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  1. 1. Copyright © 2005William Kritsonis CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICAAll Rights Reserved / Forever PAGE 209This book is protected under the Copyright Act of 1976. Uncited Sources,Violators will be prosecuted. Courtesy, National FORUM Journals CHAPTER 8 SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICA KEY POINTS 1. Junior high schools were the first form of intermediate schools developed. 2. Middle schools were developed as a result of critics questioning the poor preparation of students for high school. 3. Middle schools are currently the most popular intermediate organization in our public schools. 4. Today, high schools follow a comprehensive model and provide a variety of programs to a diverse group of students. 5. Secondary schools are usually organized in a traditional manner that in- cludes types of curriculum (vocational, general, college prep.) and specific courses taken at different grades. 6. The common curriculum found in high schools include English, math, sci- ence, social studies, vocational programs, and extra-curricular activities. 7. Specialized curricular areas, such as sex education, drug education, and nu- clear education are found in some high schools. 8. Vocational education is a curricular option available to many students who do not plan on pursuing academic objectives after high school. 9. Students in today’s high schools participate in a wide variety of extracur- ricular activities.10. The most common method of instruction at the secondary level is the lecture.11. School policies regarding discipline, expulsion, suspension, and appearance codes greatly affect secondary students.12. Approximately 25% of American high school students dropout of school be- fore graduation.13. More than 90% of high school seniors in this country have used alcohol at least once.14. Nearly 25% of high school seniors had used illegal drugs during the previ- ous 30 days.15. Teenage pregnancy and suicide continue to be major problems for adolescents.
  2. 2. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 210CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICAA. OVERVIEWThis chapter includes information on secondary educational programs. Topicsinclude middle schools, junior high schools, and high schools. Also discussedare the organizational structures found in these schools along with curriculumof secondary schools and instructional methods. A final section focuses onproblems experienced by secondary students.B. KEY TERMS–DEFINITIONSACADEMIC CURRICULUM - focuses on preparing students for higher edu-cation programs.ADOLESCENCE - teenage years; individuals must deal with physical, physio-logical, and emotional changes.ALCOHOL ABUSE - considered by some as America’s number one mentalhealth problem. In 2002, approximately 66% of high school seniors had usedalcohol in the past 30 days; 92% at one time in their lives.APPEARANCE CODES - schools have the right to impose various dress andappearance standards that can be shown to be related to the preservation ofsafety and to the orderly functioning of the school program.COMMON CURRICULUM - a study of those consequential ideas, experi-ences, and traditions common to all of us by virtue of our membership in thehuman family at a particular moment in history.COMPREHENSIVE HIGH SCHOOL - secondary schools that provide a va-riety of curricular options for students.DISCIPLINE - actions in response to inappropriate behavior or actions thatprevent inappropriate behaviors.DROPOUTS - those who dropout of school. Individuals who leave an activity,a course, a program, or a school before completing its requirements and whodo so voluntarily. A tremendous amount of time and effort are required fromall school personnel and family members to keep dropouts in school.DRUG ABUSE - the use of drugs contrary to medical and legal regulationsand/or norms.EXPULSION - when students are barred from attending school for an extend-ed period of time.
  3. 3. CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICA PAGE 211HIGH SCHOOL - the first secondary schools to develop, starting in the late19th century, followed by the intermediate schools. An institution of learningthat provides education to youth who have completed elementary and/or mid-dle school programs.INDEPENDENT STUDY - allows some students to venture into activities thatwould not be possible to address in large groups. This method of instruction isexcellent for gifted students but also can be effective with students of averageacademic abilities and students who have learning difficulties.JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL - the first form of intermediate school. Designed tomeet the unique educational needs and abilities of students during early adoles-cence.MIDDLE SCHOOL - an organized educational unit between elementaryschool and high school; usually includes grades 5-8. A school organized tomeet the needs of preadolescents and early adolescents in the middle range ofgrades.MORRILL ACT OF 1862 - gave land grants and operating funds to states forthe operation of colleges and universities.MULTICULTURAL - includes children from a variety of ethnic backgrounds.MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION - includes teaching such courses as ethnicstudies or social assimilation. It also includes changing schools to provideequal opportunities for all children, regardless of ethnic background.SEARCH AND SEIZURE - the right of school officials to search students’lockers and personal areas.SEX EDUCATION - must “modify” in a few hours of classroom instructionthe messages that young people receive every day from their friends, the massmedia, and other sources.SUSPENSION - used most often when schools can show that the continuedpresence of a particular student is dangerous or severely disruptive to theschool program. Students are typically suspended for disciplinary reasons.TEENAGE PREGNANCY - can occur more than one million times each year;can result in difficulties for young families; learning and behavior problems forchildren later in life.VOCATIONAL CURRICULUM - educational programs that emphasize careerpreparation and training of students for particular jobs in at least one occupation.
