International Economic Institutions

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In this presentation, we will discuss about International Economic Institutions that comprises of International Monetary Fund, financial facilities and policies, conditionality, special drawing rights of the reserved assets, concept of World Bank, international Development Association, IFC, International Trade Centre and various other institutions, in detail.
To know more about Welingkar School’s Distance Learning Program and courses offered, visit: http://www.welingkaronline.org/distance-learning/online-mba.html

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International Economic Institutions

  1. 1. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 137 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND REPRESENTATIVES OF A LARGE NUMBER OF NATIONS MET IN 1944, IN BRETTON WOOD, NEW HAMPSHIRE, USA, TO DISCUSS THE MAJOR INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC PROBLEMS AND TO EVOLVE PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS. THE BRETTON WOODS CONFERENCE PROPOSED THE SETTING UP OF : INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF) TO ALLEVIATE THE PROBLEMS OF INTERNATIONAL LIQUIDITY AND TO ACHIEVE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY STABILITY. THE INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT (IBRD) TO HELP THE RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF VARIOUS NATIONAL ECONOMIES BY PROVIDING LONG-TERM CAPITAL ASSISTANCE. THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE ORGANIZATION (ITO) TO WORK TOWARDS THE LIBERALIZATION OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE.
  2. 2. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 137 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND INETRNATIONAL MONETARY FUND ( IMF) THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF) WHICH WAS ESTABLISHED ON DECEMBER 27, 1945 WITH 29 COUNTRIES. BEGAN FINANCIAL OPERATIONS ON MARCH 1. 1947. MEMBERSHIP IN THE IMF IS OPEN TO EVERY COUNTRY THAT CONTROLS ITS FOREIGN RELATIONS AND IS ABLE AND PREPARED TO FULFILL THE OBLIGATIONS OF MEMBERS. MEMBERSHIP OF IMF IS A PREREQUISITE FOR MEMBERSHIP IN THE WORLD BANK (IBRD).
  3. 3. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 138 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND PRIMARY PURPOSES OF IMF PROMOTE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY COOPERATION. FACILITATE THE EXPANSION AND BALANCED GROWTH OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE. PROMOTE EXCHANGE STABILITY AND MAINTAIN ORDERLY EXCHANGE ARRANGEMENTS AMONG MEMBERS. CONT….
  4. 4. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 138 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND PRIMARY PURPOSES OF IMF ASSIST IN ESTABLISHING A MULTILATERAL SYSTEM OF PAYMENTS IN RESPECT OF CURRENT TRANSACTIONS AND ASSIST IN ELIMINATING FOREIGN EXCHANGE RESTRICTIONS. MAKE AVAILABLE TO MEMBERS THE IMFS GENERAL RESOURCES ON A TEMPORARY BASIS TO ENABLE THEM TO CORRECT BALANCE OF PAYMENTS PROBLEMS. SHORTEN THE DURATION AND LESSEN THE DEGREE OF DISEQUILIBRIUM IN THE INTERNATIONAL BALANCE OF PAYMENTS OF MEMBERS.
  5. 5. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 138 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS IS THE HIGHEST DECISION MAKING BODY, CONSISTS OF ONE GOVERNOR AND ONE ALTERNATE FOR EACH MEMBER COUNTRY. THE GOVERNOR, APPOINTED BY THE MEMBER COUNTRY IS USUALLY THE MINISTER OF FINANCE OR THE CENTRAL BANK GOVERNOR. THE EXECUTIVE BOARD IS RESPONSIBLE FOR CONDUCTING THE BUSINESS, THERE ARE 24 DIRECTORS, WHO ARE APPOINTED OR ELECTED BY MEMBER COUNTRIES. THE MANAGING DIRECTOR SERVES AS A CHAIRMAN (HEAD OF THE ORGANIZATION). THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY AND FINANCIAL COMMITTEE OF THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS IS AN ADVISORY BODY COMPOSED OF 24 IMF GOVERNORS, MINISTERS, OR OTHER OFFICIALS OF THE SIMILAR RANK. THE DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE ALSO HAS 24 MEMBERS.
  6. 6. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 139 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND RESOURCES 1. SUBSCRIPTION BY MEMBERS 2. BORROWINGS. QUOTAS AND SUBSCRIPTIONS: EVERY MEMBER IS REQUIRED TO SUBSCRIBE AN AMOUNT EQUIVALENT TO ITS QUOTA. EACH MEMBER IS ASSIGNED A QUOTA EXPRESSED IN SPECIAL DRAWING RIGHTS (SDRs). QUOTAS ARE USE TO DETERMINE THE VOTING POWER OF MEMBERS, AND THEIR SHARE IN ALLOCATIONS OF SDRs. A MEMBER’S QUOTA REFLECTS ITS ECONOMIC SIZE IN RELATION TO THE TOTAL MEMBERSHIP OF THE FUND. BORROWING: THE FUND MAY SEEK THE AMOUNT IT NEEDS IN ANY CURRENCY AND FROM ANY SOURCE. THEY ARE THE 1.GENERAL ARRANGEMENT TO BORROW (GAB), AND THE 2.NEW ARRANGEMENT TO BORROW (NAB).
  7. 7. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 140 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND FINANCING FACILITIES AND POLICIES THE IMF PROVIDES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO MEMBERS TO HELP THEM CORRECT BALANCE OF PAYMENT PROBLEMS. UNDER REGULAR IMF FACILITIES, A MEMBER CAN GENERALLY BORROW UP TO 300 PER CENT OF ITS QUOTA. TWO OF THE IMF’S SPECIAL FACILITIES ARE THE SUPPLEMENTAL RESERVE FACILITY. THE CONTINGENT CREDIT LINES (CCL) ---DO NOT SPECIFY THE LIMIT.
  8. 8. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 141 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND REGULAR LENDING FACILITIES STAND BY ARRANGEMENT: UNDER A STAND BY ARRANGEMENT, WHICH IS TYPICALLY ONE TO TWO YEARS LONG BUT CAN BE AS LONG AS THREE YEARS, A COUNTRY CARRIES OUT A PROGRAM THAT IT HAS DESIGNED IN CONSULTATION WITH THE IMF STAFF TO RESOLVE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS PROBLEMS OF A LARGELY CYCLICAL NATURE. THE COUNTRY REPAYS THE MONEY IT HAS BORROWED OVER 3 ¼ TO 5 YEARS. EXTENDED FUND FACILITY: (EFF) THE IMF PROVIDES FINANCIAL SUPPORT TO ITS MEMBERS FOR LONGER PERIOD UNDER THE EFF. A MEMBER REQUESTING AN EXTENDED ARRANGEMENT OUTLINES ITS GOALS AND POLICIES FOR THE PERIOD OF THE ARRANGEMENT WHICH NORMALLY RUNS FOR THREE YEARS BUT CAN BE EXTENDED.THE REPAYMENT PERIOD IS 4 ½ TO 10 YEARS.
