Stailistiks ppt


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Stailistiks ppt

  1. 1. Stailistiks/stylistix By: Atyha Rahman
  2. 2. Style in language ?  What is style in language?  How is it produced?  How it can be recognized and described?  Is it a general feature of language?
  3. 3. style
  4. 4. Stttttttyleeeeee  She writes in a vigorous style.  Haris started off in a fine style.  She dresses in a superb style.  I don‟t like his style of management.  Your cooking style differs from mine.  The elegant style of a home !  They live in grand style .  Here one can eat in style !
  5. 5. ssssssssssstyle  How stylish she is !  How stylishly does she speak!  I like Bernard Shaw‟s style.  Housewives don‟t care much for style.  What a student has to do with style ?  Stylish means being brand conscious.  I like Operah‟ s style .
  6. 6. stylllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllle  What is common ?
  7. 7. Style in Language  Style in language can be defined to be “     Distinctive linguistic expression” What makes an expression distinctive? Is every expression distinctive ? Does every expression carry style ? Does stylistics seek to study every human expression ?
  8. 8. Stylistics  Hence stylistics is the study of style ,style in language , i.e., the distinctive linguistic expression
  9. 9. Stylistics  The aesthetic function of language  Expressive means in language  Synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea  Emotional colouring of language  A system of special devices ,called stylistic devices
  10. 10. Stylistics  The splitting of the literary language into separate subsystems called stylistic devices.  The inter-relation between language and thought  The individual manner of an author in making use of language
  11. 11. stylistics  Language is not a disorganized mass of sounds and symbols ,,,  It is instead an intricate web of levels ,layers and links.  Any utterance or piece of text is organized through several distinct levels of language.  Levels are inter-connected ,they interpenetrate and depend on one another.
  12. 12. Stylistics studies …  Levels: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Phonological level Graphological level Morphological level Syntactical/grammatical Semantic level Pragmatic level
  13. 13. Style in language  Style as choice  Style as man  Style as deviation  Style as conformity  Style as time/period  Style as situation
  14. 14. Style as choice  Choice means options and variations that are     available to the author. Depends on the situation and the genre that the writer chooses. Writer‟s choice reflects his ego and social conditions of his time. A writer can choose between “start” ,and “commence” , “ proceed” and “go” Style is the name of writer‟s choice of words ,and rhetorical devices.
  15. 15. Style as man  Distinctive features distinguish one person from     the other One is able to differentiate between the writings of Morrison and Achebe. Style is shaped by one‟s social and political background, religious inclination,culture ,education ,and geographical location etc. style an index of personality Objection : if a person exhibits different styles on different occasion ,does it mean that he has different personalities?
  16. 16. Style as deviation  Deviation from the norm: style  The concept of style as deviation ,itself implies     that there are rules , norms ,and conventions to be followed. When these conventions are crossed ,deviation occurs. Departure from what is taken as a common practice. Rules of language are jettisoned intentionally by the writer , whether at any level. “dangerous safety” , “ open secret”.
  17. 17. Style as conformity  Conformity is the first available option to a writer  It is writer‟s decision to conform or deviate from the norms.  A major weakness : this notion clips creativity  “style as conformity” is often strictly enforced in certain fields and circumstances  Most of the time conformity is the pre-requisite of acceptability.
  18. 18. Style as period/ time  A period usually dictates the style employed by     the writers The style of any given period has recognizably predominant features that make such a poeriod distinct. Shakespeare and his contemporaries used a particular style of writing : writing in verse Henrik ibsen was a huge influence as dramas in verse were never liked after him ,and the previous style was abandoned. Victorian ,Elizabethan , Renaissance and Modern periods all have their particular styles ,different
  19. 19. Style as situation  It is the context that determines language choice in speaking or writing .  Certain words are appropriate for certain occasions ,while some are considered taboo ,vulgar or abominable.  Language is used according to situation or circumstance .
  20. 20. Types of stylistics  Linguistic stylistics  Literary stylistics  Functional stylistics  Encoding stylistics  Decoding stylistics/ reader-response stylistics/affective stylistics
  21. 21.  Creativity and innovation is not the preserve of literary writings only.  advertising, journalism, popular music – even casual conversation) often display a high degree of stylistic dexterity .  Linguistic and „ extra-linguistic‟ parameters are inextricably woven together , and make the text the way it means .
  22. 22. 3 Rs  stylistic analysis should be rigorous  stylistic analysis should be retrievable  stylistic analysis should be replicable.
  23. 23. Rigorous  it should be based on an explicit framework of analysis.  It is underpinned by structured models of language and discourse that explain how we process and understand various patterns in language.
  24. 24. Retrievable Analysis is organized through explicit terms and criteria ,the meanings of which are agreed upon by other stylisticians.
  25. 25. Replicable  Replicability does not mean that we should copy each other‟s work ,rather it means that the methods should be sufficiently transparent as to allow other stylisticians to verify them, either by testing them on the same text or by applying them beyond that text.