  4. 4. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 212C. SOME PRECEDING THOUGHTS1. What is the structure of secondary education in the United States? Secondary education in the United States functions on two levels: interme- diate schools and high schools.2. What are the purposes of middle schools compared with junior high schools? Junior high schools were established as an intermediate between grammar and high schools. They tend to focus on academics while limiting their fo- cus on personal development. Middle schools were developed as a method of enhancing the focus of child growth and development during the pre- and early adolescent years. Middle schools are now the most popular school organization between elementary and high schools. For the most part, middle schools attempt to serve students based on their needs, not on their chronological age grouping. This results in a curriculum that includes academic, physical, social, and emotional components.3. What three curricular tracks are found in most secondary schools? Comprehensive high schools provide educational opportunities to prepare students for post-secondary academic education, vocational training, and jobs. Most secondary schools offer three basic types of curricular options: general, academic, and vocational.4. How are secondary schools organized vertically? In general, high schools group students horizontally and vertically by pro- gram track; programs comprise various subjects taught by teachers certi- fied in those areas; students are exposed to subjects in various classes each day; and the social activities of students are many and varied.5. What subjects are generally included in the common curriculum? Courses in common curriculum should include literature, the arts, foreign language, history, civics, science, mathematics, technology, and health.6. What is the current status of science and math education? In science education, the thrust appears to be toward making science more functional and process oriented. Math education, like science education, is in a crisis. Students often choose to take only the minimal math requirements in secondary schools; they of- ten elect to take general math rather than algebra or more difficult math subjects when they have the option; math electives are rarely taken by many students; many math teachers meet only minimal teaching qualifica- tions.
  5. 5. CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICA PAGE 2137. What are the purposes of vocational education? a. providing skills and experiences considered valuable by students; b. facilitating the mastery of avocational and vocational skills by students; c. providing hands-on learning opportunities; d. providing a curriculum that is closely related to everyday survival needs; e. possibly providing an alternative for potential school dropouts; also: a. helping integrate children from the lower economic sector; b. helping with national economic problems; c. providing an appropriate curriculum for approximately half of the stu- dent body not suited for a more academic program; d. helping with the broader problems posed by youth.8. What is the current status of vocational education? Approximately 25% of high school students are enrolled in vocational edu- cation programs and more than 90% of today’s graduates have completed at least one vocational course. Sixty-three percent of the 20 million stu- dents enrolled in vocational education programs are in programs at public secondary schools.9. What problems exist in secondary schools? School dropouts–many programs have been developed to help prevent students from dropping out of school. Some are: a. providing support programs; b. providing alternative classes; c. encouraging co-curricular activities; d. encouraging positive group interactions; e. working with families. Declining academic performance–educators must be aware of the past trends and maintain efforts to improve students’ scores. Alcohol and drug abuse–alcohol and drug abuse were once considered problems for a small, select segment of the adolescent population. Current- ly, however, abuses of these substances among American youth is an un- fortunate acknowledged fact.