  9. 9. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 142 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND SPECIAL LENDING FACILITIES SUPPLEMETAL RESERVE FACILITY (SRF): ASSISTANCE IS AVAILABLE WHEN THERE IS A REASONABLE EXPECTATION THAT STRONG ADJUSTMENT POLICIES AND ADEQUATE SUPPORT WILL ENABLE A COUNTRY TO CORRECT ITS BALANCE OF PAYMENTS DIFFICULTIES IN A SHORT TIME. REPAYMENT MUST BE MADE NOT LATER THAN 2 TO 2 ½ YEARS. CONTINGENT CREDIT LINES (CCL) :THE CCL IS INTENDED TO BE A PREVENTIVE MEASURE SOLELY FOR MEMBERS CONCERNED ABOUT THEIR POTENTIAL VULNERABILITY TO CONTAGION BUT NOT FACING A CRISIS AT THE TIME OF THE COMMITMENT. COMPENSATORY FINANCING FACILITY (CFF): PROVIDES TIMELY FINANCING TO MEMBERS EXPERIENCING A TEMPORARY SHORTFALL BEYOND THEIR CONTROL.
  10. 10. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 142 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND CONCESSIONAL LENDING FACILITIES POVERTY REDUCTION AND GROWTH FACILITY (PRGF) : THE IMF’S CONCESSIONAL FINANCING FACILITY TO ASSIST POOR COUNTRIES FACING PERSISTENT BALANCE OF PAYMENTS PROBLEMS. PROGRAMS SUPORTED UNDER THE PRGF ARE EXPECTED TO BE BASED ON A STRATEGY DESIGNED BY THE BORROWING COUNTRY TO REDUCE POVERTY AND ARE FORMULATED WITH THE PARTICIPATION OF CIVIL SOCIETY AND DEVELOPMENTAL PARTNERS.
  11. 11. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 143 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND OTHER IMF POLICIES AND PROCEDURE EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE: THE IMF PROVIDES EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE TO MEMBERS FACING BALANCE OF PAYMENTS DIFFICULTIES CAUSED BY A NATURAL DISASTER. THE ASSISTANCE IS AVAILABLE THROUGH OUTRIGHT PURCHASES, USUALLY LIMITED TO 25 PERCENT OF QUOTA. EMERGENCY FINANCING MECHANISM (EFM) : PROCEDURES ALLOW QUICK EXECUTIVE BOARD APPROVAL OF IMF FINANCIAL SUPPORT UNDER USUAL FACILITIES. THE EMF IS TO BE USED IN RARE CIRCUMSTANCES REPRESENTING OR THREATENING, A CRISIS IN A MEMBER’S EXTERNAL ACCOUNTS THAT REQUIRES AN IMMEDIATE RESPONSE FROM THE IMF.
  12. 12. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 144 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND CONDITIONALITY WHEN THE IMF PROVIDES FINANCIAL SUPPORT TO MEMBER COUNTRIES, IT MUST BE SURE THAT THE MEMBERS ARE PURSUING POLICIES THAT WILL IMPROVE OR ELIMINATE THEIR EXTERNAL PAYMENT PROBLEMS. THE EXPLICIT COMMITMENT THAT MEMBERS MAKE TO IMPLEMENT CORRECTIVE MEASURES IN RETURN FOR THE IMF’s SUPPORT IS KNOWN AS CONDITIONALITY.
  13. 13. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 144 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND CONDITIONALITY CONDITIONALITY IS FLEXIBLE. THE EXECUTIVE BOARD’S GUIDELINES ON CONDITIONALITY. ENCOURAGE MEMBERS TO ADOPT CORRECTIVE MEASURES AT AN EARLY STAGE,STRESS THAT THE IMF SHOULD TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION MEMBER’S DOMESTIC, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL OBJECTIVES, AS WELL AS THEIR ECONOMIC PRIORITIES AND CIRCUMSTANCES. PERMIT FLEXIBILITY IN DETERMINING THE NUMBER AND CONTENT OF PERFORMANCE CRITERIA. EMPHASIZE THAT IMF ARRANGEMENTS ARE DECISIONS OF THE IMF THAT SET OUT, IN CONSULTATION WITH MEMBERS, THE CONDITIONS FOR ITS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE.
  14. 14. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 145 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND CONDITIONALITY DURING A STAND-BY ARRANGEMENT, AN EXTENDED ARRANGEMENT, OR AN ARRANGEMENT UNDER THE PRGF, THE IMF MONITORS A MEMBERS REFORM PROGRAM THROUGH: PERFORMANCE CRITERIA SELECTED ACCORDING TO THE ECONOMIC AND INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE COUNTRY. THE AVAILABILITY OF DATA. DESIRABILITY OF FOCUSING ON BROAD MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES. PERFORMANCE UNDER IMF-SUPPORTED REFORM PROGRAMS IS ALSO MONITORED THROUGH PERIODIC REVIEWS BY THE IMF EXECUTIVE BOARD.
  15. 15. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 146 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE THE IMF PROVIDES TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE IN: DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING FISCAL AND MONETARY POLICIES. DRAFTING AND REVIEWING ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL LEGISLATION, REGULATIONS, AND PROCEDURES, THEREBY HELPING TO RESOLVE DIFFICULTIES THAT OFTEN LIE AT THE HEART OF MACROECONOMIC IMBALANCES. INSTITUTION AND CAPACITY BUILDING, SUCH AS IN CENTRAL BANKS, TREASURIES, TAX AND CUSTOMS DEPARTMENTS, AND STATISTICAL SERVICES.
  16. 16. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 147 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND SPECIAL DRAWING RIGHTS (SDRs) THE SDR IS AN INTERNATIONAL RESERVE ASSET CREATED BY THE IMF IN 1969 TO SUPPLEMENT MEMBER’S EXISTING RESERVE ASSETS--- OFFICIAL HOLDINGS OF GOLD, FOREIGN EXCHANGE, AND RESERVE POSITIONS IN IMF.
  17. 17. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 148 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND USE OF SDRs TRANSACTIONS ARE FACILITATED BY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE IMF AND 12 MEMBER COUNTRIES THAT ARE PREPARED TO BUY OR SELL SDRs FOR ONE OR MORE FREELY USABLE CURRENCIES, PROVIDED THAT THEIR SDR HOLDINGS REMAIN WITHIN CERTAIN LIMITS. SDRs CAN BE USED IN OPERATIONS SUCH AS FORWARD PURCHASE AND SALES AND IN SWAPS. TO SETTLE FINANCIAL OBLIGATIONS. TO MAKE LOANS AND DONATIONS. AS SECURITY FOR THE SETTLEMENT OF FINANCIAL OBLIGATIONS. TO DISCHARGE THEIR FINANCIAL OBLIGATIONS TO THE IMF IN THE GENERAL RESOURCES ACCOUNT.
  18. 18. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 149 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / WORLD BANK WORLD BANK THE INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT (IBRD) OR THE WORLD BANK , ONE OF THE BRETTON WOODS TWINS, WAS ESTABLISHED IN 1945. THE IBRD HAS TWO AFFILIATES. THE INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION (IDA) INTERNATIONAL FINANCE CORPORATION (IFC)
  19. 19. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 149 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / WORLD BANK WORLD BANK CAPITAL OF IBRD IS SUBSCRIBED BY ITS MEMBER COUNTRIES. FINANCES ITS LENDING OPERATIONS PRIMARILY FROM ITS OWN BORROWINGS IN THE WORLD CAPITAL MARKETS. A SUBSTANTIAL CONTRIBUTION TO THE BANKS RESOURCES ALSO COMES FROM ITS RETAINED EARNINGS AND THE FLOW OF REPAYMENTS ON ITS LOANS. IBRD LOANS GENERALLY HAVE A GRACE PERIOD OF FIVE YEARS AND ARE REPAYABLE OVER TWENTY FIVE YEARS OR LESS. THE INTEREST RATE THE IBRD CHARGES ON ITS LOANS IS CALCULATED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE GUIDELINES RELATED TO ITS COST OF BORROWINGS.
