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Subject: Foundation of Education
Chapter 10: Culture, Socialization, and Education
Lecturer: Soeung Sopha
1
Outline
Introduction
Agents of Socialization
 Gender Roles and Sex Differences
Adolescent and Youth Problems
2
Introduction
 We are all aware that the world is changing rapidly.
Communications and the economy are becoming globalized...
 Aspects of culture
Culture is a way of thinking and behaving; it is a group‟s
traditions, memories, and written records,...
Agents of Socialization
 Major socializing institutions
Various social institutions help to transmit culture to
children ...
 Home environment and preparation for school
Many children do well in school because their family
environments have provi...
 Single-parent families
Many observers connect the substantial poverty rates
among children and youth with the high incid...
A few studies assess little measurable impact on children, but
most others find a variety of negative effects, including a...
Latchkey Children and Community Learning Centers The
situation of latchkey children who return to unsupervised
homes after...
School responses to hurried children
Some developmental psychologists characterize such
parental pressure as a type of “m...
11
 Reports of abuse and neglect increasing
Child Abuse and Neglect Children from any social
class may suffer abuse or ne...
12
School and teacher responses
In any case, educators must recognize that abused or
seriously neglected students might n...
 Overall effects on children
Assessment of Trends Related to the Family The various
interrelated trends we have been disc...
The post nuclear family
David Popenoe, examining family trends in highly
industrialized countries such as Sweden and the ...
15
The Peer Group
 Peer group influence
Where as family relationships may constitute a child‟s
first experience of group ...
School Culture
o Aspect of school culture: Education in school,
compared with learning experiences in family or peer-grou...
 Student Roles and the Hidden Curriculum: Gita kedar-
Voivodas; She identified three main types of expected
student roles...
 The receptive learner role: requires students to be
„motivated, task-oriented,…good achieves, and as such
receptive to t...
 The hidden curriculum-a term used by many critics of
contemporary schools- is what student learn, other than
academic co...
 John Goodlad and his colleagues conduct „a study of schooling‟
have described the following widespread patterns:
1. The ...
 Why so much passive learning?
The reasons they have offered include the following:
1. Institutional requirements to main...
 Television and Digital Media
 More television time than school time
 Television and school achievement
 General mass ...
 Different from television
Net Generations in the Digital Age Some analysts have begun to
examine possible changes as chi...
 Some suggestions they have made regarding actions that
should be emphasized in the schools include the
following:
1. Tea...
3. Change instruction from a teacher-focused model to one
based on students‟ skill in using the internet and
communication...
6. Help students balance relationships and contacts they
have on the computer with real-life activities, such as
sports an...
Gender Roles and Sex Differences
Gender roles and school problems for boys: Teachers
generally suppress fighting and aggre...
Gender roles school problem for girls :
Most girls were not encouraged to prepare for high-status
fields such as law or me...
Boys’ versus girls’ peer group: Best reported that boys‟
peer group stress “canons” such as “always be first” and
“don‟t h...
Reading and mathematics: Data on the reading
performance of 9, 13, and 17 year old indicate that girls
score only a litter...
 Innate differences: Boys are more likely to be either
markedly high or markedly low in ability but girls and
women are c...
 Math anxiety and fear of success: Particular attention
has been paid to “math anxiety” among girls, the
possibility that...
Educational and Occupational Attainment of Women
 Ways to improve gender equity in education:
- Increase teacher training...
- Protest the right of pregnant girls and teenage parents.
- Introduce “gender fair” curricula that accommodate learning-
...
3.Adolescent and Youth Problem
 In recent decades, this isolation has intensified many
youth-centered problems: drug use,...
