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សសសសសសសសសសសសសសសសសសសស
WESTERN UNIVERSITY
Chapter 13 : The Changing Purpose Of
Education in United State.
Presented by : 1- ...
Contents
1. Establishing Goals and Objectives
- Goal
- Objective
2. Historical Perspective
3. The call for Excellence
1- Establishing Goals and Objective
 When we talk about the purpose of education, we
may be referring to purpose at one o...
 The three main types of influential forces are:
 Society in general.
 Developments in knowledge.
 Beliefs about the n...
 Goals
 Goal as broad statement of purpose
 National or state goals
 District goals
Goals at the school district level...
 School Goals
 Goals at the school level usually narrow in focus
even more, translating national, state, and district
go...
 Tyler’s four questions
1- What educational purposes should the school
seek to attain?
2- What educational experiences ca...
 Citizen input
 The process of development goals for a school
district or individual school should permit
citizens, pare...
2- Objectives
 Objectives are the tools that goals operational and
are generally written at three levels of instruction:
...
 Lesson plan objectives
 At the level of the individual lesson plan,
objectives usually become specific, as
recommended ...
2- Historical Perspective
Mental discipline exercising the mind
Proponents of the mental discipline
approach believe that ...
Progressive demands for reform
Gradually, demands were made for various
changes in schooling to meet the need of a
changin...
Return to academic essentials
During the era of the cold war and the soviet
Flight (1957), international events gave major...
Concern for non-college bound student
Student diversity
Focus on outcomes
Standards and Assessment
State standard
High-sta...
One point apparently not carefully
considered according to the critics of
NCLB is the notion the children learn at
differe...
3- The call for Excellence
Overview of Policy Report
By the early 1980s, national attention was focused on the
need for ed...
The important of technology:
• The need to strengthen the curriculum in core
subject of English, math, science, foreign la...
Higher standards, more rigorous requirements:
 The reports further emphasized tougher standards and
tougher courses, and ...
Schools play too many roles:
 Schools are pressed to play too many social roles; that the
schools cannot meet all these e...
Recommendations of A Nation at Risk:
 Reports such as A Nation at Risk often spring from
abroad-base concern about the qu...
 The impact of A Nation at Risk has been substantial,
driving increases in high school graduation
requirements, increases...
Thank you for your pay attention!
Q & A!
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Foundation of education 13

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Foundation of education 13

  1. 1. សសសសសសសសសសសសសសសសសសសស WESTERN UNIVERSITY Chapter 13 : The Changing Purpose Of Education in United State. Presented by : 1- Pha Rakim 2- Sam Sreypech 3- Yous Ponlue
  2. 2. Contents 1. Establishing Goals and Objectives - Goal - Objective 2. Historical Perspective 3. The call for Excellence
  3. 3. 1- Establishing Goals and Objective  When we talk about the purpose of education, we may be referring to purpose at one or more of the following level: - Nation, state, school district, school, subject/grade, unit plan, or lesson.  Despite mixed opinions, most educators use the terms Goals and objectives to distinguish among level of purpose.  Goals is being broader statements of intent  Objectives is being more specific guides to classroom instruction.
  4. 4.  The three main types of influential forces are:  Society in general.  Developments in knowledge.  Beliefs about the nature of learner.
  5. 5.  Goals  Goal as broad statement of purpose  National or state goals  District goals Goals at the school district level begin to narrow in focus.
  6. 6.  School Goals  Goals at the school level usually narrow in focus even more, translating national, state, and district goals into statements that coincide more closely with the philosophy and priorities of the local school community.  School-level goal statements often appear in documents known as  School improvement plan  Mission statement
  7. 7.  Tyler’s four questions 1- What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? 2- What educational experiences can be provided to help attain these purpose? 3- How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? 4- How can we determine whether the purpose have been attained?
  8. 8.  Citizen input  The process of development goals for a school district or individual school should permit citizens, parents, and at time, students meaningful input.
  9. 9. 2- Objectives  Objectives are the tools that goals operational and are generally written at three levels of instruction:  Classroom objectives  In practice at the classroom level, you will most likely organize instruction with a combination of general and specific objective in mind.
  10. 10.  Lesson plan objectives  At the level of the individual lesson plan, objectives usually become specific, as recommended by Robert Mager. They use precise wording such as describe in writing, state orally, compare, list, identify, and solve  Example of objectives
  11. 11. 2- Historical Perspective Mental discipline exercising the mind Proponents of the mental discipline approach believe that the mind is strengthened through mental activities, just as the body is strengthened by exercising.
  12. 12. Progressive demands for reform Gradually, demands were made for various changes in schooling to meet the need of a changing social order. Concern for the whole child The emphasized the whole child concept and life adjustment. The prevailing view held that schools must be concern with the growth and development of the entire child not just with certain selected mental aspect.
  13. 13. Return to academic essentials During the era of the cold war and the soviet Flight (1957), international events gave major impetus to challenge the life adjustment. Curriculum and to reexamine academic disciplines as the focus of schooling. National legislation Influenced by the perennials and essentials theory of education, critics called For a retune to academic essential and mental discipline.
  14. 14. Concern for non-college bound student Student diversity Focus on outcomes Standards and Assessment State standard High-stakes testing
  15. 15. One point apparently not carefully considered according to the critics of NCLB is the notion the children learn at different paces and in different.
  16. 16. 3- The call for Excellence Overview of Policy Report By the early 1980s, national attention was focused on the need for educational excellence and higher academic standards for all students, particularly the neglected average student and not just the talented. during the past quarter of a century, national policy reports, most of which reflected a so-called neoessentialist perspective, urged reforms to improve the quality of education in the United States.
  17. 17. The important of technology: • The need to strengthen the curriculum in core subject of English, math, science, foreign language, and social studies. • Technology and computer courses were mentioned often, and at the beginning of the twenty-first century the need to improve students’ technology skills and to upgrade schools technologically was almost a mantra. • High level cognitive and thinking skills were also stressed.
  18. 18. Higher standards, more rigorous requirements:  The reports further emphasized tougher standards and tougher courses, and a majority proposed that colleges raise their admission requirements.  Most of the reports also talked about increasing homework, time for learning, and time in school, as well as instituting more rigorous grading, testing, homework, and discipline.  They mentioned upgrading teacher certification, increasing teacher salaries.  The report stressed academic achievement, not the whole child, and increasing productivity, not relevancy or humanism.
  19. 19. Schools play too many roles:  Schools are pressed to play too many social roles; that the schools cannot meet all these expectations; and that school are in danger of losing sight of their key purpose teaching basic skills and core academic subject, new skills for computer use. Rising tide of mediocrity:  department of Education, indicated that a rising tide of mediocrity was eroding the well-being of the nation. This mediocrity was linked to the foundational institutions and was spelling over into the workplace and other sectors of society.
  20. 20. Recommendations of A Nation at Risk:  Reports such as A Nation at Risk often spring from abroad-base concern about the quality of public education in changing times.  The goal of such reports is to make what are perceived as practical recommendations for educational improvement and, as such, provide guidance to state and local boards of education, school districts, and ultimately teachers as they plan for instruction.
  21. 21.  The impact of A Nation at Risk has been substantial, driving increases in high school graduation requirements, increases in mathematics and science courses, a return to academic basics, changes in technology, and increases in college entrance requirements. Sweeping changes demanded:  The goal Panel stated that educators must be given greater flexibility to devise teaching and learning strategies that serve all students, regardless of abilities or interests; at the same time, they should be held responsible for their teaching.
  22. 22. Thank you for your pay attention! Q & A!

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