  20. 20. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 150 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / WORLD BANK GUIDING PRINCIPLES THE BANK SHOULD PROPERLY ASSESS THE REPAYMENT PROSPECTS OF THE LOAN. THE BANK SHOULD LEND ONLY FOR SPECIFIC PROJECTS WHICH ARE ECONOMICALLY AND TECHNICALLY SOUND AND OF HIGH PRIORITY. THE BANK LENDS ONLY TO ENABLE A COUNTRY TO MEET THE FOREIGN EXCHANGE CONTENT OF PROJECT COST. THE BANK DOES NOT EXPECT THE BORROWING COUNTRY TO SPEND THE LOAN IN A PARTICULAR COUNTRY. TO MAINTAIN CONTINUING RELATIONS WITH BORROWERS TO CHECK THE PROGRESS OF PROJECTS. BANK INDIRECTLY ATTACHES SPECIAL IMPORTANCE TO THE PROMOTION OF LOCAL PRIVATE ENTERPRISE.
  21. 21. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 152 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / WORLD BANK INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION IT IS AN AFFILIATE OF IBRD, WAS ESTABLISHED IN 1960. TO PROVIDE ASSISTANCE FOR THE SAME PURPOSE AS THAT OF IBRD, BUT PRIMARILY IN THE POORER DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND ON TERMS THAT WOULD BEAR LESS HEAVILY ON THEIR BALANCE OF PAYMENTS THAN IBRD LOANS. IDA’S ASSISTANCE IS CONCENTRATED ON THE VERY POOR COUNTRIES. THE FUNDS USED BY THE IDA IS CALLED CREDITS, WHICH ARE MADE TO GOVERNMENTS ONLY, ARE TEN YEAR GRACE PERIODS, FIFTY YEAR MATURITIES, AND NO INTEREST. IDA LOANS CAN BE REPAID IN THE CURRENCY OF THE MEMBER COUNTRY.
  22. 22. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 152 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / WORLD BANK INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION CRITERIA IN APPROVING IDA CREDIT: POVERTY TEST. PERFORMANCE TEST. PROJECT TEST.
  23. 23. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 153 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / WORLD BANK WORLD BANK ASSISTANCE TO INDIA INDIA IS ONE OF THE FOUNDER MEMBER OF THE IBRD AND IS ONE OF THE LARGEST BENEFICIARY OF THE IBRD - IDA ASSISTANCE. UNTIL CHINA BECAME A MEMBER OF THE WORLD BANK IN 1980, INDIA WAS THE LARGEST BENEFICIARY OF THE WORLD BANK. NOW THERE ARE A NUMBER OF LARGER BENEFICIARIES THAN INDIA. IN 1997, THE TOTAL WORLD BANK ASSISTANCE TO INDIA AMOUNTED ABOUT FIVE PER CENT OF THE TOTAL BANK ASSISTANCE.
  24. 24. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 154 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / WORLD BANK AN EVALUATION OF IMF – WORLD BANK AT THE TIME OF ESTABLISHMENT OF THESE INSTITUTIONS, MOST OF THE COUNTRIES WERE COLONIES , THEREFORE NOT REPRESENTED AT THE BRETTON WOODS. THE MAJOR CONCERN OF THESE INSTITUTION WAS THE MAJOR PROBLEMS OF THESE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES. EVEN AFTER THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES HAVE OUTNUMBERED THE DEVELOPED ONES IN THE TOTAL MEMBERSHIP OF THESE INSTITUTIONS, THE DOMINANCE OF THE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES CONTINUES BECAUSE OF THE VOTING SYSTEM WHICH GIVES CLEAR CONTROL TO THE LARGER CONTRIBUTORS.
  25. 25. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 154 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / WORLD BANK AN EVALUATION OF IMF – WORLD BANK IN THE EARLY POST WAR YEARS, MUCH MORE ATTENTION WAS PAID FOR THE RECONSTRUCTION OF WAR DIVESTED EUROPE AND JAPAN THAN THE CRYING DEVELOPMENT NEEDS OF THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. THE PROPOSAL FOR A SPECIAL UNITED NATIONS FUND FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (SUNFED) WHICH WOULD OFFER LARGE-SCALE AID ON EASY TERM TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, WAS REJECTED IN THE 1950s MAINLY BECAUSE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES OBJECTED TO THE UNITED NATIONS BECOMING INVOLVED IN FINANCIAL AID TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
  26. 26. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 154 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / WORLD BANK AN EVALUATION OF IMF – WORLD BANK IN THE EARLY 1990s WHEN INDIAS FOREIGN EXCHANGE RESERVES POSITION BECAME VERY CRITICAL, THE SOURCES OF SHORT-TERM COMMERCIAL BORROWINGS DRIED UP DUE TO THE FALL IN THE CREDIT RATING. BECAUSE OF THE POOR CREDIT RATING THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES HAVE HAD TO PAY AN AVERAGE RATE OF INTEREST WHICH WAS ABOUT FOUR TIMES THE RATE APPLIED TO THE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES ON COMMERCIAL BORROWINGS.
  27. 27. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 155 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / WORLD BANK AN EVALUATION OF IMF – WORLD BANK ONE PROBLEM AS FAR AS THE PROPER FUNCTIONING OF THE IMF HAS BEEN THAT IT HAS NOT HAD ANY CONTROL OVER THE RICH NATIONS, AND COULD NOT AVERT THE BREAKDOWN OF THE BRETTON WOODS MONETARY SYSTEM. IT HAS BEEN RIGHTLY OBSERVED THAT THE WORLD BANK IS NO CLOSER TO MEETING ITS MANDATE. IT WAS ESTABLISHED TO BORROW THE SAVINGS OF THE RICH NATIONS AND TO LEND THEM TO POOR NATIONS, TO FINANCE SOUND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS, PARTICULARLY WHERE PRIVATE INVESTMENT FAILED OR WAS INADEQUATE.
  28. 28. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 155 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / WORLD BANK AN EVALUATION OF IMF – WORLD BANK THE IBRD LENDING RATES NOW FLOAT IN LINE WITH THE WORLD MARKET RATES. THERE IS A SHIFT FROM THE BANK’S ORIGINAL ROLE OF CUSHIONING DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AGAINST FLUCTUATIONS IN MARKET INTEREST RATE. THE BANK WAS SUPPOSED TO RAISE CAPITAL AND LEND IT AT RATE THAT COULD AFFORD TO SUBSIDIES BECAUSE OF ITS OWN STRENGTH AND THAT OF ITS INDUSTRIAL COUNTRY PARTNERS.
