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Genre Analysis


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Genre Analysis

  1. 1. Genre Analysis<br />
  3. 3. DiscourseCommunity<br />Swales (1990) gives the followingdefinitions:<br />A discoursecommunity has a broadlyagreed set of common public goals.<br />It has mechanisms for intercommunication amongitsmembers(e.g., meetings, correspondence, newsletter, mailing list).<br />
  4. 4. DiscourseCommunity<br />c. It uses participatorymechanismsprimarilyto provide information and feedback (in accordance with the common goal).<br />d. A discoursecommunity has developed and continues to developdiscoursal expectations (pp. 25-26).<br />
  5. 5. Genreis a termfor grouping texts together, representing how writers typically use language to respond to recurring situations (Hyland, 2004).<br />
  6. 6. A genre comprises a set of communicative events, the members of which share some set of communicative purposes (Swales, 1990).<br /> Exemplars of a genre exhibit various patterns of similarity in terms of structure, style, content and intended audience.<br />
  7. 7. Genreis a social action and a speech eventthat has communicative goal shared by the members of a particulardiscoursecommunity.<br />
  8. 8. <ul><li>Genre: in literary studies, film, anthropology, study of folklore, music
  9. 9. In applied linguistics, three approaches to genre:
  10. 10. The English for specific purposes (ESP) approach
  11. 11. The New Rhetoric approach
  12. 12. The functional-systemic approach (Halliday)</li></li></ul><li>Can you think of some academic genres?<br />
  13. 13. research article, conference proposal, business report, grant application, letter to the editor, reference letter, MA dissertation, MA dissertation proposal, lecture, seminar<br />
  14. 14. Some examples are public and occluded.(Swales and Feaks 2000)<br />
  15. 15. Public / Open Genres<br />- are accessible to everyone, often published, and are easily visible and audible<br />
  16. 16. Occluded / Supporting Genres<br />- are ‘closed’, not public in nature, and often difficult to access examples of.<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18. <ul><li>Genre sets: abstract and introduction in the research paper
  19. 19. Genres and subgenres:
  20. 20. Review > book review, film review, CD review
  21. 21. Promotional writing > sales letter, tourist brochure</li></li></ul><li>Professional Genresare characterized by the following (Bhatia, 1999):<br />Genre Integrity<br /> This refers to genericcharacterthatmakesit acceptable to the members of a particulardiscoursecommunity. It meansthata particularcommunityunderstands the implicit and explicit objectives of a genre. <br />
  22. 22. This genre alsofollows the acceptable rhetorical structure popular in that discipline. <br />Example: <br /> An adjustmentletter in a discoursecommunitylike the Baggage Claims in an airport must adhere to the policies and format in thatdepartment. It must alsobewrittenfollowingbaiscprinciples of business communication. If itdoes not followtheseprinciples, its genre integrityisatstake as well as the integrity of the departmentthatproducedit.<br />
  23. 23. b. Discursive Processes and Genre <br />Bhatia (1999) points out thatprofessional genres are often the "products of a set of establishedproceduresthatform an important part of the disciplinary culture within a profession" (p.23).<br />
  24. 24. Example:<br /> In the field of information technology, a project proposal is a collaborative work that follows a cyclical process as groups collaborate with clients, with other members of the company, and with other members of the design group.<br />
  25. 25. c. GenericPurposes and Intentions<br /> "Althoughmany of the genres employed in well-establishedprofessionalcontexts serve recognizable and somewhatstandardized set of communicative purposes, theyrarely, if ever, serve a single purpose. If nothingelse, theyalmostalways combine a more immediate single purposewith the moststanderdizedones of maintenance and continuance of goodwill and a mutuallybeneficialprofessionalrelationship" (Bhatia, 1999, p. 25).<br />
  26. 26. Example:<br /> - the use of newsletters by universities to inform the community about the developments in their institution and to market fund raising programs to the alumni<br />
  27. 27. d. Genre Participants<br /> "Practicing genre isalmostlikeplaying a gamewithitsrules and conventions. Established genre participants, bothwriters and readers, are likeskillfulplayers, whosucceed by their manipulation and exploitation of, ratherthan a strict compliancewith, the rules of the game" (Bhatia, 1999, p.24).<br />
