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Functional stylistics


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Functional stylistics

  1. 1.   Transitivity is purely a syntactic description; it is based on whether a verb takes an Object or not. If a verb takes an object ,it is transitive , while, a verb ,not carrying an object is intransitive.
  2. 2. is the grammar of discourse  2. mood is the grammar of speech function  3.Transitivity is the grammar of experience .  1.theme
  3. 3. Grammatical transitivity - concerned with the relations between elements in a clause I walked INTRANSITIVE CLAUSE I walked the dog TRANSITIVE CLAUSE
  4. 4. In traditional grammar: I SUBJECT walked VERB the dog OBJECT In systemic functional grammar: I PARTICIPANT walked PROCESS the dog PARTICIPANT
  5. 5.    Transitivity is a semantic process in the analysis of representation of reality. transitivity enables us to analyze and represent the same event and situation in different ways. The transitivity patterns can also indicate the certain mind-set or worldview “framed by the authorial ideology”
  6. 6.  According to Halliday ,there are three major functions of language . 1. Ideational 2. Textual 3. interpersonal
  7. 7.  The ideational function is the use of language to express content(speaker‟s attitude towards the world) and to communicate information
  8. 8.  The textual function is the use of language to signify discourse.( how the speaker or a writer constructs a text )
  9. 9.  Interpersonal function is the use of language to establish and maintain social relations.
  10. 10.   The ideational function of the clause is concerned with the “transmission of ideas.” Its function is that of “representing „processes‟ or „experiences‟. (actions, events, processes of consciousness and relations) .
  11. 11.    all phenomena…and anything that can be expressed by a verb : event, whether physical or not, state, or relation, the “processes” expressed through language are product of our conception of the world or point of view.
  12. 12.   Our most powerful conception of reality is that it consists of “goings-on” : of doing, happening, feeling, being. These goings-on are sorted out in the semantic system of the language, and expressed through the grammar of the clause…
  13. 13.   Transitivity specifies the different types of process that are recognized in the language, and the structures by which they are expressed. The task of transitivity analysis, is to discover the relation between meanings and wordings that accounts for the organization of linguistic features in a text.
  14. 14. The semantic processes expressed by clauses have potentially three components 1. the process itself, which will be expressed by the verb phrase in a clause. 2. the participants in the clause, which refer to the roles of entities that are directly involved in the process 
  15. 15.    the one that does, behaves or says, together with the passive one that is done to, said to, etc. . The participants are not necessarily humans or even animate The participant entities are normally realized by noun phrases in the clause.
  16. 16. 3. the circumstances associated with the process, which are typically expressed by adverbial and prepositional phrases.
  17. 17.  The transitivity model provides a means of discovering how certain linguistic structures of a text encode the particular worldview or ideological stance of a reader/speaker.
  18. 18.  Linguistic codes do not reflect reality neutrally; they interpret, organize, and classify the subjects of discourse. They embody theories of how the world is arranged: world-views or ideologies.
  19. 19.  to uncover the principle “who or what what?” does what to whom or
  20. 20.  The action of an ACTOR and  It effects upon the GOAL
  21. 21.  transitivity is purely a syntactic description; it is based on whether a verb takes an Object or not. If a verb takes object , it is called Transitive.  If it does not take an object it is intransitive. 
  22. 22.   The analysis is purely semantic ,rather than the syntactic one . An important question is whether there is an implication of an animate individual Actor/Agent intentionally doing the action to another entity Goal.
  23. 23.  social and cultural factors  as well as any individual mind-set.  Different social structures and value systems require different patterns of transitivity.
  24. 24. Three things are to be found out : 1. Isolate the process per se, and determine which participant who or what is doing each process ; 2. Determine what sorts of process they are, and which participant is engaged in which type of process ;
  25. 25. 3. Determine who or what is affected or seems to be affected by each of these processes.
  26. 26.  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Transitivity processes can be classified into : Material (doing){ kick ,run ,paint ,send} Relational (being or becoming) {be ,have ,become} Mental (sensing){see,hear,know ,like} Verbal (saying){say ,tell ,warn,argue,ask} Behavioral (behaving){laugh,talk ,cry,breath} Existential (existing){there is…………….}
  27. 27.   Material processes are processes of doing in the physical world. Two inherent participants are Actor and Goal ,the first being an obligatory element and expresses the doer of the process , and later being an optional element and expresses the person or entity affected by the process
  28. 28.      Material Processes: physical actions in the real world and their Participants: - Actor: the one who does the action - Goal: The one who is affected by the action - Recipient: the one who receives something - Beneficiary: the one for whom something is done
  29. 29.  John drove Mary home  Actor Process Goal Circ: destination  Mary was driven home by John  Goal Process Circ: destination Actor  John gave Mary a book  Actor Process Recipient Goal  John built Mary a house  Actor Process Beneficiary Goal
  30. 30.   There is an extra element called CIRCUMSTANCE which provides additional information on the “when, where, how, and why” of the process. The Circumstantial meaning is realized, not in nominal phrases, but as either adverbial phrases or prepositional phrases, and so is subsidiary in status to the process.