  6. 6. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 214 Teenage pregnancy–approximately 1.2 million adolescents get pregnant each year; nearly half of these pregnancies result in live births, with the re- maining pregnancies ending in either spontaneous or induced abortions or maternal death. Teenage pregnancy, therefore, is a large problem in the United States. Suicide–adolescent suicide in the United States has increased 300% during the past two decades; it is the leading cause of death among 15 to 24-year- olds.10. Some related facts are: a. Junior high schools were the first form of intermediate schools devel- oped. b. Middle schools were developed as a result of critics questioning the poor preparation of students for high schools. c. The middle school is currently the most popular intermediate organiza- tion in the public schools. d. Today’s high schools follow a comprehensive model to provide a vari- ety of programs to a diverse group of students. e. Secondary schools are usually organized in a traditional manner that in- cludes types of curriculum (vocational, general, college prep.) and spe- cial courses taken at different grades. f. The common curriculum found in high schools includes: English, math, science, social studies, vocational programs, and extra-curricular activities. g. Specialized curricular areas, such as sex education, drug education, and nuclear education are found in some high schools. h. Vocational education is a curricular option available to many students who do not plan on pursuing academic objectives after high school. i. Students in today’s high schools participate in a wide variety of extra- curricular activities. j. The most common method of instruction at the secondary level is the lecture. k. School policies regarding discipline, expulsion, and suspension, and appearance codes greatly affect secondary schools. l. Approximately 25% of American high school students dropout of school before graduation. m. More than 90% of high school seniors in this country have used alcohol at least once.
  7. 7. CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICA PAGE 215 n. About 25% of high school seniors had used illegal drugs during the previous 30 days. o. Teenage pregnancy and suicide continue to be major problems for ado- lescents.11. Where can students obtain work experience in their local community? • Advertising agencies • Laundry and dry cleaning • Appliance stores establishments • Automobile agencies • Lumber and building • Automotive supply stores • Meat and fish markets • Banks • Men’s furnishings • Book and stationary stores • Music stores • Credit offices • Newspaper publishing • Department stores • Office supply stores • Discount stores • Paint and glass stores • Drug stores • Pet shops • Dry goods and general merchan- • Radio stations dise • Real estate offices • Employment agencies • Restaurants • Family clothing stores • Sales offices • Farm and garden stores • Self-employed students • Florists • Service stations • Furniture stores • Shoe stores • Fruit stores • Sporting goods firms • Gift shops • Supermarkets • Grain and feed stores • Television stations • Grocery stores • Theatres • Hardware stores • Trucking terminals • Heating and plumbing business • Variety stores • Hotels-motels • Vegetable markets • Household appliance stores • Women’s ready-to-wear stores • Infant wear stores • Women’s specialty shops • Insurance companies • Wholesale and jobbing outlets • Jewelry stores • Yard goods and draperies12. How can students respond effectively to sexual harassment? a. Talking to a friend, counselor, or relative about the situation to place the facts in perspective and develop solutions. b. Learning not to laugh at the harassing behavior.
  8. 8. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 216 c. Learning skills to confront the harasser with a firm NO at the first sign of sexual harassment and letting the harasser know that this behavior will not be tolerated. d. Avoid being alone with harassers. e. Talking with other students to see if they have been harassed and, if so, petitioning school authorities to deal with the problem. f. Obtaining eyewitnesses to verify experiences of harassment. g. Keeping a written record documenting all incidents, with dates, times, places, and persons who have seen the activity, and recording physical and emotional reactions. h. Filing complaints.D. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES1. What are the purposes of secondary schools? In the 1800s, it was assumed that elementary schools should focus on teaching the basic skills, such as reading, writing, and arithmetic while the limited number of secondary schools should prepare students for higher education or entry into vocation. In 1918, the Commission for Reorganiza- tion of Secondary Education issued its report, the Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education, that indicated that secondary schools should prepare students for: a) health, b) command of the fundamental processes, c) wor- thy home membership, d) vocational efficiency, e) civic competence, f) worthy use of leisure time, and g) ethical character. These objectives laid the foundations for the comprehensive high school and focused on much more than academic training.2. What role do extra-curricular activities play in secondary schools? The purpose of extra-curricular activities is to enable students to partici- pate in events that are not a part of regular academic curriculum, but that are viewed as important for overall growth. Examples include: athletics, subject matter clubs, debating, drama, band, student government, honorary clubs, and cheerleading. Over the years, there has been some dispute about extra-curricular activities, especially high school athletics. There still re- mains strong support for these programs, although some school systems have initiated policies to prohibit participation in extra-curricular activities by students who violate rules, fail to pass courses, are insubordinate, or abuse drugs. An example is Texas’ No Pass No Play Law.