  29. 29. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 156 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / WORLD BANK AN EVALUATION OF IMF – WORLD BANKSUGGESTIONS: DISMANTLING THE DOMINANCE OF THE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF THESE INSTITUTIONS. AN INCREASE IN THE INTERNATIONAL LIQUIDITY OF THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES BROOKS NO DELAY. THERE SHOULD BE A SUBSTANTIAL REVIEW OF SDRs, AND THE ADDITIONAL SDR SHOULD BE ALLOCATED TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ONLY. THE IMF SHOULD EVOLVE INTO A WORLD CENTRAL BANK. THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES TAKING WORLD BANK LOANS HAVE NOW TO FALL INTO ONE OF THE TWO CATEGORIES: DEVELOPED ENOUGH TO AFFORD THE STIFF TERMS DEMANDED BY THE IBRD, OR POOR ENOUGH TO QUALIFY FOR CONCESSIONARY FUNDS FROM IDA. BRETTON WOODS INSTITUTIONS NOW NEED TO REFOCUS THEIR WORK ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT.
  30. 30. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 157 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / WORLD BANK INTERNATIONAL FINANCE CORPORATION (IFC)MAIN FEATURES AND ASSISTANCE: ITS INVESTMENTS ARE IN PARTNERSHIP WITH PRIVATE INVESTORS FROM THE CAPITAL-EXPORTING COUNTRY OR THE COUNTRY IN WHICH THE ENTERPRISE IS LOCATED. IT’S INVESTMENT WILL NEVER BE MORE THAN HALF OF THE CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE ENTERPRISE. THE MINIMUM INVESTMENT WILL BE $1,00,000, WITH NO UPPER LIMIT. ELIGIBILITY OF THE ENTERPRISE FOR LOAN IS, IT SHOULD BE A PREDOMINANTLY AN INDUSTRIAL AND SHOULD CONTRIBUTE TO THE DEVELOPMENT. THE RATE OF INTEREST IS A MATTER OF NEGOTIATIONS. IT NEITHER SEEK NOR ACCEPT A GOVERNMENT GUARANTEE FOR THE REPAYMENT OF ANY OF ITS INVESTMENT.
  31. 31. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 158 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / WORLD BANK INTERNATIONAL FINANCE CORPORATION (IFC) IFC AND INDIA THE CORPORATION HAS IDENTIFIED FIVE PRIORITY AREAS, WHERE IT PLANS TO BEEF UP ITS ACTIVITIES. CAPITAL MARKET DEVELOPMENT. DIRECT FOREIGN INVESTMENT. ACCESS TO FOREIGN MARKETS. EQUITY INVESTMENT IN NEW COMPANIES AND EXPANDING COMPANIES TO FINANCE CAPITAL INVESTMENTS INFRASTRUCTURE.
  32. 32. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 159 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK (ADB) WAS SET UP IN DECEMBER 1966 UNDER UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND FAR EAST (ECAFE) TO FOSTER ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ASIAN COUNTRIES, WITH ITS HEADQUARTERS AT MANILA. OBJECTIVES: TO PROMOTE INVESTMENT IN THE ESCAP REGION OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE CAPITAL FOR DEVELOPMENT. TO UTILIZE THE AVAILABLE RESOURCES FOR FINANCING DEVELOPMENT, GIVING PRIORITY TO THOSE REGIONAL, SUB REGIONAL AS WELL AS NATIONAL PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS WHICH CONTRIBUTE MORE EFFECTIVELY TO THE HARMONIOUS ECONOMIC GROWTH OF THE REGION AS A WHOLE.
  33. 33. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 160 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / UNCTAD UNCTAD THE UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT (UNCTAD) WAS CREATED IN 1964 AS AN EXPRESSION OF THE BELIEF THAT A COOPERATIVE EFFORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY WAS REQUIRED TO INTEGRATE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES SUCCESSFULLY IN THE WORLD. FUNCTIONS: TO PROMOTE INTERNATIONAL TRADE WITH A VIEW TO ACCELERATE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. TO FORMULATE POLICIES ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND RELATED PROBLEMS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. TO NEGOTIATE MULTINATIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS. TO MAKE PROPOSALS FOR PUTTING ITS PRINCIPLES AND POLICIES INTO EFFECT.
  34. 34. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 161 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / UNCTAD UNCTAD XI UNCTAD XI, THE LATEST SESSION OF UNCTAD HELD IN SAO PAULO IN JUNE 2004. IT FOCUSED ON ENHANCING THE COHERENCE BETWEEN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES AND GLOBAL ECONOMIC PROCESSES TOWARDS ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT, PARTICULARLY FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. UNCTAD XI ADOPTED A DECLARATION “SPIRIT OF SAO PAULO” AND “SAO PAULO CONSENSUS.”A NEGOTIATED DOCUMENT PROVIDING MORE DETAIL ON THE ROLE OF UNCTAD IN A GLOBALIZING WORLD.
  35. 35. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 161 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / UNCTAD UNCTAD XI SAO PAULO CONSENSUS FOCUSES ON : DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES IN A GLOBALIZING WORLD. BUILDING PRODUCTIVE CAPACITIES AND INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS. ASSURING DEVELOPMENT GAINS FROM THE INTERNATIONAL TRADING SYSTEM AND TRADE NEGOTIATIONS. PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT.
  36. 36. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 162 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / UNIDO UNIDO THE UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION (UNIDO), IS AN ORGAN OF THE U N GENERAL ASSEMBLY. THE PRIMARY FUNCTION OF UNIDO IS TO PROMOTE INDUSTRIALIZATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES BY ENCOURAGING THE MOBILIZATION OF NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL RESOURCES. PARTICULAR ATTENTION IS GIVEN TO MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. UNLIKE UNCTAD, UNIDO WORKS DIRECTLY WITH BUSINESS FIRMS, GENERALLY ON AN INDUSTRY BASIS.
  37. 37. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 163 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / INTERNATIONAL TRADE CENTRE INTERNATIONAL TRADE CENTRE (ITC) THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE CENTRE (ITC) IS THE FOCAL POINT IN THE UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM FOR TECHNICAL COOPERATION WITH DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN TRADE PROMOTION. ITC WAS CREATED BY THE GENERAL AGREEMENTS ON TARIFFS AND TRADE (GATT) IN 1964 AND SINCE 1968 HAS BEEN OPERATED JOINTLY BY GATT (NOW WTO) AND THE U N. AS AN EXECUTING AGENCY OF THE UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (UNDP), ITC IS DIRECTLY RESPONSIBLE FOR IMPLEMENTING UNDP FINANCED PROJECTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES RELATED TO TRADE PROMOTION.
  38. 38. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 163 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / INTERNATIONAL TRADE CENTRE INTERNATIONAL TRADE CENTRE (ITC) ITC ASSISTS THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES BY: DEVELOPING A NATIONAL TRADE PROMOTION STRATEGY. ESTABLISHING APPROPRIATE GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS AND SERVICES, SUCH AS CENTRAL TRADE PROMOTION ORGANIZATION AND SERVICES FOR EXPORTERS IN TRADE INFORMATION. EXPORT FINANCING, EXPORT QUALITY, EXPORT COSTING AND PRICING, EXPORT PACKAGING, TRADE FAIRS AND COMMERCIAL PUBLICITY. THE LEGAL ASPECTS OF FOREIGN TRADE. INTERNATIONAL PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTION OF GOODS. TRADE PROMOTION SERVICES FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZE ENTERPRISES.