36
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Foundation of education 10

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Foundation of education 10

  1. 1. Subject: Foundation of Education Chapter 10: Culture, Socialization, and Education Lecturer: Soeung Sopha 1
  2. 2. Outline Introduction Agents of Socialization  Gender Roles and Sex Differences Adolescent and Youth Problems 2
  3. 3. Introduction  We are all aware that the world is changing rapidly. Communications and the economy are becoming globalized, career success request increasingly advanced skills, and immigration has accelerated in the United States and many other countries, and family patterns today differ greatly from those thirty years ago. Each such change has a major impact on education from elementary school through university. 3
  4. 4.  Aspects of culture Culture is a way of thinking and behaving; it is a group‟s traditions, memories, and written records, its shared rules and ideas, its accumulated beliefs, habits, and values.  School as cultural agent Many individuals and institutions play a part in socializing children and youth. The family, of course is most important for young children, but in modern societies formal institutions also help determine what a child learns and how well he or she is prepared to function in society. 4
  5. 5. Agents of Socialization  Major socializing institutions Various social institutions help to transmit culture to children and youth. For many societies, the most important historically have been the church, peer group, school and of course family. The Family  Early influence of family Although its organization varies, the family is the major early socializing agent in every society. 5
  6. 6.  Home environment and preparation for school Many children do well in school because their family environments have provided them with good preparation for succeeding in the traditional classroom. Others do poorly, in part because they have been poorly prepared and the schools generally have failed to help them overcome this disadvantage. Children in Poverty Poverty is a major problem for many families. More than 15 percent of American children live in poverty. 6
  7. 7.  Single-parent families Many observers connect the substantial poverty rates among children and youth with the high incidence of single- parent families. Some observers conclude that modern marriage is a roulette game, as likely as not to land children in single-parent families.  Impact on children Much research has concentrated on the specific effects of growing up in a home where the father is absent. 7
  8. 8. A few studies assess little measurable impact on children, but most others find a variety of negative effects, including a greater likelihood that families will fall into poverty and that children will suffer serious emotional and academic problems.  Mother who work Increase in working mothers the percentage of U.S. working mothers with children under age eighteen has increased steadily since 1950. 8
  9. 9. Latchkey Children and Community Learning Centers The situation of latchkey children who return to unsupervised homes after school is particularly problematic because many of these children spend much of their time watching television or roaming the streets.  Super babies Hurried and/or Over parented Children Awareness of the growing importance of education in contemporary society has stimulated many parents to push their children to excel in learning beginning in infancy. 9
  10. 10. School responses to hurried children Some developmental psychologists characterize such parental pressure as a type of “miseducation” that creates hurried children and deprives young people of childhood. Responses to this problem include raising the age for enrolling in kindergarten and retaining five-year-olds not ready to advance to first grade for an additional year in kindergarten. 10
  11. 11. 11  Reports of abuse and neglect increasing Child Abuse and Neglect Children from any social class may suffer abuse or neglect by their parents or other household members. As we noted in the chapter on Legal Aspects of Education, as a teacher, you will have a major responsibility to report any evidence that a student has been maltreated.
  12. 12. 12 School and teacher responses In any case, educators must recognize that abused or seriously neglected students might not only have difficult time learning but might also behave in ways that interfere with other students learning.  Implications for the schools Homelessness several studies indicate that homeless children disproportionately suffer from child abuse and physical ill health.
  13. 13.  Overall effects on children Assessment of Trends Related to the Family The various interrelated trends we have been discussing have produced a significant change in the structure and function of families in the United States.  Decline of the nuclear family Historically according to many analysts, our system of universal education drew support from the development of the nuclear family (two parents living with their children), which grew to prominence in western societies during the past two centuries. 13
  14. 14. The post nuclear family David Popenoe, examining family trends in highly industrialized countries such as Sweden and the United States, concluded that these trends are creating the post nuclear family which emphasizes individualism (individual self-fulfillment, pleasure, self-expression, and spontaneity) as contrasted with the nuclear family‟s child-centered familism.  Agencies overloaded In the context of these family changes and the problems they create, social agencies established to help children and youth sometimes become too overloaded to provide services effectively. 14
  15. 15. 15 The Peer Group  Peer group influence Where as family relationships may constitute a child‟s first experience of group life, peer-group interactions soon begin to make their powerful socializing effects felt.  Qualities that students esteem Peer Culture and the School Educators are particularly concerned with the characteristics of student culture within the school. Peer culture frequently works against academic goals at school.
  16. 16. School Culture o Aspect of school culture: Education in school, compared with learning experiences in family or peer-group contexts, occurs in relatively formal ways. Students are tested and evaluated ; they are told when to sit, when to stand, how to walk through hallways, and so on. 16
  17. 17.  Student Roles and the Hidden Curriculum: Gita kedar- Voivodas; She identified three main types of expected student roles: 1. The pupil role: is one in which teachers expect students to be „patient, docile, passive, orderly, conforming, obedient, and acquiescent to rules and regulations, respectful to authority, easily controllable, and social adept.‟ 17
  18. 18.  The receptive learner role: requires students to be „motivated, task-oriented,…good achieves, and as such receptive to the institutional demands of the academic curriculum.‟  The active learner role: students go „beyond the established academic curriculum both in terms of the content to be mastered and in the processes‟ of learning. 18
