Subject: Foundation of Education
Chapter 10: Culture, Socialization, and Education
Lecturer: Soeung Sopha
Agents of Socialization
Gender Roles and Sex Differences
Adolescent and Youth Problems
We are all aware that the world is changing rapidly.
Communications and the economy are becoming globalized,
career success request increasingly advanced skills, and
immigration has accelerated in the United States and many other
countries, and family patterns today differ greatly from those
thirty years ago. Each such change has a major impact on
education from elementary school through university.
Aspects of culture
Culture is a way of thinking and behaving; it is a group‟s
traditions, memories, and written records, its shared rules and
ideas, its accumulated beliefs, habits, and values.
School as cultural agent
Many individuals and institutions play a part in socializing
children and youth. The family, of course is most important for
young children, but in modern societies formal institutions also
help determine what a child learns and how well he or she is
prepared to function in society.
Agents of Socialization
Major socializing institutions
Various social institutions help to transmit culture to
children and youth. For many societies, the most important
historically have been the church, peer group, school and of
Early influence of family
Although its organization varies, the family is the major
early socializing agent in every society.
Home environment and preparation for school
Many children do well in school because their family
environments have provided them with good preparation for
succeeding in the traditional classroom. Others do poorly, in part
because they have been poorly prepared and the schools generally
have failed to help them overcome this disadvantage.
Children in Poverty Poverty is a major problem for many
families. More than 15 percent of American children live in
Many observers connect the substantial poverty rates
among children and youth with the high incidence of single-
Some observers conclude that modern marriage is a roulette
game, as likely as not to land children in single-parent families.
Impact on children
Much research has concentrated on the specific effects
of growing up in a home where the father is absent.
A few studies assess little measurable impact on children, but
most others find a variety of negative effects, including a greater
likelihood that families will fall into poverty and that children
will suffer serious emotional and academic problems.
Mother who work
Increase in working mothers the percentage of U.S.
working mothers with children under age eighteen has increased
steadily since 1950.
Latchkey Children and Community Learning Centers The
situation of latchkey children who return to unsupervised
homes after school is particularly problematic because many of
these children spend much of their time watching television or
roaming the streets.
Hurried and/or Over parented Children Awareness of the
growing importance of education in contemporary society has
stimulated many parents to push their children to excel in
learning beginning in infancy.
School responses to hurried children
Some developmental psychologists characterize such
parental pressure as a type of “miseducation” that creates hurried
children and deprives young people of childhood. Responses to
this problem include raising the age for enrolling in kindergarten
and retaining five-year-olds not ready to advance to first grade for
an additional year in kindergarten.
Reports of abuse and neglect increasing
Child Abuse and Neglect Children from any social
class may suffer abuse or neglect by their parents or other
household members. As we noted in the chapter on Legal
Aspects of Education, as a teacher, you will have a major
responsibility to report any evidence that a student has been
School and teacher responses
In any case, educators must recognize that abused or
seriously neglected students might not only have difficult
time learning but might also behave in ways that interfere
with other students learning.
Implications for the schools
Homelessness several studies indicate that homeless
children disproportionately suffer from child abuse and
physical ill health.
Overall effects on children
Assessment of Trends Related to the Family The various
interrelated trends we have been discussing have produced a
significant change in the structure and function of families in the
Decline of the nuclear family
Historically according to many analysts, our system of
universal education drew support from the development of the
nuclear family (two parents living with their children), which
grew to prominence in western societies during the past two
The post nuclear family
David Popenoe, examining family trends in highly
industrialized countries such as Sweden and the United States,
concluded that these trends are creating the post nuclear family
which emphasizes individualism (individual self-fulfillment,
pleasure, self-expression, and spontaneity) as contrasted with the
nuclear family‟s child-centered familism.
In the context of these family changes and the problems
they create, social agencies established to help children and youth
sometimes become too overloaded to provide services effectively.
The Peer Group
Peer group influence
Where as family relationships may constitute a child‟s
first experience of group life, peer-group interactions soon
begin to make their powerful socializing effects felt.
Qualities that students esteem
Peer Culture and the School Educators are particularly
concerned with the characteristics of student culture within the
school. Peer culture frequently works against academic goals at
o Aspect of school culture: Education in school,
compared with learning experiences in family or peer-group
contexts, occurs in relatively formal ways. Students are
tested and evaluated ; they are told when to sit, when to
stand, how to walk through hallways, and so on.
Student Roles and the Hidden Curriculum: Gita kedar-
Voivodas; She identified three main types of expected
1. The pupil role: is one in which teachers expect students
to be „patient, docile, passive, orderly, conforming,
obedient, and acquiescent to rules and regulations,
respectful to authority, easily controllable, and social
The receptive learner role: requires students to be
„motivated, task-oriented,…good achieves, and as such
receptive to the institutional demands of the academic
The active learner role: students go „beyond the
established academic curriculum both in terms of the
content to be mastered and in the processes‟ of learning.
The hidden curriculum-a term used by many critics of
contemporary schools- is what student learn, other than
academic content, from what they do or are expected to do in
Classroom Culture; Philip Jackson found a diversity of
specific subjects but few different types of classroom activity.