  39. 39. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 164 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION (WTO) WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO) WTO PRINCIPLES AND AGREEMENTS AFFECT THE DOMESTIC ENVIRONMENT. INDIA HAS HAD TO SUBSTANTIALLY LIBERALIZE IMPORTS, AND COMPLETE REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS ON QUANTITATIVE IMPORTS. DUE TO LIBERALIZATION OF IMPORTS DOMESTIC FIRMS HAVE TO FACE AN INCREASED COMPETITION FROM FOREIGN GOODS. LIBERALIZATION PROVIDE NEW OPPORTUNITIES AS FOREIGN MARKETS ARE OPEN FOR EXPORTS. INDIAN FIRMS CAN SEEK FOREIGN EQUITY PARTICIPATION AND FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY. FIRMS WILL HAVE TO BE EFFICIENT AND DYNAMIC TO SURVIVE THE GLOBAL COMPETITION.
  40. 40. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 164 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT GATT THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE (GATT), THE PREDECESSOR OF WTO, A RESULT OF THE INTERNATIONAL DESIRE TO LIBERALIZE TRADE. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INTERNATIONAL TRADE ORGANIZATION (ITO) HAS ALSO BEEN RECOMMENDED BY THE BRETTON WOODS CONFERENCE WHICH HAD RECOMMENDED IMF AND WORLD BANK. BECAUSE OF OBJECTIONS THAT ITS ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS WOULD INTERFERE WITH THE AUTONOMY OF DOMESTIC POLICY MAKING, THE ITO CHARTER WAS NEVER RATIFIED. GATT WHICH HAD BEEN DRAWN UP ONLY AS AN INTERIM AGREEMENT TO FILL THE GAP UNTIL THE ITO CHARTER WAS RATIFIED, BECAME THE FRAME WORK FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADING SYSTEM SINCE 1948.
  41. 41. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 165 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT GATT THE GATT WAS TRANSFORMED INTO A WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO) WITH EFFECT FROM JANUARY 1995.THUS AFTER FIVE DECADES, THE ORIGINAL PROPOSAL OF AN INTERNATIONAL TRADE ORGANIZATION HAS TAKEN SHAPE AS THE WTO. THE WTO WHICH IS AMORE POWERFUL BODY THAN THE GATT HAS AN ENLARGED ROLE THAN THE GATT. INDIA IS ONE OF THE FOUNDER MEMBER OF THE IMF, WORLD BANK, GATT AND THE WTO.
  42. 42. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 165 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT OBJECTIVES THE PREAMBLE OF THE GATT CONTAINS THE FOLLOWING IMPORTANT OBJECTIVES:1. RAISING STANDARD OF LIVING.2. ENSURING FULL EMPLOYMENT AND A LARGE AND STEADILY GROWING VOLUME OF REAL INCOME AND EFFECTIVE DEMAND.3. DEVELOPING FULL USE OF THE RESOURCES OF THE WORLD.4. EXPANSION OF PRODUCTION AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE.
  43. 43. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 166 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT AN EVALUATION OF GATT THE GROWING ACCEPTANCE OF GATT / WTO, DESPITE THEIR SHORTCOMINGS, IS EVINCED BY THE INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF SIGNATORIES. AUGUST END 2006, 149 COUNTRIES WERE MEMBERS, AND ABOUT TWO DOZEN NATIONS WERE NEGOTIATING MEMBERSHIP. TOTAL TRADE IN 2000 WAS 22 TIMES THE LEVEL OF 1950. GATT AND THE WTO HAVE HELPED TO CREATE A MORE LIBERAL TRADING SYSTEM CONTRIBUTING TO UNPRECEDENTED GROWTH. ESTABLISHMENT OF A FORUM FOR CONTINUING CONSULTATIONS. BESIDES AGRICULTURE AND TEXTILES, TWO EXCEPTIONS TO THE GENERAL TREND OF TRADE LIBERALIZATION HAVE BEEN TRADE OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND ECONOMIC INTEGRATION. CONT….
  44. 44. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 167 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT AN EVALUATION OF GATT THE EXPORTS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES GAINED SIGNIFICANTLY LESS FROM GATT ROUNDS THAN DID EXPORTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL NATIONS. THE TRADE LIBERALIZATION HAS BEEN CONFINED MOSTLY TO GOODS OF INTEREST TO THE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES. IN CASE OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES NOT ONLY WAS THAT THERE WAS NO LIBERALIZATION, BUT ALSO THERE WAS AN INCREASE IN PROTECTION. MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS OF INTEREST TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LIKE TEXTILES AND CLOTHING , FOOTWEAR etc. HAVE BEEN SUBJECT TO INCREASE NON-TARIFF BARRIERS. GROWING NTBs HAVE BEEN SEVERELY AFFECTING THE EXPORTS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
  45. 45. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 168 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT THE URUGUAY ROUND URUGUAY ROUND (UR) IS THE NAME BY WHICH THE EIGHTH AND THE LATEST ROUND OF THE MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS (MTNs) HELD UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE GATT IS POPULARLY KNOWN BECAUSE IT WAS LAUNCHED IN PUNTA DEL ESTE IN URUGUAY, A DEVELOPING COUNTRY IN SEPTEMBER 1986.
  46. 46. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 168 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT THE URUGUAY ROUND THE URUGUAY ROUND TOOK UP THREE BASIC SUBJECTS FOR DISCUSSION: REDUCING SPECIFIC TRADE BARRIERS AND IMPROVING MARKET ACCESS. STRENGTHENING GATT DISCIPLINES. PROBLEMS OF LIBERALIZATION OF TRADE IN SERVICES, TRADE RELATED ASPECTS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS (TRIPs) AND TRADE RELATED INVESTMENT MEASURES (TRIMs).
  47. 47. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 169 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT GATT AND WTO UNDER THE OLD SYSTEM THERE WERE TWO GATTS: 1. GATT THE AGREEMENT– THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN CONTRACTING PARTIES (GOVERNMENT) SETTING OUT THE RULES FOR CONDUCTING INTERNATIONAL TRADE. 2. GATT THE ORGANIZATION – AN INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION CREATED TO FACILITATE DISCUSSION AND ADMINISTRATION RELATED TO THE AGREEMENT.
  48. 48. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 169 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT GATT AND WTO GATT THE ORGANIZATION CEASED TO EXIST WITH THE ESTABLISHMENT OF WTO. GATT THE AGREEMENT WHICH ALWAYS DEALT WITH TRADE IN GOODS, CONTINUE TO EXIST IN AMENDED FORM, AS PART OF WTO ALONGSIDE TWO NEW AGREEMENTS.1. GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN SERVICES (GATS).2. GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE RELATED ASPECTS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS (TRIPS) . THE OLD TEXT IN NOW CALLED GATT 1947. THE UPDATED VERSION IS CALLED GATT1994.
  49. 49. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 171 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT WTO PRINCIPLES MAIN OBJECTIVES OF WTO AGREEMENTS: TO HELP TRADE FLOW AS FREELY AS POSSIBLE. TO ACHIEVE FURTHER LIBERALISATION GRADUALLY THROUGH NEGOTIATIONS. TO SET UP AN IMPARTIAL MEANS OF SETTING DISPUTS. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES: NON DISCRIMINATION (“MOST –FAVOURED NATION TREATMENT” AND “NATIONAL TREATMENT”). FREER TRADE, PREDICTABLE POLICIES, ENCOURAGING COMPETITION. EXTRA PROVISIONS FOR LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES.