  28. 28. e. Genre Versality<br />Although genres like business lettersfollowconventional formats, different institutions and companies have theirownnorms for structuringtheircomminications. This is the reasonwhy new employeesneed to acquaintthemselveswith the corporate culture in theirworkplace. <br />
  29. 29. Genre Analysisis a process of lookingatseveralsamples of a particular genre to analyzetheirsimilarities and differences in terms of theirpurposes, macrostructure and languagechoice.<br />
  30. 30. Genre Analysis: The CARS Model<br /> Swales (1990): Move and step analysis of introductions to research articles: the CARS (creating a research space) model<br />Move 1: Establishing a territory <br />Step 1. Claiming centrality and/or<br /> Step 2. Making topic generalizations and/or<br /> Step 3. Reviewing items of previous research<br />Move 2: Establishing a niche <br />Step 1a Counter-claiming or<br />Step 1b Indicating a gap or<br /> Step 1c Question-raising or<br /> Step 1d Continuing a tradition<br />Move 3: Occupying the niche<br />Step 1a Outlining purposes or<br /> Step 1b Announcing present research<br /> Step 2 Announcing principle findings<br /> Step 3 Indicating Research article structure<br />
  31. 31. Genre Analysis: Recent Trends in Research<br /><ul><li>Move and step analysis of other genres
  32. 32. Sales promotion letters (Bhatia, 1993),
  33. 33. PhD thesis (Bunton, 2005)
  34. 34. Cross-cultural comparisons of genres
  35. 35. German and American lectures (Schleef, 2009)
  36. 36. English and Spanish book reviews (Moreno & Suárez, 2008)</li></li></ul><li>Genre Analysis: Recent Trends in Research<br /><ul><li>Intercultural influences
  37. 37. Genres written by writers from different L1 backgrounds writing in English (Precht’s (1998) study of recommendation letters written by British, American, German and Eastern European lecturers)
  38. 38. Diachronic (historical) studies of genres
  39. 39. Bazerman’s (1988) work on the evolution of scientific report in physics
  40. 40. Salager-Meyer et al’s (2007): book reviews in French and English medical journals, a comparison between the last decades of the 19th and the 20th centuries</li></li></ul><li>The followingsteps are useful:<br />a. Collectsamples of the same genre.Althoughthereis no specificrequired, 30 are usually the minimum for statisticalpurpose. On the other hand, if you are doing the analysis to becomefamiliarwith the conventions, getenoughsamplesuntilyou are able to see patterns of organization. <br />
  41. 41. b. Look for available in-house style guides or documentation manual.<br />c. If you are doing the genre analysis for a graduatepaper, itis best to look for relatedresearch. This isalsoa good idea if you are conductingneedsanalysis to design an EOP (English for OccupationalPurpose) course.<br />
  42. 42. d. Next, ask about theirpurposes, intendedreaders, and writingprocesses<br />e. Look for macro patterns. Theserefer to the major sections of a document. If you notice deviations to the pattern, find out theirreasons.<br />f. Next, analyze how each section isorganized<br />
  43. 43. g. Finally, pay attention to the languagefeatures. For example, you check the use of voice, tense, and idioms. Manycompanieswant to have a distinct "voice ", and onlythosewhobelong to thosecompaniesunderstand how that "voice"isprojected.<br />
  44. 44. "Genre analysisadds to ourunderstanding of how languageisusedwithin an important discoursecommunity, and is a model of appliedlinguistics in its best sense – itdraws on linguistic and sociolinguistictheory to classify the nature of language use and languagelearning in an educational setting". – Long and Richards<br />
  45. 45. References<br /><ul><li>Bhatia, V. (1993). Analysing genre. Language use in professional settings. London: Longman. Section on Sales promotion letters (pp. 45-59).
  46. 46. Bunton, D. (2005). The structure of PhD conclusion chapters. Journal of English for Specific Purposes, 4: 207-224.
  47. 47. Hartford, B., & Bardovi-Harlig, K. (1992). Closing the Conversation: Evidence from the Academic Advising Session. Discourse Processes, 15, 93-116.
  48. 48. Hoey, M. (1983). On the surface of discourse. London: Allen and Unwin.
  49. 49. Hoey, M. (1994). Signalling in discourse: a functional analysis of a common discourse pattern in written and spoken English (pp. 26-45). In: M. Coulthard (Ed.). Advances in written text analysis. New York: Routledge.
  50. 50. Hyland, K. (2004). Genre and second language writing. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
  51. 51. Swales, J. (1990). Genre Analysis: English in academic and research settings. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.</li>