  9. 9. CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICA PAGE 2173. What types of problems are experienced by adolescents? How can school leaders help these problems? a. Alcohol and drug abuse–educators can teach students about the illegal drugs and through this knowledge, hopefully deter future use and stop present use by students. b. Teenage pregnancy–educators need to be cognizant of the problems resulting from teenage pregnancies and must understand the needs of students who must deal with an unwanted pregnancy. c. Suicide–although long-term solutions for teenage suicides must come from the community and society, school leaders have a major responsi- bility in helping to prevent suicides. These are the emotional years for adolescents, with their bodies going through enormous changes, physi- cally, emotionally, and physiologically. Educators who teach adoles- cents must be aware of adolescent needs and problems.4. What are the purposes of secondary schools? Goals of Education: Two Major Statements of the Progressive Approach Cardinal Principles of Secondary Ten Imperative Needs Education (1918) of Youth (1944) 1. Health: provide health instruction and a Develop skills and/or attitudes that enhance the program of physical activities; cooperate following: with home and community in promoting 1. Productive work experiences and occupa- health. tional success. 2. Command of fundamental processes: de- 2. Good health and physical fitness. velop fundamental thought processes to 3. Rights and duties of a democratic citizen- meet needs of modern life. ry. 3. Worthy home membership: develop quali- 4. Conditions for successful family life. ties that make the individual a worthy 5. Wise consumer behavior. member of a family. 6. Understanding of science and the nature 4. Vocation: equip students to earn a living, of man. to serve society well through a vocation, 7. Appreciation of arts, music, and litera- and to achieve personal development ture. through that vocation. 8. Wise use of leisure time. 5. Civic education: foster qualities that help a 9. Respect for ethical values. person play a part in the community and 10. The ability to think rationally and commu- understand international problems. nicate thoughts clearly. 6. Worthy use of leisure: equip people to “recreation of body, mind, and spirit” that will enrich their personalities. 7. Ethical character: develop ethical charac- ter both through instructional methods and through social contacts among students and teacher.
  10. 10. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 218 Source: Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education, Cardinal principles of secondary education, Bulletin No. 35 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1918), pp. 11-15; and Educational Policies Commission, Education for all American youth (Washington, DC: Na- tional Education Association, 1944). Adapted with permission.5. What are some early warning signs of potential violent youth? a. social withdrawal; b. excessive feelings of isolation and being alone; c. excessive feelings of rejection; d. being a victim of violence; e. feelings of being picked on and persecuted; f. low school interest and poor academic performance; g. expression of violence in writings and drawings; h. uncontrolled anger; i. patterns of impulsive and chronic hitting, intimidating, and bullying be- haviors; j. history of discipline problems; k. past history of violent and aggressive behavior; l. intolerance for differences and prejudicial attitudes; m. drug and alcohol use; n. affiliation with gangs; o. inappropriate access to, possession of, and use of firearms; p. serious threats of violence Source: Dwyer, K., Osher, D., & Warger, C. (1998). Early warning, timely response: A guide to safe school. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Adapted with permission.6. In order of seriousness for youth, what are the major problem sub- stances? a. Alcohol–most serious; b. Heroin; c. Nicotine; d. Cocaine; e. Caffeine; f. Marijuana–least serious.