  50. 50. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 171 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATTORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE MINISTERIAL CONFERENCE (DECISION MAKING BODY) GENERAL COUNCIL (NORMALLY AMBASSADORS AND HEADS OF DELEGATION IN GENEVA) GOODS COUNCIL, SERVICE COUNCIL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY COUNCIL NUMEROUS SPECIALIZED COMMITTEES, WORKING GROUPS AND WORKING PARTIES
  51. 51. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 174 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT SALIENT FEATURE OF U R AGREEMENT LIBERALIZATION OF TRADE IN MANUFACTURES LIBERALIZATION OF TRADE IN MANUFACTURE IS OUGHT TO BE ACHIEVED MOSTLY BY REDUCTION OF TARIFFS AND PHASING OUT OF NON-TARIFF BARRIERS
  52. 52. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 174 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT SALIENT FEATURE OF U R AGREEMENT TARIFF BARRIERS THE MAJOR LIBERALIZATION IN RESPECT OF TRADE IN MANUFACTURES, REGARDING TARIFFS ARE:1. EXPANSION OF TARIFF BINDING.2. REDUCTION IN THE TARIFF RATES.3. EXPANSION OF DUTY-FREE ACCESS. NON TARIFF BARRIERS THE AGREEMENT TO ABOLISH VOLUNTARY EXPORT RESTRAINTS (VERS) AND TO PHASE OUT THE MULTIFIBRE ARRANGEMENTS (MFA) ARE REGARDED AS LANDMARK ACHIEVEMENTS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
  53. 53. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 175 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT SALIENT FEATURE OF U R AGREEMENT LIBERALIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE INCLUSION FOR THE FIRST TIME OF AGRICULTURE IN THE MTN. EXCLUSION OF AGRICULTURE FROM THE PREVIOUS ROUNDS AND ITS EFFECTIVE EXEMPTION FROM GATT MADE IT A HIGHLY PROTECTED SECTOR IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. IMPACT OF THIS ON WORLD PRICES PREVENTED EFFICIENT PRODUCERS FROM REALIZING THE BENEFITS OF THEIR COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE. THE IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF THE U R AGREEMENT ON AGRICULTURE INCLUDE:1. TARIFFICATION.2. TARIFF BINDING.3. TARIFF CUTS.4. REDUCTION IN SUBSIDIES AND DOMESTIC SUPPORT.
  54. 54. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 177 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT GATS THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN SERVICES (GATS) WHICH EXTENDS MULTILATERAL RULES AND DISCIPLINES TO SERVICES IS REGARDED AS A LANDMARK ACHIEVEMENT OF THE U R, ALTHOUGH IT ACHIEVED ONLY LITTLE IN TERMS OF IMMEDIATE LIBERALIZATION. MODES OF INTERNATIONAL DELIVERY OF SERVICES:1. CROSS BORDER SUPPLY ( TRANSBORDER DATA FLOWS, TRANSPORTATION SERVICES )2. COMMERCIAL PRESENCE ( PROVISION OF SERVICES ABROAD THROUGH FDI OR REPRESENTATIVE OFFICES )3. CONSUMPTION ABROAD ( TOURISM )4. MOVEMENT OF PERSONNEL ( ENTRY AND TEMPORARY STAY OF FOREIGN CONSULTANTS )
  55. 55. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 179 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT TRIMs TRADE RELATED INVESTMENT MEASURES (TRIMs) REFERS TO CERTAIN CONDITIONS OR RESTRICTIONS IMPOSED BY A GOVERNMENT IN RESPECT OF FOREIGN INVESTMENT IN THE COUNTRY. TRIMS WERE WIDELY EMPLOYED BY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
  56. 56. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 180 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT TRIPs ACCORDING TO THE WTO, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS ARE THE RIGHTS GIVEN TO PERSONS OVER THE CREATIONS OF THEIR MINDS. THEY USUALLY GIVE THE CREATOR AN EXCLUSIVE RIGHT OVER THE USE OF HIS / HER CREATION FOR A CERTAIN PERIOD OF TIME.
  57. 57. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 180 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT COPYRIGHT AND RIGHTS RELATED TO COPYRIGHT THE RIGHTS OF AUTHORS OF LITERARY AND ARTISTIC WORKS (SUCH AS BOOKS AND OTHER WRITINGS, MUSICAL COMPOSITIONS, PAINTINGS, SCULPTURE, COMPUTER PROGRAMS AND FILMS) ARE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT, FOR A MINIMUM PERIOD OF 50 YEARS AFTER THE DEATH OF THE AUTHOR.
  58. 58. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 181 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT THE U R AGREEMENT ON TRIPS, COVERS SEVEN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTIES1. COPYRIGHT AND RELATED RIGHTS (i.e. RIGHTS OF PERFORMERS, PRODUCERS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND BROADCASTING ORGANIZATIONS.)2. TRADEMARKS INCLUDING SERVICE MARKS.3. GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS INCLUDING APPELLATIONS OF ORIGIN. CONT….
  59. 59. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 181 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT THE U R AGREEMENT ON TRIPS, COVERS SEVEN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTIES4. INDUSTRIAL DESIGNS.5. PATENTS INCLUDING THE PROTECTION OF NEW VARIETIES OF PLANTS.6. THE LAYOUT-DESIGNS OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS.7. UNDISCLOSED INFORMATION, INCLUDING TRADE SECRETS AND TEST DATA.
  60. 60. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 182 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT OBJECTIVES OF PROTECTION OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ENCOURAGE AND REWARD CREATIVE WORK. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION. FAIR COMPETITION. CONSUMER PROTECTION. TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY. BALANCE OF RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS.
  61. 61. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 186 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT PATENTS A PATENT IS A LEGAL PROTECTION GRANTED FOR AN INNOVATION THAT IS NEW, NON –OBVIOUS AND USEFUL. THE PATENT GRANTS THE PATENT HOLDER THE EXCLUSIVE RIGHT TO MAKE USE OR SELL THE PATENTED PRODUCTS OR PROCESS. THE MAIN PURPOSE OF THE PATENT SYSTEM IS TO BENEFIT THE SOCIETY. PATENTS, BY PROVIDING AN OPPORTUNITY TO RECOUP THE COST OF INVENTION AND TO MAKE PROFIT OUT OF THE INVENTION. ENCOURAGE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AND THEREBY CONTRIBUTE TO THE WELL BEING OF THE SOCIETY.
  62. 62. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 186 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT PATENTS AN INVENTION TO BE PATENTABLE, MUST SATISFY THREE CONDITIONS. 1. IT IS NEW. 2. IT IS USEFUL TO THE SOCIETY. 3. IT IS NON-OBVIOUS TO A PERSON POSSESSED OF AVERAGE SKILL IN THE ART.
  63. 63. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 186 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT PATENTS THE INDIAN PATENTS ACT,1970, AS AMENDED AND EFFECTIVE FROM JANUARY1, 2005, LAYS DOWN: THE ELIGIBILITY, PROCEDURES, AND CONDITIONS FOR GRANT OF PATENTS. INVENTIONS AND OTHER SUBJECTS NOT PATENTABLE. RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS OF PATENTEE. GROUNDS FOR REVOCATION OF PATENTS. MATTERS RELATED TO WORKING OF THE PATENT AND COMPULSORY LICENSING. RIGHTS OF GOVERNMENT REGARDING PATENTED PRODUCTS.
