economics economy macro economics business economics developmental economics micro economics reciprocal demand advance macro inflation equilibrium international trade trade international economics pakistan nominal gdp real gdp steady state condition consumption function production function saving and investment open economy currency depreciation import and export perfect competition average variable cost fixed cost average cost competitive exchange rates fiscal policy unemployment rate gdp macroeconomics mankiw world bank and imf imf minimum wage rate supply chain technology boom culture technological threats mill’s theory comparative costs comparative advantage ricardo’s theory classical theories of trade business foreign trade adam smith finance initial utility pakistan economics price ceiling price floor government interventions efficiency governmental ownership price mechanism public goods demerit goods merit goods commodity money specialization microsoft exogenous variables endogenous variables national income frictional unemployment structural unemployment employment replace capital break-even investment malthusian model population growth rate depriciation national income identity robert solow capital stock optimal saving rate closed economy solow model population growth capital accumulation economic growth unskilled workers aging of the baby boomers wage rate labour unions efficiency wage theory wage rigidity real wage rigidity public policy technological change equilibrium u rate rate of job recession natural rate of unemployment: rate of unemployment net export function real exchange rate nominal exchange rate capital flows supply of loanable funds exogenous policy variables investment function international capital flow trade deficit trade surplus spending and output quantity theory of money money demand gdp deflator velocity of money bank deposits central bank federal reserve monetary policy money supply fiat money money and prices classical theory of inflation money surpluses and deficits investment and saving loanable funds cobb-douglas production income distributed neoclassical theory real rental rate real wage rate diminishing marginal returns marginal product of labor factor prices distribution of ni return to scale factors of production market clearing model advance macroeconomics law of international value j.s.mill reciprocal demand elasticity ellsworth absolute advantage mercantilism monetary side national default capital market international policy balance of payment international trade and govt international trade and invest national imcome trade and money decline of imperial china religions in china justice and peace great power of assimilation features of chinese culture chinese mind confucius\ unification of china chinese civilization topography china in profile productive efficiency productivity allocative effeciency negative profit zero economic profit losses positive profit market price shut down of firm economic profit marginal cost profit maximization average fixed cost functions of cost variable cost total cot revenue breakeven point profit and loss business objectives microeconomics factors affecting ic consumer budget line perfect complements perfect substitutes diminishing mrs mrs indifference map utility is ordinal allen john richard hicks vilfredo pareto francis y. edgeworth indifference curve ordinal approach legal security deregulation policies tax reforms deregulation ten principles reduction government spending taxation privatization state welfare free market capitalism free enterprise capitalism neo liberalism washington consensus macro income flexible sticky prices prices: flexible vs. sticky supply and demand gdp per capita g. mankiw cpi gnp vs. gdp government spending nect exports stock and flows government expenditure investment consumption value added expenditure and income circular flow g mankiw multilateral consultation surveillance and analysis quotas reform and appointment governance crisis prevention imf new role restructuring policy members policy framework buyers rent control binding not binding controls on prices tax burdun tax government society shift will technology save us technology is in our hands weapons oil and gas industry albert einstein environmental degradation destroying our environment child philosophy and tech habits and technology effects of technology environment earth technology will destroy information technology modernism risks are potential disasters anthony giddens ulrich beck economics and culture technology risk technoculture risky world ulrich beck theory theory of comparative costs. theory of comparative advantag theory of absolute advantage theory of mercantilism classical theories of it classical economics currencies domestic trade intra-regional or home trade economic interdependence international finance globalization exports imports intermediate micro economics h. gossen law of diminidhing marginal total utility marginal utility equi marginal utility cardinal theory theory of utility provincial authority zulfiqar ali bhutto land reforms cases federal land commission z.a bhutto ayub khan terms of trade production relations-triple c gender mainstreaming creating linkages promoting investment environmental sustainability agrigarian reforms land reforms democracy political economy accountability military takeover fudalism pml-q pti 1965 constitution constitution nawaz sharif bhutto mqm pppp pmln imran khan politics political history increased demand price social benefits social cost external benefits external cost private benefits private cost monopolies market market failure compitition freedom of choice equity rationing mechanism economic questions private goods mixed economic system market economic system planned economic system command economic system economic system uniformity divisibility portability durability bank money plastic money paper money metallic money self-sufficiency monetary systems barter system characteristics of money money & banking money and banking history of money assumptions exogenous factors endogenous factors law of supply law of demand supply curve demand curve business and economy business model outward ppc inward ppc ppc production possibility curve opportunity cost scarcity & choice sectors of economy enterprise capital labour thailand factor of production limited resources unlimited wants scarcity basic economic problem problem of scarcity new mew education health gender inequality index multidimensional poverty index human poverty index net economic welfare human development index gross domestic product) monetary indicator non-monetary indicators standard of living economic development nru full employment voluntary unemployment involuntary unemployment mass unemployment demand deficit unemployment real wage unemployment too high unemployment benefits keynesian unemployment classical unemployment cyclical unemployment employment & unemployment unemployment mcq paradox of thrift withdrawals and injection keynesian cross apc mpc multiplier and accelerator accelerator effect keynesian multiplier
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