  11. 11. CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICA PAGE 2197. What are some indicators of childhood or adolescent suicide? Psychosocial Familial Psychiatric Situational 1. Poor self-esteem 1. Disintegrating 1. Prior suicide attempt 1. Stressful life and feelings of family relationships events inadequacy 2. Verbalization of 2. Firearms in the 2. Economic difficulties suicide or talk of home 2. Hypersensitivity and family stresses self-harm and suggestibili- 3. Child and adolescent 3. Preoccupation with 3. Exposure to ty death suicide abuse 3. Perfectionism 4. Ambivalence con- 4. Repeated suicide 4. Sudden change cerning dependence ideation in social behav- vs. independence 5. Daredevil or self- ior abusive behavior 5. Running away 5. Academic 6. Family history of sui- 6. Mental illness such deterioration as delusions or cide 6. Underachieve- hallucinations in ment and learn- schizophrenia ing disabilities 7. Overwhelming sense of guilt 8. Obsessive self-doubt 9. Phobic anxiety 10. Clinical depression 11. Substance abuse Source: Adapted with permission from Metha, A., & Dunham, H.J. (1988). Behavioral indicators. In D. Capuzzi, & L. Golden., Preventing adolescent suicide (pp. 49-86). Muncie, IN: Accelerated De- velopment Inc.8. What is the adolescents’ perception of failure? Upwards of a thousand students commit suicide every year. They had their wholes lives ahead of them, but somehow, they lost hope. No one cared, they thought; life was not worth living. They asked themselves: “is that all there is?” Suicide is certainly the ultimate self-punishment for having failed. Life is no longer worth the struggle, the effort, the will. I would like to take a look with you at the concept of failure: at how ado- lescents in high school and college see it; and what we, as parents and teachers, have taught them about it. The world is full of people who are fearful that they will fail at some task or goal and who usually manage to avoid trying because they construe failure as the worst of all possible crimes. We have all had a part in failure, all had to come to grips with it, and all had to decide what failure actually means to each of us individually. Success is important in our society, more important, surely, than the desire to live sanely and to enjoy the good things of life which one has worked
  12. 12. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 220 for. Success for its own sake is valued–valued, I believe, at any cost, and the road to success rationalized in the name of the great American compet- itive way, at the expense of honesty, and perhaps sanity. The “F” for failure has become so feared that we in education have re- vamped our marking system in preference for U’s and E’s without re- vamping our attitudes–attitudes of those who should know. We are apt to be very objective when we look at our students. We give them what they desire, and in doing so, we feel very smug. We have given out the material, we have given the examinations, and now it follows, as night follows day, we give out the marks. Yet we forget that there is much more that a teacher gives to his students, willingly or unwillingly. A teach- er gives an example of how to look at life and at people. And if failure is viewed as the worst fate, if it is something that is given the connotations of shame, unworthiness, and hopelessness, then indeed, we have taught much more than English or history or mathematics. Adolescence marks the trying period of search which may have the signifi- cant effects of subsequent personality structure, and on later adjustments in the years that lie ahead. Probably, what brings the greatest amount of equalizing balance to the period of adolescence is the presence of signifi- cant people in the adolescent’s life. Since people become so very impor- tant to an adolescent, it is the importance of the people, who possess that special ingredient of compassion, who can help the adolescent come through this unfolding, transitional period into the fullness of adult life. It is important to realize that in most competitive situations, two major mo- tives appear: either to achieve success . . . or to avoid failure. The strivers- for-success are more likely to be middle-of-the-roaders in their aspirations or ambitions, whereas the failure-avoider will be either excessively cau- tious or extravagantly reckless in the things he tries. Because failure is painful, a failure-avoider will choose either extreme rather than take the 50-50 chance. A person’s self-picture does reflect the evaluation of himself by the crucial figures of his interpersonal environment. Self-evaluation may be influ- enced by peers as much as by parents. Feelings of adequacy and success may depend more on self-acceptance than on actual achievement. Regard- less of actual test performance, self-accepting students tend to be opti- mistic, non-anxious, and non-competitive. Self-rejecting ones are anxious and unrealistic in goal setting. A study was done where the subjects were asked to rate themselves on a list of traits as they thought they were, as they hoped they were, as they
