Chapter 13 : The Changing Purpose Of
Education in United State.
Presented by : 1- Pha Rakim
2- Sam Sreypech
3- Yous Ponlue
1. Establishing Goals and Objectives
2. Historical Perspective
3. The call for Excellence
1- Establishing Goals and Objective
When we talk about the purpose of education, we
may be referring to purpose at one or more of the
- Nation, state, school district, school,
subject/grade, unit plan, or lesson.
Despite mixed opinions, most educators use the
terms Goals and objectives to distinguish among level
Goals is being broader statements of intent
Objectives is being more specific guides to
The three main types of influential forces are:
Society in general.
Developments in knowledge.
Beliefs about the nature of learner.
Goal as broad statement of purpose
National or state goals
Goals at the school district level begin to
narrow in focus.
Goals at the school level usually narrow in focus
even more, translating national, state, and district
goals into statements that coincide more closely
with the philosophy and priorities of the local
School-level goal statements often appear in
documents known as
School improvement plan
Tyler’s four questions
1- What educational purposes should the school
seek to attain?
2- What educational experiences can be
provided to help attain these purpose?
3- How can these educational experiences be
4- How can we determine whether the purpose
have been attained?
The process of development goals for a school
district or individual school should permit
citizens, parents, and at time, students
Objectives are the tools that goals operational and
are generally written at three levels of instruction:
In practice at the classroom level, you will
most likely organize instruction with a
combination of general and specific objective
Lesson plan objectives
At the level of the individual lesson plan,
objectives usually become specific, as
recommended by Robert Mager. They use precise
wording such as describe in writing, state orally,
compare, list, identify, and solve
Example of objectives
2- Historical Perspective
Mental discipline exercising the mind
Proponents of the mental discipline
approach believe that the mind is
strengthened through mental activities,
just as the body is strengthened by
Progressive demands for reform
Gradually, demands were made for various
changes in schooling to meet the need of a
changing social order.
Concern for the whole child
The emphasized the whole child concept and
life adjustment. The prevailing view held that
schools must be concern with the growth and
development of the entire child not just with
certain selected mental aspect.
Return to academic essentials
During the era of the cold war and the soviet
Flight (1957), international events gave major
impetus to challenge the life adjustment.
Curriculum and to reexamine academic
disciplines as the focus of schooling.
Influenced by the perennials and essentials
theory of education, critics called For a retune
to academic essential and mental discipline.
Concern for non-college bound student
Focus on outcomes
Standards and Assessment
One point apparently not carefully
considered according to the critics of
NCLB is the notion the children learn at
different paces and in different.
3- The call for Excellence
Overview of Policy Report
By the early 1980s, national attention was focused on the
need for educational excellence and higher academic
standards for all students, particularly the neglected average
student and not just the talented.
during the past quarter of a century, national policy reports,
most of which reflected a so-called neoessentialist
perspective, urged reforms to improve the quality of
education in the United States.
The important of technology:
• The need to strengthen the curriculum in core
subject of English, math, science, foreign language,
and social studies.
• Technology and computer courses were mentioned
often, and at the beginning of the twenty-first
century the need to improve students’ technology
skills and to upgrade schools technologically was
almost a mantra.
• High level cognitive and thinking skills were also
Higher standards, more rigorous requirements:
The reports further emphasized tougher standards and
tougher courses, and a majority proposed that colleges raise
their admission requirements.
Most of the reports also talked about increasing homework,
time for learning, and time in school, as well as instituting
more rigorous grading, testing, homework, and discipline.
They mentioned upgrading teacher certification, increasing
The report stressed academic achievement, not the whole
child, and increasing productivity, not relevancy or
Schools play too many roles:
Schools are pressed to play too many social roles; that the
schools cannot meet all these expectations; and that school
are in danger of losing sight of their key purpose teaching
basic skills and core academic subject, new skills for
Rising tide of mediocrity:
department of Education, indicated that a rising tide of
mediocrity was eroding the well-being of the nation. This
mediocrity was linked to the foundational institutions and
was spelling over into the workplace and other sectors of
Recommendations of A Nation at Risk:
Reports such as A Nation at Risk often spring from
abroad-base concern about the quality of public
education in changing times.
The goal of such reports is to make what are
perceived as practical recommendations for
educational improvement and, as such, provide
guidance to state and local boards of education,
school districts, and ultimately teachers as they plan
The impact of A Nation at Risk has been substantial,
driving increases in high school graduation
requirements, increases in mathematics and science
courses, a return to academic basics, changes in
technology, and increases in college entrance
Sweeping changes demanded:
The goal Panel stated that educators must be given
greater flexibility to devise teaching and learning
strategies that serve all students, regardless of
abilities or interests; at the same time, they should
be held responsible for their teaching.