  64. 64. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 187 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT PATENTS1. GRANT AND REVOCATION OF PATENT: A PATENT MAY BE GRANTED TO AN INVENTION, INVENTION MEANS A NEW PRODUCT OR PROCESS INVOLVING INVENTIVE STEP WHICH MEANS A FEATURE INVOLVING TECHNICAL ADVANCE AS COMPARED TO THE EXISTING KNOWLEDGE OR ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANT. THERE IS PROVISION FOR GRANT OF PATENTS OF ADDITION TO THE PATENTEE i.e. WHEN THERE IS A MODIFICATION OR IMPROVEMENT TO A PATENTED PRODUCT. THE ACT ALSO PROVIDES FOR THE REVOCATION OF PATENTS ON CERTAIN GROUNDS.2. ITEM NOT PATENTABLE: A LIST OF INVENTIONS AND OTHER SUBJECTS NOT PATENTABLE IS PROVIDED IN THE PATENTS ACT.
  65. 65. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 187 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT PATENTS3. PRODUCT PATENT: THE AMENDED ACT PROVIDES FOR GRANT OF PRODUCT PATENT. PREVIOUSLY, FOR FOOD, PHARMACEUTICAL AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS ONLY PROCESS PATENT WAS GRANTED. ANY BODY WAS FREE TO MANUFACTURE THE SAME PRODUCT BY DIFFERENT PROCESS. THIS IS NO MORE ALLOWED.4. PATENT PERIOD: FOR FOOD , PHARMACEUTICAL AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS, PREVIOUSLY THE PATENT PERIOD WAS 14 YEARS, NOW FOR ALL PRODUCTS IT IS 20 YEARS.5. RIGHTS AND OBLIGATION OF PATENTEE: A PATENT GRANTED UNDER THIS ACT CONFERS ON THE PATENTEE THE EXCLUSIVE RIGHT TO USE, MAKE, SELL OR IMPORT THE PATENTED PRODUCT / PROCESS. THE ACT NORMALLY PREVENTS THIRD PARTIES .
  66. 66. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 188 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT PATENTS6. WORKING OF THE PATENT: IT MEANS THAT THE PATENTED PRODUCT IS PRODUCED IN INDIA AND MADE AVAILABLE SUFFICIENTLY AT REASONABLE PRICE WITHIN REASONABLE TIME.7. COMPULSORY LICENSING: THE COMPULSORY LICENSING SECTIONS OF THE ACT ARE INTENDED TO CHECK THE ABUSE OF PATENT RIGHT.8. PARALLEL IMPORT: THE ACT ALSO PROVIDES FOR PARALLEL IMPORT SO THAT PATENTED PRODUCT CAN BECOME AVAILABLE AT THE LOWEST INTERNATIONAL PRICE.9. EXCEPTIONS: THE ACT ALSO LAYS DOWN CERTAIN EXCEPTIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF THE PATENTEE. ANY PATENTED PRODUCT OR PROCESS MAY BE MADE, IMPORTED OR USED BY OR ON BEHALF OF THE GOVERNMENT FOR ITS USE OR PURPOSE. THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT MAY ALSO ACQUIRE A PATENT FOR PUBLIC PURPOSE.
  67. 67. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 190 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT DISPUTES SETTLEMENT WTO MEMBERS HAVE AGREED THAT IF THEY BELIEVE FELLOW- MEMBERS ARE VIOLATING TRADE RULES, THEY WILL USE THE MULTILATERAL SYSTEM OF SETTLING DISPUTES INSTEAD OF TAKING ACTION UNILATERALLY. THAT MEANS ABIDING BY THE AGREED PROCEDURES, AND RESPECTING JUDGMENT.
  68. 68. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 191 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT ANTI-DUMPING MEASURES IN INDIA ANTI-DUMPING ACTIONS ARE TAKEN BY THE DIRECTORATE OF ANTI-DUMPING AND ALLIED DUTIES, MINISTRY OF COMMERCE. FOR THE GOVERNMENT TO INITIATE ANTI-DUMPING ACTION, THE INDIAN INDUSTRY MUST BE ABLE TO SHOW THAT DUMPED IMPORTS ARE CAUSING OR THREATENING TO CAUSE MATERIAL INJURY TO THE INDIAN DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. ANTI DUMPING ACTIONS MAY BE SUSPENDED OR TERMINATED IF THE EXPORTER CONCERNED FURNISHES AN UNDERTAKING TO REVISE THE PRICE TO REMOVE THE DUMPING OR THE INJURIOUS EFFECT OF DUMPING.
  69. 69. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 193 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT AN EVALUATION OF THE UR AGREEMENT THE SUCCESS OF THE U R AGREEMENT WILL DEPEND UPON THE SPIRIT WITH WHICH IT WILL BE TRANSLATED INTO PRACTICE. MOST OF THE GAINS WILL ACCRUE TO THE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES. SOME DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN THE CATEGORY OF LDCs AND NET FOOD IMPORTERS ARE EXPECTED TO LOSE. AS A SINGLE COUNTRY THE LARGEST GAIN IN ABSOLUTE TERMS WILL ACCRUE TO THE U. S. CONT….
  70. 70. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 193 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT AN EVALUATION OF THE UR AGREEMENT ACCORDING TO GATT ESTIMATES, WORLD TRADE WOULD INCREASE BY 12 PER CENT, IF THE U R PACKAGE IS COMPLETELY IMPLEMENTED. THE VALUE OF WORLD EXPORTS (INCLUDING SERVICES) WILL INCREASE BY AROUND 10 PER CENT. ACCORDING TO THE ESTIMATES MADE BY THE WORLD BANK, OECD AND THE GATT SECRETARIAT THE INCOME EFFECTS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF U R PACKAGE WILL ADD BETWEEN $213 TO 274 BILLION ANNUALLY TO WORLD INCOME.
  71. 71. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 194 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT AN EVALUATION OF WTO ( BENEFITS) IT HAS MADE SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENT IN REDUCING THE TARIFF AND NON TARIFF BARRIERS TO TRADE. THE LIBERALIZATION OF INVESTMENT HAS BEEN FOSTERING ECONOMIC GROWTH OF A NUMBER OF COUNTRIES. THE LIBERALIZATION RESULTED IN INCREASE IN COMPETITION, EFFICIENCY OF RESOURCE UTILIZATION, IMPROVEMENT IN QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY AND FALL IN PRICES. IT HAS A SYSTEM IN PLACE TO SETTLE TRADE DISPUTES BETWEEN NATIONS. IT HAS A MECHANISM TO DEAL WITH VIOLATION OF TRADE AGREEMENT.
  72. 72. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 195 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT AN EVALUATION OF WTO ( DRAWBACKS) NEGOTIATIONS AND DECISIONS MAKING IS DOMINATED BY THE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES. BECAUSE OF THE DEPENDENCE OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ON DEVELOPED ONES, THE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES ARE ABLE TO RESORT TO ARM-TWISTING TACTICS. MANY OF THE POLICY LIBERALIZATIONS ARE DONE WITHOUT CONSIDERING THE VULNERABILITY OF THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND THE POSSIBLE ADVERSE EFFECT ON THEM. THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES HAVE BEEN GETTING A RAW DEAL FROM THE WTO.