  31. 31.  Circumstance expresses supplementary information, such as place, time, extent, matter, manner, duration, condition, means, etc.
  32. 32.    John(actor) kicked (process :material) the ball.(goal ) , John(actor) hit(process:material) the man (Goal) very hard.circumstance :manner) The boat (actor) sailed(process :material) in the bay.(circumstance :place )
  33. 33.   Of course, it is possible to reverse Actor/Goal in a passive form, placing a Goal at an initial position and Actor at the end of the sentence, such as : The man was hit by John.
  34. 34.   Relational processes are concerned with the process of being in the world of abstract relations. Normally, an abstract relationship that exists between two participants associated with the process is considered, but unlike the case of material process, a participant does not affect the other participant in a physical sense.
  35. 35.  John is talented &    John is the leader But to define relational processes is not so easy. relational process are quite complex and controversial
  36. 36. In systemic functional grammar: I PARTICIPANT (ACTOR) walked PROCESS (MATERIAL P) the dog PARTICIPANT (GOAL) The student wrote the essay (ACTOR) (GOAL) (MATERIAL P)
  37. 37. Other examples, other processes The student (ACTOR) The student (SAYER) The lecturer (SENSER) *The essay (PHENOMENON) wrote the essay (MATERIAL P) (GOAL) argued the case that …. (VERBAL P) (VERBIAGE) appreciated (MENTAL P) impresssed (MENTAL P) the essay (PHENOMENON) the lecturer (SENSER)
  38. 38.  Halliday: The system of transitivity in language is concerned with representing patterns of experience, “of goings on” and “happenings” in the world….It construes the world into a manageable set of PROCESS types and of PARTICIPANTS
  39. 39. PROCESS PARTICIPANT Material PARTICIPANT Verbal Mental etc. The student The student …. The lecturer wrote argued the essay the case that appreciated the essay
  40. 40. Mental Processes: processes of perception, cognition, affection  - Senser: the one who does the mental action  - Phenomenon: The thing that is perceived, thought, appreciated 
  41. 41. Mental Processes: processes of sensing 1. Perception (seeing, hearing, etc.)  2. Affection (liking, fearing, etc.)  3. Cognition (thinking, knowing, understanding, etc .) 
  42. 42.       John saw Mary Senser Process Phenomenon{perception} John thought that Mary was coming Senser Process Phenomenon{cognition} That he was tall pleased Mary Phenomenon Process Senser{emotion}
  43. 43. Verbal Processes: processes of communication:  - Sayer: the one who communicates  - Addressee: the one receiving the message  - Verbiage: What they say 
  44. 44.  John said that he was tired  Sayer Process Verbiage  John told Mary to go  Sayer Process Addressee Verbiage  John was told to go by Mary  Addressee Process Verbiage Sayer
  45. 45. Relational Processes: expressing possession, equivalence, attributes...  - Carrier: An entity being described  - Attribute: The description of the entity   John is tall  Carrier Process Attribute
  46. 46.         - Possessor: the one owning or containing something - Possessed: the thing owned or contained. John owns a Mercedes Possessor Process Possession - Token: an entity being equated with another - Value: the other description. John is the president Token Process Value
  47. 47.  As a rule of thumb, a behavioral process verb is  a. Intransitive (it has only one participant) and  b. Indicates an activity in which both the physical and mental aspects are inseparable and indispensable to it.
  48. 48.    In this process, there is only one participant, namely: behaver (the agent who behaves), example: Buff neither laughs ,nor smiles. Behaver (process)
  49. 49.   These processes represent that something exists or happens. These clauses typically have the verb be, or some other verb expressing existence, such as exist, arise, followed by a nominal group functioning as Existent (a thing which exists in the process)
  50. 50.    There was a storm {was} process {a storm} existent
  51. 51. 1. 2. 3. 4. Jack and jill went up the hill ,to fetch a pail of water . Jim said he reckoned I would believe him next time Spurs played Liverpool. They beat them The cops chased the robbers. They caught them
  52. 52.        Circumstances: any kind of contingent fact or subsidiary situation which is associated with the process or the main situation – The museum is round the corner – Do it gently. – He watered the garden with a hose – I left because I was tired.