  13. 13. CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICA PAGE 221feared they were, and as they thought others regarded them. The groupshad first been classified as stable and unstable on the basis of personalityinventory. The stable group rated themselves higher showing less discrep-ancy between their self-ratings and the way they thought others would ratethem. They were also better liked, better adjusted socially, less situationdominated, and showed less defensive behavior.Approximately half of the students who enter college dropout. Many are inthe highest levels of ability. When students dropout, it usually is under-stood that they have failed. At the college level, a great deal of attentionhas been given to the question: “What can we learn about those who havefailed in the past that will enable us to reject similar persons who might ap-ply for admission in the future?” Little consideration is given to the ques-tion: “What might the institution do to prevent failure, to help remedyshortcomings within the college and with the individual student, whichproduces failure?”Reasons for coming to college are always multiple. Stress is usually placedon one or another of these: a. desire to get a higher paying job; b. status of a degree; c. social life–all my friends are going; d. avoid joining work force; e. get married; f. pressure from parents.Many are disillusioned with what is expected of them. Many find that col-lege is the same old thing as high school–all these things which are notpractical. Others who are eager to learn find that college is not the kind ofchallenge they had expected.Many students entering college regret the time they wasted in high school.They did not try hard enough; they did not apply themselves; they weremore interested in athletics, social life, or other things. Reflecting back,one may find many things that a student was concerned about during highschool days–some things indeed far more important to the student than ge-ometry or American history. Some interests were far more necessary andpressing in order that the student might mature. But, those who observedthe adolescent in high school are very often unaware of what he is facingand are not able to understand why he can’t buckle down. What one maynot understand is the reason that there are many things the adolescent istrying to accomplish and school work often provides him with no stimula-
  14. 14. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 222 tion, no incentive for interest or involvement. School is just a bore! And teachers are a bore! And adults, in general, are a bore! Adults are forever talking, but what they say often does not seem to mean anything. A new interest can be sparked in school when there is a teacher who does mean something. But it takes more than one teacher to make a school pro- gram relevant. When competition and success are the significant ingredi- ents of a program and when we are apt to be creating egocentric intellectu- als who gloat over their achievements while looking down on those who have developed feelings of worthlessness and fear that they will probably never win, we are confirming that only those who win are important. Our task ought to be providing help to the adolescent to see that failure is neither good nor bad. It is, however, an inevitable fact of reality that the way we use failure in our lives will determine, ultimately, its goodness or badness for us. Each of us must learn to live with certain limitations in ability. It is only when an individual falls consistently below the norm in areas that seem important to him that inferior ability constitutes a serious limitation. From studies of both high achievers and underachievers in high school, the pattern of the relationship between self-concept and achievement becomes clearer. A relationship is present between positive self-concept and under- achievement, but research does not indicate which is cause or effect. Chances are we can see a circular pattern beginning earlier with perception or experiences. Every experience contributes to the adolescent’s evolving picture of himself, which, in turn, becomes a guide to future action. Parental pressure for success seems to arise naturally out of parents’ desire that their children receive the best the world has to offer, yet in the same breath, it may be that many parents see the failure which their son or daughter may face as a failure for themselves. Many parents want their children to be a credit to them, forgetting that if a child is a credit to self, the other will follow naturally. Likewise, importance should not be given to doing better than the next guy, but rather to trying to do our best. We should be our own chief and best competition. We cannot always achieve our goal, but we ought to find satisfaction in knowing we did the best we could. Too often, we are teach- ing the idea of striving for success in high school, in college, in athletics, in all the aspects of living for the wrong reasons. Let’s change our own at- titudes about success and failure.
