Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
EDUCATION REFORM IN        AMERICA  A STUDY OF CURRENT ISSUESAnna PriddyU.S. History, Blue 1
History
Roots of American Education   Primary mode of    education = charity                    Moor’s    school                 ...
Major Events in Education, 1800s       • Young Ladies Academy opens1787       • Bill of Rights created1791       • Connect...
Major Events in Education, 1800s       • Samuel Gridley Howe helps establish the Experimental School for Teaching and Trai...
Problems in the Late 1800s                    Length of school year                    Teachers underpaid,              ...
Horace Mann   “The father of    American public    education”   Promoted public    education     Beliefsmet with      c...
The Progressive Era   School increasingly    focused on    technical/industrial    training (thanks    Dewey!)   Fewer A...
AssimilationEdward Thorndike: EducationalPsychology (1903)               E.P. Cubberley   Differences in mental         ...
Administrative Progressives                      Junior high school                       program adopted                ...
John Dewey                Philosopher, educator,                 Pragmatist that led                 opposition to       ...
Reforms Since the 1950s   Civil Rights Reforms    (1950s – 1970s)   A Nation at Risk    (1980s)   Outcome-Based    Educ...
Overall Effectiveness                   No one solution yields the                    “perfect” education system         ...
Modern Perspective
Latest Issues   Money     The economy and      education     Cost of college tuition     Teacher compensation   Asses...
The Economy and Education   In Michigan, universities and prisons    competing for shrinking state budgets   Smaller bud...
Cost of College Tuition                   “"We cant keep                    subsidizing skyrocketing                    t...
Teacher Compensation   Want to hire “the    highest-quality    educators in the most    cost-effective    manner”     Pa...
Replacing “No Child”?   10 states exempted from    “No Child Left Behind”   “Take a careful look at the    policies at t...
National Standardization                     Removes parents                      from decisions about                   ...
Online or In-Class?Online                         In-Class   Scheduling flexibility        Up-close and   Classroom-lik...
Proposed Solution
No More Standardization                  Nationalization is not the                   answer!                      Paren...
Five Steps to Better Compensation1.   Avoid Across-the-Board Pay Increases2.   Pay Teachers for Their Performance, Not for...
Other Reforms (Revisited)   Testing     Consortium      school     Learning record Funding The issue of  control    ...
Challenges                Too much?                Skepticism                Legislation                Major challeng...
Summary   History of education reforms stretches back to    the 1800s, continues to present major    challenges today    ...
Bibliography
Bibliography (cont.)
Bibliography (cont.)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Education Reform in America