  73. 73. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 196 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT WTO AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES THE LIBERALIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE AND THE INCREASE IN AGRICULTURAL PRICES DUE TO CUT IN PRODUCER SUBSIDIES IN THE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES WOULD BENEFIT AGRICULTURAL EXPORTERS, THE INCREASE IN FOOD PRICES DUE TO CUT IN SUBSIDIES MAY ADVERSELY AFFECT THE FOOD IMPORTERS.
  74. 74. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 196 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT WTO AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ONE OF THE MAJOR AREAS OF DISAPPOINTMENT FOR MANY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IS TRADE IN TEXTILES. TEXTILES IS ONE OF THEIR MOST IMPORTANT EXPORT ITEMS BUT DEVELOPED COUNTRIES HAVE BEEN FOLLOWING A VERY RESTRICTIVE IMPORT POLICY. THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES WANTED A FAST PHASING OUT OF THE MULTIFIBRE ARRANGEMENT (MFA) UNDER WHICH THE TEXTILE IMPORTS HAVE BEEN RESTRICTED. THE MFA WILL BE PHASED OUT,IN STAGES OVER A PERIOD OF 10 YEARS. MAJOR PART OF THE LIBERALIZATION WILL TAKE PLACE ONLY TOWARDS THE END OF THE TRANSITIONAL PERIOD
  75. 75. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 197 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT WTO AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES THE EFFECT OF THE U R IS NOT THE SAME ON ALL COUNTRIES. A MEASURE WHICH FAVOURABLE AFFECTS ONE DEVELOPED COUNTRY MAY UNFAVORABLY AFFECT ANOTHER DEVELOPED COUNTRY. THE CONFLICTS OF INTEREST HAVE OCCURRED BOTH AMONG DEVELOPED COUNTRIES AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. DIFFERENCES OF OPINION BETWEEN THE U S AND E C ON THE TRADE IN SERVICES LEFT THIS SECTOR LARGELY UNAFFECTED.
  76. 76. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 197 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT WTO AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES THE SUREST PROOF OF THE SUCCESS OF THE URUGUAY ROUND IS THAT NO COUNTRY IS ENTIRELY HAPPY AT THE OUTCOME. INDIA IS QUITE DISSATISFIED THAT THE TEXTILE TRADE IS NOT ADEQUATELY LIBERALIZED . SOME PEOPLE IN THE U S ARE ANGRY OVER THE LIBERALIZATION MOVE, ALLEGING THAT TWO MILLION JOBS IN THE U S WOULD NOW HANG IN BALANCE.
  77. 77. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 198 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT UNEQUAL PARTICIPATION THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ARE DISADVANTAGED IN THE WTO SYSTEM BECAUSE OF THEIR INABILITY TO EFFECTIVELY PARTICIPATE IN THE NEGOTIATIONS. THEY SUFFER FROM THE LACK OF INTELLECTUAL AND FINANCIAL CAPABILITIES TO MEANINGFULLY PARTICIPATE. THEY ARE NOT ABLE TO UNDERSTAND THE IMPLICATIONS AND POSSIBLE IMPACTS OF DIFFERENT PROPOSALS AND AGREEMENTS BECAUSE OF THEIR ANALYTICAL DEFICIENCIES, WEAK BARGAINING POSITIONS, GENERAL STATE OF UNPREPAREDNESS FOR THE NEGOTIATIONS. LACK OF TRANSPARENCY IN THE NEGOTIATING PROCESS.
  78. 78. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 199 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT IMPLMENTATION ISSUES DEVELOPING COUNTRIES HAVE IDENTIFIED VARIOUS INSTANCES OF INEQUALITIES AND IMBALANCES IN THE URUGUAY ROUND AGREEMENTS AND SUBMITTED A LARGE NUMBER OF FORMAL PROPOSALS FOR RECTIFYING THEM. THE PROPOSALS HAVE BEEN KNOWN AS THE IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES.
  79. 79. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 199 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT IMPLMENTATION ISSUES IT IS ARGUED THAT THE IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES SHOULD BE URGENTLY RESOLVED AND ANY NEW ROUND OF MTN SHALL BE TAKEN UP ONLY AFTER THAT. HOWEVER, THE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES WANT THE NEW ROUND OF MTN SOON. RESOLUTION OF THE IMPLANTATION ISSUES IS THE ONLY WAY TO RESTORE CREDIBILITY OF THE INTERNATIONAL TRADING SYSTEM.
  80. 80. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 200 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT THE DOHA DECLARATION THE DOHA MINISTERIAL ADOPTED THREE MAJOR DECLARATION. 1. ON THE NEGOTIATING AGENDA FOR THE NEW WTO ROUND. 2. ON SOME 40 IMPLEMENTATION CONCERNS OF THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. 3. ON THE POLITICAL STATEMENT DEALING WITH PATENTS AND PUBLIC HEALTH.
  81. 81. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 200 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT THE DOHA DECLARATION THE REMARKABLE ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DOHA MINISTERIAL FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IS THAT IN THE CASE OF TRIPS AND PUBLIC HEALTH, IT ALLOWED WAIVER OF THE PATENT LAW TO FACE A NATIONAL EMERGENCY. NOW IT WILL BE POSSIBLE FOR THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES TO SET ASIDE THE PATENT LAWS IF THEY HAVE TO FACE EPIDEMICS SUCH AS MALARIA, TUBERCULOSIS AND AIDS. EACH COUNTRY HAS BEEN GIVEN THE FREEDOM TO DEFINE THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY.
  82. 82. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 201 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT U R AGREEMENT AND INDIA THE URUGUAY ROUND AGREEMENTS HAVE COME IN FOR SCATHING CRITICISMS IN INDIA. MANY POLITICIANS AND OTHERS HAVE ARGUED THAT INDIA SHOULD WITHDRAW FROM GATT. MOST OF THE CRITICISMS ARE EITHER BASELESS OR DUE TO LACK OF KNOWLEDGE OF THE INTERNATIONAL TRADING ENVIRONMENT, AND MISINFORMATION, OR ARE JUST MEANT TO OPPOSE THE GOVERNMENT BY THE OPPOSITION PARTIES. BY BEING A PART OF THE WTO INDIA ENJOYS THE MOST FAVORED NATION (MFN) STATUS WITH ALL THE OTHER MEMBERS OF WTO.
  83. 83. Chapter No. 3 Page No. 202 International Business EnvironmentINTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS / GATT U R AGREEMENT AND INDIA ACCORDING TO GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, THE MARKET ACCESS AGREEMENTS SIGNED BY INDIA WITH THE USA AND EU WILL RESULT IN ADDITIONAL EXPORT EARNINGS OF AROUND Rs. 1100 CRORES IN THE INITIAL YEARS AND THE ADDITIONAL ACCESS ACHIEVED WILL GET MAGNIFIED IN THE SECOND AND THIRD PHASES OF INTEGRATION OF THE TEXTILE TRADE WITH THE MULTINATIONAL TRADE SYSTEM AND WILL PROVIDE LARGER EARNINGS DURING THESE PERIODS.
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