  15. 15. CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICA PAGE 2239. What are the Six Realms of Meaning? a. Symbolics – the arbitrary symbolic systems developed by man to ex- press meaning; these systems include verbal language, mathematics, rhythmic patterns, rituals, and other nondiscursive symbolic forms. b. Empirics – meanings based on observation and experimentation in the natural and social sciences; expressed as descriptions, generalizations, and theories that are recognized as probably empirical truths in accor- dance with specified criteria for evidence, verifications, and analysis. c. Aesthetics – meanings derived subjectively and expressed through mu- sic, visual arts, literature, and arts of movement. d. Synnoetics – personal or relational knowledge that is direct and con- crete and may apply to oneself, to other people, or to things. e. Ethics – moral meanings related to obligations and personal conduct. f. Synoptics – integration of meanings from empirical, aesthetic, and sy- noetic realms into comprehensive structures, as in history, philosophy, and religion.10. What are some humanistic teaching methods that are effective with youth? a. a democratic teaching style; b. individualization of instruction geared to students’ interests; c. informality in classroom structure and functioning; d. diversity of student activities based on individual interests; e. diagnosis of problems based on individual goals, interests, and abilities rather than no comparison with others; f. stress on cooperation as opposed to competition; g. productivity in terms of clearly purposeful activities by students that re- late to and extend beyond the classroom; h. classroom activities that are of interest to the students and provide them with personal and academic satisfaction.11. What are some specific objectives that student councils should strive to achieve? a. to promote the general welfare of the school; b. to promote democracy as a way of life; c. to teach home, school, and community citizenship;
  16. 16. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 224 d. to provide school experiences closely related to life experiences; e. to provide learning opportunities through the solution of problems that are of interest and concern to students; f. to provide training and experience in representative democracy; g. to contribute to the total educational growth of boys and girls.12. What are Bill Gates’ Rules for Life? In a Bill Gates message about life to recent high school and college gradu- ates, he listed 11 things they did not learn in school. He talked about how feel-good, politically correct teachings have created a full generation of kids with no concept of reality and how this concept has set them up for failure in the real world. Here’s his List of Rules for Life: RULE 1 – Life is not fair, get use to it. RULE 2 – The world won’t care about your self-esteem. The world will expect you to accomplish something BEFORE you feel good about yourself. RULE 3 – You will not make $40,000 a year right out of high school. You won’t be a vice president with a car phone until you earn both. RULE 4 – If you think your teacher is tough, wait till you get a boss. He doesn’t have tenure. RULE 5 – Flipping burgers is not beneath your dignity. Your grandpar- ents had a different word for burger flipping; they called it opportunity. RULE 6 – If you mess up, it’s not your parents’ fault, so don’t whine about your mistakes, learn from them. RULE 7 – Before you were born, your parents weren’t as boring as they are now. They got that way from paying your bills, cleaning your clothes, and listening to how cool you are. So before you save the rain forest from the parasites of your parents’ genera- tion, try “delousing” the closet in your own room. RULE 8 – Your school may have done away with winners and losers, but life has not. In some schools, they have abolished failing grades; they’ll give you as many times as you want to get the right answer. This doesn’t bear the slightest resemblance to ANYTHING in real life.
  17. 17. CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICA PAGE 225 RULE 9 – Life is not divided into semesters. You don’t get summers off and very few employers are interested in helping you find yourself. Do that on your own time. RULE 10 – Television is NOT real life. In real life people actually have to leave the coffee shop and go to jobs. RULE 11 – Be nice to nerds. Chances are you’ll end up working for one.13. What are the components to The Tyler Model (Curriculum Develop- ment and Improvement)? Student as Source Society as Source Subject Matter as Source Student, Society, and Subject Matter Sources lead to Tentative General Objects Philosophical and Psychological Screening lead to Precise Instructional Objectives that leads to Selection of Learning Experiences Organization of Learning Experiences Direction of Learning Experiences and Evaluation of Learning ExperiencesSource: Tyler, R.W. (1949). Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Adapted with permission.14. What are the components to the Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis’ Con- ception of the Curriculum Planning Process (Curriculum Develop- ment and Improvement)?GOALS AND OBJECTIVES lead to CURRICULUM DESIGNING that leads to CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION (Instruction) that leads to CURRCICULUM EVALUATIONSource: Saylor, Alexander, & Lewis. (1981). Curriculum planning (4th ed.), p. 30. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Adapted with permission.