  19. 19.  The hidden curriculum-a term used by many critics of contemporary schools- is what student learn, other than academic content, from what they do or are expected to do in school.  Classroom Culture; Philip Jackson found a diversity of specific subjects but few different types of classroom activity. The terms seatwork, group discussion, teacher demonstration, and question-and-answer period described most of what happened in the classroom. The teacher served as a „combination traffic cop, judge, supply sergeant, and timekeeper. ‟ 19
  20. 20.  John Goodlad and his colleagues conduct „a study of schooling‟ have described the following widespread patterns: 1. The classroom is generally organizes as a group that the teachers treats as a whole. 2. “Enthusiasm and joy and anger are kept under control.” 3. Most student work involves “listening to teachers, writing answers to questions, and taking tests and quizzes.” 4. These patterns become increasingly rigid and predominant as students proceed through the grades. 5. Instruction seldom goes beyond “mere possession of information.” relatively little effort is made to arouse curiosity or to emphasize thinking. 20
  21. 21.  Why so much passive learning? The reasons they have offered include the following: 1. Institutional requirements to maintain order. 2. Student preferences for passive learning. 3. Accommodations, bargains, and compromises between students and teachers. 4. Teacher‟ allocation of attention. 5. Society‟s requirement that students learn to conform. 6. Teacher overload. 21
  22. 22.  Television and Digital Media  More television time than school time  Television and school achievement  General mass media effects  Correlation with aggressive  Positive uses of television 22
  23. 23.  Different from television Net Generations in the Digital Age Some analysts have begun to examine possible changes as children and youth grow up in an environment permeated by digital communication and information sources such as interactive video and the increasingly ubiquitous internet.  Social networking issues Web 2.0 and Social networking: Tapscott and other leading analysts such as Urs Gasser, John Palfrey, and Clay Shirky have concerned with young peoples‟ experience in connection with Wed 2.0( the increasingly interactive and social networking aspects of the internet, by age twenty.) 23
  24. 24.  Some suggestions they have made regarding actions that should be emphasized in the schools include the following: 1. Teach about the safe and appropriate use of Web 2.0 tools, rather than blocking them out and leaving students to fend for themselves. 2. Make sure students are learning and writing acceptable English rather than truncated versions use in texts messaging. 24
  25. 25. 3. Change instruction from a teacher-focused model to one based on students‟ skill in using the internet and communication patterns inherent in Web2.0. 4. Emphasize skills, such as group projects carried out on the web, that will be beneficial in future employment. 5. Encourage students in using video or computer games that emphasize art, history, or science rather than violence or sex. 25
  26. 26. 6. Help students balance relationships and contacts they have on the computer with real-life activities, such as sports and clubs 7. Develop media competence, including digital literacy, visual literacy, and other aspects. 26
  27. 27. Gender Roles and Sex Differences Gender roles and school problems for boys: Teachers generally suppress fighting and aggressive. Boys receive many more reprimand from teachers than do girls, and by the time students enter the secondary grade, boys greatly outnumber girls in remedial class and in classes for those with emotional disturbances. 27
  28. 28. Gender roles school problem for girls : Most girls were not encouraged to prepare for high-status fields such as law or medicine or high-paying technical occupations. Furthermore, verbal skills of the kind in which girls tend to excel failed to prepare them for success in mathematics. Girls not encouraged in competition or leadership: In the elementary school frequently intends to make boys obedient and cooperative, in high school the emphasis placed on athletics. 28
  29. 29. Boys’ versus girls’ peer group: Best reported that boys‟ peer group stress “canons” such as “always be first” and “don‟t hang out with a loser”, whereas girls‟ peer groups place relatively more emphasis having fun rather than winning and on cooperation rather than competition. 29
  30. 30. Reading and mathematics: Data on the reading performance of 9, 13, and 17 year old indicate that girls score only a litter higher than boys but in 1970s; 9,13 and 17 year old show little meaningful difference in mathematics scores for boys and girls. Indicates that female gains in mathematics probably are partly due to greater participation in math courses during the past few decades. 30 Sex Differences in Achievement and Ability
  31. 31.  Innate differences: Boys are more likely to be either markedly high or markedly low in ability but girls and women are constituting growing percentage of the highest-ability students.  Different brain function: Among right handed people(the majority), women handle spatial function more with the left hemisphere than do men. Women also use the right hemisphere more in verbal function. 31
  32. 32.  Math anxiety and fear of success: Particular attention has been paid to “math anxiety” among girls, the possibility that the relatively poor performance of certain women in math stems from socialization practices that make them anxious and fearful about mathematics analysis. 32
  33. 33. Educational and Occupational Attainment of Women  Ways to improve gender equity in education: - Increase teacher training dealing with gender issues. - Attend more closely to gender equity in vocational education. - Eliminate any bias in standardized tests and reduce the role of these tests in college admissions. - Reduce sex stereotyping and further increase the representation of females in instructional materials. 33
  34. 34. - Protest the right of pregnant girls and teenage parents. - Introduce “gender fair” curricula that accommodate learning- style differences. - Introduce special programs to encourage girls to participate in math, computing, and science programs. - Work to counteract the decline in self-esteem that many girls experience as they become concerned with their appearance. 34
  35. 35. 3.Adolescent and Youth Problem  In recent decades, this isolation has intensified many youth-centered problems: drug use, drinking, suicide, early pregnancy, and delinquency. Youth has become a separate stage of life markedly by immersion in various subculture and teenage drug use and drinking, suicide, pregnancy, delinquency, and violence raise serious concerns about the development of adolescent and youth both inside and outside the school. 35
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