5,263 views

Published on

Published in: Education

Education Reform in America

  1. 1. EDUCATION REFORM IN AMERICA A STUDY OF CURRENT ISSUESAnna PriddyU.S. History, Blue 1
  2. 2. History
  3. 3. Roots of American Education Primary mode of education = charity Moor’s school charity Lancaster schools school in Hartford, (England) show that CT schools need adult supervision Started as theoretical learning  progressive shift toward classical learning Joseph Andrew Bell
  4. 4. Major Events in Education, 1800s • Young Ladies Academy opens1787 • Bill of Rights created1791 • Connecticut Asylum at Hartford for the Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons opens1817 • The state of Massachusetts passes a law requiring towns of more than 500 families to have a1827 public high school open to all students • The New England Asylum for the Blind opens1829 • The first of William Holmes McGuffeys readers is published1836 • Horace Mann becomes Secretary of the newly formed Massachusetts State Board of1837 Education; first students arrive at Mount Holyoke Female Seminary • First “normal school” opens1839
  5. 5. Major Events in Education, 1800s • Samuel Gridley Howe helps establish the Experimental School for Teaching and Training Idiotic Children1848 • Elizabeth Blackwell graduates from Geneva Medical College1849 • Massachusetts enacts the first mandatory attendance law. By 1885, 16 states have compulsory-attendance1852 laws, but most of those laws are sporadically enforced at best. All states have them by 1918 • Boston Public Library opens to the public, Ashmun Institute is founded1854 • First kindergarten in the U.S. is started1856 • The National Teachers Association is founded1857 • Charles Darwins The Origin of Species is published1859 • The First Morrill Act becomes law1862
  6. 6. Problems in the Late 1800s  Length of school year  Teachers underpaid, under qualified  Religion invades learning – need secular schools  1890 – most local boards accept public schooling (not the South)  Jacob Riis exposes New York classrooms  Roots of Progressive movement
  7. 7. Horace Mann “The father of American public education” Promoted public education  Beliefsmet with controversy  European influence Secretary of Massachusetts Board of Education in 1837
  8. 8. The Progressive Era School increasingly focused on technical/industrial training (thanks Dewey!) Fewer American laborers, more immigrants Compulsory school attendance first established in 1852 Children need to experience adolescence
  9. 9. AssimilationEdward Thorndike: EducationalPsychology (1903) E.P. Cubberley Differences in mental  Educational ability assimilation for Opposed compulsory immigrants attendance  Help teachers and Standardized testing administrators good Immigrant  Naturalizing naturalization immigrant children Both approaches met with resistance after 1929 as Dewey became more popular
  10. 10. Administrative Progressives  Junior high school program adopted  Psychological tests, vocational guidance  Fewer local high schools, more large, centralized high schoolsEdward Thorndike  Curricular differentiation  Increased state and federal regulation (standardization)
  11. 11. John Dewey  Philosopher, educator, Pragmatist that led opposition to standardization  Heavily influential from 1900-1940  Argued for experimental education, criticized “dead” education  Influence declined after Second World War
  12. 12. Reforms Since the 1950s Civil Rights Reforms (1950s – 1970s) A Nation at Risk (1980s) Outcome-Based Education (OBE) (1990s) No Child Left Behind Act (2001)
  13. 13. Overall Effectiveness  No one solution yields the “perfect” education system  Biggest reforms came in the 1890s and with Administrative Progressives  John Dewey = most influential reformer in modern perspective  Today’s reforms = more legislative, less dramatic change
  14. 14. Modern Perspective
  15. 15. Latest Issues Money  The economy and education  Cost of college tuition  Teacher compensation Assessment  Replacing “No Child”?  National standardization Quality of education  Online vs. in-class instruction
  16. 16. The Economy and Education In Michigan, universities and prisons competing for shrinking state budgets Smaller budgets  fewer programs Students can’t afford to attend college  Increased demand for college education “We are spending more on a prisoner in one year than we are to help a Michigan student go to college for four years.” -Doug Rothwell, president and CEO of Business Leaders for Michigan The future depends on education – North Carolina
  17. 17. Cost of College Tuition  “"We cant keep subsidizing skyrocketing tuition. Colleges and universities need to do their part to keep costs down as well ... We are putting colleges on notice…”  Solution?  Split $1 billion among states whose colleges contain tuition  Proposed "College Scorecard"
  18. 18. Teacher Compensation Want to hire “the highest-quality educators in the most cost-effective manner”  Paid enough already  Money wasted Many teachers paid for qualifications, not quality  New teachers vs. veteran teachers Unrealistic expectations
  19. 19. Replacing “No Child”? 10 states exempted from “No Child Left Behind” “Take a careful look at the policies at the heart of NCLB, because they have not worked, [and] if they are not working, we need to change them." -Monty Neill, chair of the Forum on Educational Accountability (FEA) Emphasis on high-stakes tests is misguided, should be used more as a “sample” Alternatives?
  20. 20. National Standardization  Removes parents from decisions about content taught in children’s schools  Obama Administration wants to “nationalize” content taught in public schools across America  Common Core Standards Initiative  Problems
  21. 21. Online or In-Class?Online In-Class Scheduling flexibility  Up-close and Classroom-like personal experience  Forced to focus Technical proficiency Hard to tell if students  Social factor grasp material  More rigorous? Honor system Bottom line: depends Easier? on personal learning style
  22. 22. Proposed Solution
  23. 23. No More Standardization  Nationalization is not the answer!  Parents need to be involved, nationalization ruins this process  Road to recovery  Reflect on why we began to set standards  No more standardization legislation  Give states more control of education
  24. 24. Five Steps to Better Compensation1. Avoid Across-the-Board Pay Increases2. Pay Teachers for Their Performance, Not for Their Resumes3. Screen Teachers More Intensely After Hiring Them4. Transition Teachers from Traditional Pensions to 401(k)-Style Plans5. Maintain Sober Expectations - From Jason Richwine’s A Better Way to Pay
  25. 25. Other Reforms (Revisited) Testing  Consortium school  Learning record Funding The issue of control  Abandon No Child
  26. 26. Challenges  Too much?  Skepticism  Legislation  Major challenge: impatience  Extra costs would not be too significant  Most state boards have enough money, just not budgeted correctly
  27. 27. Summary History of education reforms stretches back to the 1800s, continues to present major challenges today  Horace Mann  John Dewey  Modern legislation Reformers have tried numerous approaches, but there is no magical solution Need better budgeting, less federal control Only way to change is to act!
  28. 28. Bibliography
  29. 29. Bibliography (cont.)
  30. 30. Bibliography (cont.)

×