <ul><li>What?  </li></ul><ul><li>What is the impact of climate hazards, variability and change on differen...
Why adaptive capacity?  <ul><li>Climate impacts can not be separated from development challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Climate...
 
Kaseja kebele
Impacts of climate changes  7-month sorghum season no longer exists Increased dependence on sweet potato grown under irrig...
<ul><ul><li>Hazards mentioned by the community show links to wider vulnerability context: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Droug...
CARE’s intervention <ul><li>Build communities’ assets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early ...
HIBRET and Adaptive Capacity <ul><li>Assets : Project aimed to enhance all 5 capitals  </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions : Ad...
Opportunities for the future <ul><li>Assets : Evaluate crop choices, incorporate community assets with shorter benefit tim...
Thank you!  http://community.eldis.org/accra/ [email_address] [email_address]
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Kirsty Wilson et al: Investigating how development interventions increase community-level adaptive capacity in Ethiopia

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  • Also in Uganda and Mozambique, where World Vision is a consortium member. Research in Dabat, Gemechis and Chifra; 3 research questions Capacity building amongst consortium members to strengthen our ability to implement disaster risk management approaches 2-year project funded by DFID
  • The FRAMEWORK What? Describes five features of a system that enable it to adapt Why adaptive capacity? - Impossible to describe a perfectly “adapted system” Focus on features that enable the process of adaptation Can be used at different levels and in different contexts How developed? With input from ACCRA agencies, a range of UK based experts and in consultation with stakeholders in Ethiopia, Uganda and Mozambique.
  • In addition adaptation is impossible to measure – dynamic process of ongoing change – easier to look at the ability to continuously adapt as we have characterised it…
  • Availability of key assets that allow the system to respond to evolving circumstances Existence of an appropriate and evolving institutional environment that allows fair access and entitlement to key assets and capitals The system has the ability to collect, analyse and disseminate knowledge and information in support of adaptation activities The system creates an enabling environment to foster innovation, experimentation and the ability to explore niche solutions in order to take advantage of new opportunities The system is able to anticipate, incorporate and respond to changes with regards to its governance structures and future planning. Availability of key assets that allow the system to respond to evolving circumstances Existence of an appropriate and evolving institutional environment that allows fair access and entitlement to key assets and capitals The system has the ability to collect, analyse and disseminate knowledge and information in support of adaptation activities The system creates an enabling environment to foster innovation, experimentation and the ability to explore niche solutions in order to take advantage of new opportunities The system is able to anticipate, incorporate and respond to changes with regards to its governance structures and future planning.
  • Drought is seen as a hazard despite no decrease in total rainfall over time. Seasonal changes combined wth population pressure and declining productivity of land mean that farmers are more likely to notice drought. Similarly the deforestation that communities describe has reduced water infiltration, which combined with irregular rainfall has led to reduced discharge from springs and the impression of water shortage. Whilst it is not clear it is possible that the changing climatic conditions could be at least partially responsible for the increase in some crop disease – communities describe new pests that were not previously encountered. One area where the communities major challenges are not linked to the changing climate but which do significantly reduce adaptation potential is the remoteness of the village. Poor access to both markets and education constrain adaptive capacity as we see later.
  •  167,602 people, operational since December 2004.    Build community assets through support to the public works on soil and water conservation, as well as basic service infrastructure projects. This component also includes support to community preparedness and response to shocks and has focused on supporting the development of Community Based Early Warning Systems as well as emergency preparedness plans at community and wereda level.          Protect household assets through the transfer of food and cash in return for public works and directly to beneficiaries who are unable to work          Diversify and expand household assets through the promotion of new livelihood strategies including, fruit and vegetable production, village savings and lending associations (VSLAs) and creation of income generating activities for landless people. Build capacity for PSNP implementation at village, kebele, wereda and regional levels.
  • First we look at how the project is contributing across the different characteristics of adaptive capacity and then move on to some of the gaps and opportunities for future action. It is important to note that the ACCRA research should not be seen as a project evaluation. We acknowledge that this programme was not designed as a climate change adaptation project. Rather we want to understand what we can learn from existing practice in social protection / DRR / livelihoods project about climate change adaptation. So we took initiatives like HIBRET as case studies to identify aspects of current development interventions which might support adaptive capacity as well as to highlight where further work is needed. This paper highlights major aspects of the framework, which are addressed by CARE’s work, as well as those, which remain overlooked in this approach to reducing vulnerability. Assets – all 5 – eg natural through public works, physical through provision of inputs, financial through supporting savings and credit groups, social through the creation of a number of groups for collective action (Eg vegetable production, landless) and human through provision of training on various topics.
  • Kirsty Wilson et al: Investigating how development interventions increase community-level adaptive capacity in Ethiopia