  18. 18. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 22615. What are the components to The Taba Model (Curriculum Develop- ment and Improvement)? The Five-Step Sequence of Taba’s Model: 1. Production by teachers of pilot teaching-learning units is representative of the grade level or subject area. Taba recommends an eight-step se- quence for developing pilot units: a. diagnosis of needs. b. formulation of objectives. c. selection of content. d. organization of content. e. selection of learning experiences. f. organization of learning activities. g. determination of what to evaluate and of the ways and means of do- ing it. h. checking for balance and sequence. 2. Testing experimental units. 3. Revising and consolidating. 4. Developing a framework. 5. Installing and disseminating new units.Source: Taba, H. (1962). Curriculum development: Theory and practice. New York: Harcourt Brace Jo- vanovich. Adapted with permission.16. What are the components to The Oliva Model (Curriculum Develop- ment and Improvement)? a. specify the needs of students in general; b. specify the needs of society; c. write a state of philosophy and aims of education; d. specify the needs of students in your school; e. specify the needs of the particular community; f. specify the needs of the subject matter; g. specify the curriculum goals of your school; h. specify the curricular objectives of your school; i. organize and implement the curriculum;
  19. 19. CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICA PAGE 227 j. specify instructional goals; k. specify instructional objectives; l. select instructional strategies; m. begin selection of evaluation strategies; n. implement instructional strategies; o. make final selection of evaluation strategies; p. evaluate instruction and modify instructional components; q. evaluate the curriculum and modify curricular components. Source: Oliva, P.F. (1988). Developing the curriculum. Boston, MA: Scott, Foresman, and Com- pany. Adapted with permission. E. REVIEW ITEMS True-False 1. The “Back to Basics” movement has been a major force in improving sci- ence education. 2. Current trends seem to be away from extra-curricular activities. 3. Students have the right to “due process” in disciplinary actions. 4. The courts have consistently upheld schools’ rights to impose dress codes. 5. School officials have the right to search a student’s locker under some cir- cumstances. 6. As of this writing, no successful program has been developed to help keep potential dropouts in school. 7. SAT scores have been improving since the late 1960s. 8. The problems of adolescence invariably pass in time without lasting effects. 9. Adolescents are highly susceptible to feelings of isolation and rejection.10. One purpose of vocational education is to provide an alternative for poten- tial dropouts.11. More than 90% of all high school graduates complete at least one voca- tional educational course.12. The enrollment in vocational education has declined significantly over the past several years.
  20. 20. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 228Multiple Choice1. The educational focus of the Common School Movement was primarily on _______. a. pre-school b. elementary education c. secondary education d. post-secondary education2. Approximately _______ of public school students eventually graduate. a. 90% b. 85% c. 80% d. 75%3. The first type of school designed to facilitate the transition from elemen- tary school to high school was the _______. a. common school b. junior high c. middle school d. preparatory “prep” school4. The primary focus of junior high schools is _______. a. academics b. psychological rehabilitation c. sociological development d. interpersonal skills develop- ment5. American high schools today _______. a. focus only on academics b. focus only on socialization skills c. largely ignore vocational education d. include all of the above general subject areas in their orientation6. “The Seven Cardinal Principles” was a report dealing with _______. a. appropriate objective of secondary education b. the state of parochial education in America c. the philosophical bases of vocational education d. enhancing American democratic process through education7. The curricular track most often selected in high schools is _______. a. academics b. vocational c. general d. a and b in equal numbers8. The event in the late 1950s that spurred a renewed interest in science edu- cation in this country was _______. a. launching of Sputnik b. the Mercury program c. the Apollo program d. the Cuban Missile crisis9. Since the mid 1960s science education _______. a. has improved steadily b. slid into a deepening state of crisis c. has remained relatively steady at a very high level of achievement
  21. 21. CHAPTER 8–SECONDARY SCHOOLING IN AMERICA PAGE 229 d. has suffered from misdirection on the face of extremely high funding levels10. The method of instruction which places the responsibility for selecting, or- ganizing, and sequencing information solely on the teacher is _______. a. lecture b. discussion c. exploratory d. none of the above11. Students exhibiting low levels of self motivation should not be taught using the _______ method. a. lecture b. discussion c. independent study d. all of the above12. The best and most effective disciplinary programs are probably those which _______. a. are severe and swift b. are preventive in nature c. emphasize corporal punishment d. are arbitrary and indiscriminate13. The largest reason for students dropping out of schools appears to be _______. a. economics b. failing grades c. peer pressures d. personal problems14. The purposes of vocational education include all except _______. a. facilitating the mastery of special skills b. helping keep potential dropouts in school c. providing a curriculum that is closely related to everyday survival needs d. providing a base for college preparatory skills e. all of the above are goals for vocational education