  26. 26. Linguistics stylistics  Explores the linguistic features of a text.  style is the selection of certain linguistic forms or features over other possible ones.  Hence Linguistic stylistics, points out those linguistic choices which a writer or speaker has made as well as the effects of the choices.  primarily concerned with the use of language and its effects in a text.  Uses objective and verifiable approach to analyse texts.
  27. 27. Literary stylistics  Synonymous to literary criticism ,in a way.  The task of literary stylistics is to decipher a message encoded in an unfamiliar way, to express its meaning in familiar and communal terms and thereby to provide the private message with a public relevance.  The literary stylistician is obviously sensitive to language, but his/her concern is not principally with the way the signals of the artist are constructed but with the underlying message which an interpretation of the signals reveal.
  28. 28. Two aspects to literature  Verbal &  Artistic
  29. 29. Goals of stylistics  To establish discourse peculiarities  To induce appreciation of discourses  To ascertain linguistic habits  To make critical judgements
  30. 30. Encoding stylistics
  31. 31. encoding stylistics/authorcentered  the peculiarities of the author's style are singled out on the basis of comparison with other writers.  Encoding stylistic analysis includes the critical study of the author's style, vocabulary means used by him.  Ideas can be extracted from the writer's diaries, letters, articles, etc.
  32. 32. Encoding stylistics Encoding stylistic analysis takes into consideration the facts of the writer's biography, the genesis of the work in question, the characteristic features of the epoch and literary trend.  This kind of analysis is based on the thorough knowledge of the History of Literature.  Analysis from the author's point of view treats the work of art as a result or consequence of creative activity. 
  33. 33. Step by step analysis  The analysis of the text goes through a number of definite stages. It begins with the analysis of main ideas and themes of the literary work which include the complex of philosophical, moral, social, political, psychological problems and author's emotions, attitudes and view on them.  This stage is followed with the analysis of the composition and the system of images of the literary work connected with the plot, characters and setting.
  34. 34. Step by step………  Then follows the analysis of lexical and grammatical expression of the images stylistic devices and means. And finally we pay attention to phonetic or sound form of the text and its graphical representation.
  35. 35. A totally opposite way….  the reader usually follows the reversed way. He transforms the graphical presentation into words, then into the system of images, feelings, thoughts of the author, and at last the reader can grasp the main idea of the author. Much attention is paid to the text, less to the writer. A work of art is treated as a source of information and impressions. This is another kind of stylistic analysis, i.e. from the reader's point of view, or decoding stylistics.
  36. 36. Affective stylistics
  37. 37.  Affective stylistics is derived from analyzing further the notion that a literary text is an event that occurs in time—that comes into being as it is read—rather than an object that exists in space.
  38. 38.  The text is examined closely, often line by line or even word by word, in order to understand how (stylistics) it affects (affective) the reader in the process of reading.
  39. 39.  Although there is thus a great deal of focus on the text, which is why some theorists consider this approach transactional in nature, many practitioners of affective stylistics do not consider the text an objective, autonomous entity—it does not have a fixed meaning independent of readers—because the text consists of the results it produces, and those results occur within the reader.
  40. 40.  For example, when Stanley Fish describes how a text is structured, the structure he describes is the structure of the reader’s response as it occurs from moment to moment, not the structure of the text as we might assemble it—like puzzle pieces all spread out at once before us—after we’ve finished reading.
  41. 41.  Indeed, it is the “slow-motion,” phrase-by-phrase analysis of how the text structures the reader’s response for which affective stylistics is perhaps best known.
  42. 42.  According to Fish, the question “What does this sentence mean?” or “What does this sentence say?” yields little because the sentence provides us with no facts with which we could answer the question. Even if we notice that the sentence does say something—
  43. 43.  In addition to an analysis of the reading activities that structure the reader’s response, other kinds of evidence are usually gathered to further support the claim that the text is about the experience of reading. For example, most practitioners of affective stylistics will cite the responses of other readers—of other literary critics, for example—to show that their own analyses of the reading activities provided by a particular text are valid for readers other than just them-selves.
  44. 44.  . A critic might even cite an extreme divergence of critical opinion about the text to support, for example, the contention that the text provides an unsettling, decentering, or confusing reading experience. This wouldn’t mean that the text is flawed but that by unsettling the reader it demonstrates, say, the fact that interpretation of written texts, and perhaps of the world, is a problematic endeavor from which we should not expect to achieve certainty.
  45. 45.  Thematic evidence from the text itself is also usually provided to show that the text is about the experience of reading. For example, the reader-response critic shows how the experiences of characters and descriptions of settings mirror the reader’s experience reading the text.
  46. 46.  As noted above, the textual evidence at this point is thematic: the critic shows that the theme of the text is a particular kind of reading experience, such as the difficulties involved in reading, the processes involved in making sense of the text, or the inevitability of misreading.
  47. 47.  Although many practitioners of affective stylistics believe that the text, as an independent object, disappears in their analysis and becomes what it really is—an experience that occurs within the reader—their use of thematic evidence, as we’ve just seen, underscores the important role played by the text in establishing what the reader’s experience is.