    1. 1. Development interventions and adaptive capacity: the case of Kaseja Kirsty Wilson, ACCRA-Ethiopia Million Getnet, Haramaya University
    2. 2. What is ACCRA? Increasing the use of evidence in policy and practice for risk reduction and climate change adaptation
    3. 3. ACCRA research <ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the impact of climate hazards, variability and change on different livelihood groups? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the impact of existing interventions on adaptive capacity? </li></ul><ul><li>What is missing that would maximise the contribution these interventions could make to adaptation? </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><li>New framework characterising Adaptive Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Where? </li></ul><ul><li>Gemechis, West Hararghe – PSNP/Livelihoods (CARE) </li></ul><ul><li>Chifra, Afar – PSNP, CB DRR (Save the Children UK) </li></ul><ul><li>Dabat, Amhara – Market-based agriculture / DRR (Oxfam GB) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Why adaptive capacity? <ul><li>Climate impacts can not be separated from development challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Climate predictions can not inform policy decisions yet </li></ul><ul><li>BUT change will happen and Ethiopia is vulnerable </li></ul><ul><li>So Adaptation is </li></ul><ul><li>Not a choice between vulnerability reduction or specific responses BUT </li></ul><ul><li>an ongoing change process based on informed decision making, WHICH MEANS: </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and being able to adapt is key! </li></ul>
    5. 6. Kaseja kebele
    6. 7. Impacts of climate changes 7-month sorghum season no longer exists Increased dependence on sweet potato grown under irrigation Increased interest in short-maturing maize Shorter rainfall season (Feb, July, August show small decrease) Soils and ponds dry more quickly Decreased production Shortage of livestock fodder Temperature increase
    7. 8. <ul><ul><li>Hazards mentioned by the community show links to wider vulnerability context: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water shortage (reduced spring discharge) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crop, animal and human disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remoteness: poor access to markets and education </li></ul></ul>Climate hazards
    8. 9. CARE’s intervention <ul><li>Build communities’ assets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early warning and preparedness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protect household assets through food and cash transfers </li></ul><ul><li>Diversify and expand household assets through livelihood promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Build capacity for Productive Safety Net implementation </li></ul>Household Asset Building and Rural Empowerment for Transformation (HIBRET)
    9. 10. HIBRET and Adaptive Capacity <ul><li>Assets : Project aimed to enhance all 5 capitals </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions : Addressed land mgmt in creating enclosure / opportunities for landless </li></ul><ul><li>Information and knowledge: Various training in new agricultural techniques / formation of early warning committees </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation : Introduced new technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible/forward looking: Project was flexible in responding to drought and supported decentralisation of early warning system </li></ul>
    10. 11. Opportunities for the future <ul><li>Assets : Evaluate crop choices, incorporate community assets with shorter benefit timeframes, improve technical support </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions: Improve the equity of institutions for managing key assets – eg irrigation water </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge and info: Use weather information to inform decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation: Create an enabling environment </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible/Forward Looking: Create greater feedback mechanisms and more informed planning </li></ul>
    11. 12. Thank you! http://community.eldis.org/accra/ [email_address] [email_address]

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