The terms seatwork, group discussion, teacher demonstration,
and question-and-answer period described most of what
happened in the classroom. The teacher served as a
„combination traffic cop, judge, supply sergeant, and
John Goodlad and his colleagues conduct „a study of schooling‟
have described the following widespread patterns:
1. The classroom is generally organizes as a group that the teachers
treats as a whole.
2. “Enthusiasm and joy and anger are kept under control.”
3. Most student work involves “listening to teachers, writing answers
to questions, and taking tests and quizzes.”
4. These patterns become increasingly rigid and predominant as
students proceed through the grades.
5. Instruction seldom goes beyond “mere possession of information.”
relatively little effort is made to arouse curiosity or to emphasize
Why so much passive learning?
The reasons they have offered include the following:
1. Institutional requirements to maintain order.
2. Student preferences for passive learning.
3. Accommodations, bargains, and compromises between
students and teachers.
4. Teacher‟ allocation of attention.
5. Society‟s requirement that students learn to conform.
6. Teacher overload.
Television and Digital Media
More television time than school time
Television and school achievement
General mass media effects
Correlation with aggressive
Positive uses of television
Different from television
Net Generations in the Digital Age Some analysts have begun to
examine possible changes as children and youth grow up in an
environment permeated by digital communication and information
sources such as interactive video and the increasingly ubiquitous
Social networking issues
Web 2.0 and Social networking: Tapscott and other leading analysts
such as Urs Gasser, John Palfrey, and Clay Shirky have concerned with
young peoples‟ experience in connection with Wed 2.0( the
increasingly interactive and social networking aspects of the internet,
by age twenty.)
Some suggestions they have made regarding actions that
should be emphasized in the schools include the
1. Teach about the safe and appropriate use of Web 2.0
tools, rather than blocking them out and leaving students
to fend for themselves.
2. Make sure students are learning and writing acceptable
English rather than truncated versions use in texts
3. Change instruction from a teacher-focused model to one
based on students‟ skill in using the internet and
communication patterns inherent in Web2.0.
4. Emphasize skills, such as group projects carried out on
the web, that will be beneficial in future employment.
5. Encourage students in using video or computer games
that emphasize art, history, or science rather than
violence or sex.
6. Help students balance relationships and contacts they
have on the computer with real-life activities, such as
sports and clubs
7. Develop media competence, including digital literacy,
visual literacy, and other aspects.
Gender Roles and Sex Differences
Gender roles and school problems for boys: Teachers
generally suppress fighting and aggressive. Boys receive
many more reprimand from teachers than do girls, and by the
time students enter the secondary grade, boys greatly
outnumber girls in remedial class and in classes for those
with emotional disturbances.
Gender roles school problem for girls :
Most girls were not encouraged to prepare for high-status
fields such as law or medicine or high-paying technical
occupations. Furthermore, verbal skills of the kind in which
girls tend to excel failed to prepare them for success in
Girls not encouraged in competition or leadership: In the
elementary school frequently intends to make boys obedient
and cooperative, in high school the emphasis placed on
Boys’ versus girls’ peer group: Best reported that boys‟
peer group stress “canons” such as “always be first” and
“don‟t hang out with a loser”, whereas girls‟ peer groups
place relatively more emphasis having fun rather than
winning and on cooperation rather than competition.
Reading and mathematics: Data on the reading
performance of 9, 13, and 17 year old indicate that girls
score only a litter higher than boys but in 1970s; 9,13 and
17 year old show little meaningful difference in
mathematics scores for boys and girls. Indicates that
female gains in mathematics probably are partly due to
greater participation in math courses during the past few
Sex Differences in Achievement and
Innate differences: Boys are more likely to be either
markedly high or markedly low in ability but girls and
women are constituting growing percentage of the
Different brain function: Among right handed people(the
majority), women handle spatial function more with the
left hemisphere than do men. Women also use the right
hemisphere more in verbal function.
Math anxiety and fear of success: Particular attention
has been paid to “math anxiety” among girls, the
possibility that the relatively poor performance of certain
women in math stems from socialization practices that
make them anxious and fearful about mathematics
Educational and Occupational Attainment of Women
Ways to improve gender equity in education:
- Increase teacher training dealing with gender issues.
- Attend more closely to gender equity in vocational education.
- Eliminate any bias in standardized tests and reduce the role of
these tests in college admissions.
- Reduce sex stereotyping and further increase the
representation of females in instructional materials.
- Protest the right of pregnant girls and teenage parents.
- Introduce “gender fair” curricula that accommodate learning-
- Introduce special programs to encourage girls to participate in
math, computing, and science programs.
- Work to counteract the decline in self-esteem that many girls
experience as they become concerned with their appearance.
3.Adolescent and Youth Problem
In recent decades, this isolation has intensified many
youth-centered problems: drug use, drinking, suicide,
early pregnancy, and delinquency. Youth has become a
separate stage of life markedly by immersion in various
subculture and teenage drug use and drinking, suicide,
pregnancy, delinquency, and violence raise serious
concerns about the development of adolescent and youth
both inside and outside the school.