Counterfeiting• Crime of making, circulating of uttering false coins and bank notes, with the intent to defraud others into accepting it as genuine time.• Also applied to fraudulent imitation, such as spurious trademarks, dies or works of art.• Forgery of government obligations such as money or bond
Examination of Counterfeit coins• By use of magnifying glass and comparing it with a known genuine coin• Defects are caused by the formation of air bubbles or by removal of small parts of the of the word along with the coin• Best place to examine is on the edge since there are special milling marks or designs which are added to a genuine coin by machinery• Compare a suspected coin to a genuine of same value
Coins1. Even flow of metallic grains2. High relief of letter and numerals3. Regularity of reading and beading
Old Method of Examining Coins1. Magnetic or Not? If a coin is attracted to a magnet, it is not authentic. All valid coins are made from nonmagnetic metals such as gold, silver, copper and nickel. Many counterfeit coins are made from iron alloys that are drawn to magnets.
Old Method of Examining Coins2. Measurement According to the United States Mint, coins are made to exact size standards. The coins diameter is easily measured with a ruler. The size of a valid coin should not vary by more than a fraction of a millimeter. See the coin size chart in the Resources section of this article.
Old Method of Examining Coins3. Weight Check Coins are also made to precise weight specifications. Weigh the coin on a sensitive scale made for coins, jewelry or postage. Valid coins should not vary by more than one hundredth of a gram. See the coin weight specifications in the Resources section below.
Old Method of Examining Coins4. Surface Check According to the Numismatic Guaranty Corporation, fake coins often have noticeable defects on their surfaces. Invalid coins that are made from casts of real coins commonly have a pitted or grainy appearance. They lack detail and can feel slippery to the touch. The surfaces themselves can be concave or convex instead of flat. These differences are often obvious when comparing fake and real coins side by side.
Old Method of Examining Coins5. Edge Check The edge of an invalid coin can have a small bump on it. This marks the spot where metal was poured into the cast used to make the fake. Sometimes this bump is sanded off. In this case there will be a small flat spot on the edge. The rim of a valid coin should feel consistent all the way around.
Old Method of Examining Coins6. Sound Check Valid coins make a distinctive ringing sound when dropped on a hard surface. Fake coins make a "thud" sound. Compare the sound of coins you know to be valid to the sound of the suspected fake. Do not do this test with valuable collector coins. Dropping a coin on a hard surface can damage a precious coin.
STUDY and FAMILIARIZE yourself with thecharacteristics, designs and distinct features of BSP banknotes by following these steps:
1. PAPERFeel the paper• The genuine note is printed on a special kind of paper which is rough when you run your fingers through it.• It does not glow under the ultra-violet light. During paper manufacture, the watermark, security fibers, security threads and iridescent band are included.
2. WATERMARKExamine the watermark on the unprintedportion of the note• The watermark is the silhouette of the portrait appearing on the face of the note.• Sharp details of the light and shadow effect can be seen when the note is viewed against the light.• The contours of the features of the silhouette can be felt by running the fingers over the design on relatively new notes.
3. SECURITY FIBERSInspect the security fibers• Embedded red and blue visible fibers are scattered at random on both surfaces of a genuine note and can be readily picked off by means of any pointed instrument.
4. EMBEDDED SECURITY THREADView the embedded security thread• The embedded security thread is a special thread vertically implanted off center of the note during paper manufacture.• This can easily be seen when the note is viewed against the light.• It appears as a broken line for 5’s, 10’s and 20’s and straight line for 50’s, 100’s, 200’s , 500’s and 1000’s.
5. WINDOWED SECURITY THREADView the windowed security thread on theimproved version of 100’s, 500’s and 1000-pisonotes and the new 200-piso notes.• The windowed security thread is a narrow security thread vertically located like “stitches” at the face of the note with cleartext of the numerical value in repeated sequence and changes in color from magenta to green or green to magenta depending on the angle of view.
6. IRIDESCENT BANDLook for the iridescent band on the improvedversion of 100’s, 500’s and 1000-piso notes andthe new 200-piso notes• A wide glistening gold vertical stripe with the numerical value printed in series.
7. PORTRAITRecognize the portrait• Appears life-like.• The eyes “sparkle”.• Shadings are formed by the fine lines that give the portrait a characteristic facial expression which is extremely difficult to replicate.
8. SERIAL NUMBERCheck the serial number• Composed of 1 or 2 prefix letters and 6 or 7 digits.• The letters and numerals are uniform in size and thickness, evenly spaced and well- aligned; and glow under the ultra-violet light.• A banknote with six “0” digit serial number is a specimen note and not legal tender note.
9. BACKGROUND/LACEWORK DESIGNScan the background/lacework design• The background designs are made up of multi-colored and well defined lines.• The lacework designs are composed of web- crisscrossing lines which are continuous and traceable even at the intersection.
10. VIGNETTEVerify the vignette• The lines and dashes composing the vignette are fine, distinct and sharp; the varying color tone gives a vivid look to the picture that makes it “stand out” of the paper.
11. VALUE PANELCheck the numerals found at the four cornersof the front and back of the note.• The numerals denote the denomination of the note.
12. COLORRecognize predominant color of eachdenomination:1000-piso Blue 50-piso Red500-piso Yellow 20-piso Orange200-piso Green 10-piso* Brown100-piso Mauve 5-piso* Green*The BSP has stopped printing these banknotesand are being replaced by coins; however, theexisting 10- and 5- piso notes remain legaltender.
13. FLUORESCENT PRINTINGLook for the presence of the fluorescent printwhen the note is exposed under the ultraviolet light• The fluorescent print is the invisible numerical value located off center of the face of the note that glows when exposed to ultraviolet light.
14. MICROPRINTINGVerify under the lens the presence of themicroprinting on the denominations 50, 100,200, 500 and 1000• Microprintings are the minute and finely printed words “Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas” or “Central Bank of the Philippines” located at the face or back of the note that are clearly printed and readable.
15. CONCEALED VALUECheck the concealed value on the 500-pisodenomination• This concealed value is located at the lower left corner of the face of the note and is recognizable when the note is held at eye level.
16. OPTICALLY VARIABLE INKCheck the optically variable ink on the 1000-piso denomination• It changes color from green to blue or blue to green when the note is held at different angles.
PERTINENT LAWS AND REGULATIONS TO PROTECTAND MAINTAIN THE INTEGRITY OF THE CURRENCY1. Article 163, Revised Penal Code (RPC). Making andimporting and uttering (issuing or circulating) falsecoins.2. Article 166, Revised Penal Code (RPC). Forgingtreasury or bank notes or other documents payable tobearer; importing, and uttering (issuing or circulating)such false or forgednotes and documents.3. Article 168, Revised Penal Code (RPC). Illegalpossession and use of false treasury or bank notesand other instrumentsof credit.
4. Article 176, Revised Penal Code (RPC).Manufacturing and possession of instruments orimplements for falsification.5. PD 247 – Defacement, mutilation, tearing, burningor destruction of Central Bank (BSP) notes and coins.6. Chapter II, Circular 61, Series of 1995.Reproduction and/or use of facsimiles of legal tenderPhilippine currency notes.7. Chapter III, Circular 61, Series of 1995.Reproduction and/or use of facsimiles of legal tenderPhilippine currencycoins.
IF YOU SUSPECT A COUNTERFEIT NOTE• Do not return it to the passer.• Delay the passer by some excuse, if possible, without risking harm.• Observe and record the passer’s appearance and that of his/her companion/s.• Note the license plate number and make of the passer’s car.• Place the note in a protective envelope.