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Personality in consumer behavior

A complete information is given starting from the meaning of personality to its theories to its relation to marketing.
How consumers' personality affect in their buying habit and everything related is explained.

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Personality in consumer behavior

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Marketers have long tried to appeal to consumers in terms of their personality characteristics. They have intuitively felt that consumers purchase, and when and how they consume, are likely to be influenced by personality factors. For this reason marketing and advertising people have frequently depicted specific personality traits or characteristics in their making and advertising messages.
  3. 3. CONTENTS • Definition • Nature • Types • Theories • Personality and understanding consumer diversity -consumer innovativeness and related personality traits -cognitive factors -from consumer materialism to compulsive consumption -consumer ethnocentrism • Brand personality -types
  4. 4. DEFINITION Personality can be defined as those inner characteristics that determines and reflects how an individual responds to his or her environment. Those characteristics said are the attributes, traits, qualities, factors and mannerism that distinguish one individual from the other.
  5. 5. NATURE 1. Personality reflects individual differences. 2. Personality is consistent and enduring. 3. Personality can change.
  6. 6. TYPES
  7. 7. THEORIES A) FREUDIAN THEORY & PRODUCT PERSONALITY Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality. It comprises of Id, Ego, and Superego.
  8. 8. B) NEO-FREUDIAN PERSONALITY THEORY This theory is also called as socio-analytic theory. the researchers here believed that social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality. “KAREN HORNEY” proposed 3 types of personality groups:- a) Compliant individuals-who move towards others (desire to be loved ,wanted & appreciated) b) Aggressive individuals-who move against others (desire to excel & win admiration) c) Detached individuals-who move away from others (desire independence , self-sufficiency, and individualism or freedom)
  9. 9. C) TRAIT THEORY • Personality theory with a focus on psychological characteristics. • Trait- any distinguishing, relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another. • Personality is to linked to how consumers make their choices or to consumption of a broad product category-not a specific brand
  11. 11. CONSUMER INNOVATIVENESS RELATED PERSONALITY TRAITS > Innovativeness > Optimum Stimulation Level  Dogmatism > Sensation Seeking > Social character > Variety-novelty seeking > Need for uniqueness
  12. 12. CONSUMER INNOVATIVENESS The degree to which consumers are receptive to new products, new services or new practices.
  13. 13. DOGMATISM A personality trait that reflect the degree of rigidity a person displays towards the unfamiliar and toward information that is contrary to his or her own established beliefs. Consumers low in dogmatism (open-minded) are more likely to prefer innovative products to established or traditional alternatives
  14. 14. SOCIAL CHARACTER Inner –directed • Consumers who tend to rely on their on their own inner values. • More likely to be innovators • Tend to prefer ads that stress product features and benefits Other-directed • Consumers who tend to look to others for direction. • Less likely ot be innovators • Tend to prefer ads that feature social acceptance.
  15. 15. NEED FOR UNIQUENESS Consumers who avoid appearing to conform (being conventional) to expectations or standards of others.
  16. 16. OPTIMUM STIMULATION LEVELS (OSL) • A personality trait that measures the level or amount of novelty or complexity that individuals seek in their personal experiences. • High OSL consumers tend to accept risky and novelty products more readily than low OSL consumers.
  17. 17. SENSATION SEEKING • A personality trait characterized by the need for varied, novel, and complex sensations, experiences and willingness to take physical and social risks for the sake of such experience.
  18. 18. VARIETY NOVELTY SEEKING • A personality trait similar to OSL which measures a consumer’s degree to variety seeking. • There appear to many different types of consumer variety seeking: -exploratory purchase behavior (switching brands to new, different, and possible better alternatives) -use innovativeness (using an
  19. 19. COGNITIVE PERSONALITY FACTORS • Need for recognition A person’s craving for enjoyment of thinking to use a product. • Visualizers versus verbalizers a person’s preference for information presented visually(i.e. TV, Internet) or verbally(i.e. Radio)
  20. 20. FROM CONSUMER MATERIALISM TO COMPULSIVE CONSUMPTION • Consumer materialism the extent to which a person is considered “materialistic” • Fixed consumption behavior consumers fixated on certain products or categories of products. • Compulsive consumption behavior “addicted” or “out-of-control” consumers.
  21. 21. CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM • Ethnocentrism consumers feel it is wrong to purchase foreign-made products. • They can be targeted by stressing nationalistic themes.
  22. 22. BRAND PERSONALITY • Brand personality is as if “making the brand alive” • The attribution of human personality traits (seriousness, warmth, imagination, etc.) to a brand as a way to achieve differentiation. • Usually done through long-term advertising and appropriate packaging and graphics. • These traits inform brand behavior through both prepared communication/packaging , etc. and through the people who represent the brand- its employees. • The way in which it speaks of its products or services shows what kind of person it would be if it were human. • A brand without a personality has trouble gaining awareness and developing a relationship with customer.
  23. 23. Product personality and Gender • Assigning of gender as part of personality description is fully consistent with the marketplace reality that products and services, in general are viewed by consumers as having a “gender-being.” • Armed with such knowledge of the perceived gender of a product or a specific brand, marketers are in a better position to select visual and copy-text for various marketing messages. • E.g.: Hero Honda Pleasure- “why should boys have all the fun” : Gillette Venus . Feminine products *Cleaning, Home care products Masculine products *gadgets, bikes, cars, etc.
  24. 24. Product personality and geography • Certain products, in the minds of consumers, possess a strong geographical association. • Using the geographical association can create geographic equity • E.g. : Banarasi sarees
  25. 25. Personality and color Color combinations in packaging and products denotes personality Red Exciting, passionate strong • Makes food smell better • Coffee in a red can perceived as “rich” • Women have a preference of bluish red • Men have for yellowish red • Coca cola own red Green Secure, natural, relaxed, easy-going, living things • Good work environment • Associated with vegetables & chewing gum Black Sophistication, power, authority , mystery • Powerful clothing • High-tech electronics White Goodness , purity, cleanliness, delicacy, refinement, formality • Suggests reduced calories • Pure & wholesome food • Clean, bath products
  26. 26. CONCLUSION Personality are likely to influence the individual’s product choices. They affect the way consumers respond to marketers’ promotional efforts, and when, where and how they consume particular products or services. Therefore, the identification of specific personality characteristics associated with consumer behavior has proven to be highly useful in the development of a firm’s market