A complete information is given starting from the meaning of personality to its theories to its relation to marketing.
How consumers' personality affect in their buying habit and everything related is explained.
PERSONALIT Y &
- B Y V I J A Y A L A X M I J E N A
Marketers have long tried to appeal to consumers in
terms of their personality characteristics. They have
intuitively felt that consumers purchase, and when and
how they consume, are likely to be influenced by
For this reason marketing and advertising people have
frequently depicted specific personality traits or
characteristics in their making and advertising
• Personality and understanding consumer diversity
-consumer innovativeness and related personality traits
-from consumer materialism to compulsive
• Brand personality
Personality can be defined as those
inner characteristics that
determines and reflects how an
individual responds to his or her
Those characteristics said are the
attributes, traits, qualities, factors
and mannerism that distinguish
one individual from the other.
1. Personality reflects
2. Personality is
3. Personality can
A) FREUDIAN THEORY &
Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic
theory of personality.
It comprises of Id, Ego, and
B) NEO-FREUDIAN PERSONALITY THEORY
This theory is also called as socio-analytic theory.
the researchers here believed that social relationships are fundamental
to the formation and development of personality.
“KAREN HORNEY” proposed 3 types of personality groups:-
a) Compliant individuals-who move towards others (desire to be loved
,wanted & appreciated)
b) Aggressive individuals-who move against others (desire to excel & win
c) Detached individuals-who move away from others (desire
independence , self-sufficiency, and individualism or freedom)
C) TRAIT THEORY
• Personality theory with a focus on psychological
• Trait- any distinguishing, relatively enduring way in which one
individual differs from another.
• Personality is to linked to how consumers make their choices
or to consumption of a broad product category-not a specific
CONSUMER INNOVATIVENESS RELATED
> Innovativeness > Optimum Stimulation Level
Dogmatism > Sensation Seeking
> Social character > Variety-novelty seeking
> Need for uniqueness
The degree to which
consumers are receptive to
new products, new services or
A personality trait that reflect the degree of rigidity a person
displays towards the unfamiliar and toward information that
is contrary to his or her own established beliefs.
Consumers low in dogmatism (open-minded) are more
likely to prefer innovative products to established or
• Consumers who tend to rely on their on
their own inner values.
• More likely to be innovators
• Tend to prefer ads that stress product
features and benefits
• Consumers who tend to look to others
• Less likely ot be innovators
• Tend to prefer ads that feature social
NEED FOR UNIQUENESS
Consumers who avoid appearing to conform (being conventional)
to expectations or standards of others.
OPTIMUM STIMULATION LEVELS (OSL)
• A personality trait that measures the
level or amount of novelty or
complexity that individuals seek in their
• High OSL consumers tend to accept
risky and novelty products more
readily than low OSL consumers.
• A personality trait characterized by the need for varied, novel, and
complex sensations, experiences and willingness to take physical and
social risks for the sake of such experience.
VARIETY NOVELTY SEEKING
• A personality trait similar to
OSL which measures a
consumer’s degree to variety
• There appear to many different
types of consumer variety
-exploratory purchase behavior
(switching brands to new,
different, and possible better
-use innovativeness (using an
COGNITIVE PERSONALITY FACTORS
• Need for recognition
A person’s craving for enjoyment of thinking to use a product.
• Visualizers versus verbalizers
a person’s preference for information presented visually(i.e. TV, Internet) or verbally(i.e. Radio)
FROM CONSUMER MATERIALISM TO
• Consumer materialism
the extent to which a person is considered
• Fixed consumption behavior
consumers fixated on certain products or
categories of products.
• Compulsive consumption behavior
“addicted” or “out-of-control” consumers.
• Ethnocentrism consumers feel it is
wrong to purchase foreign-made
• They can be targeted by stressing
• Brand personality is as if “making the brand alive”
• The attribution of human personality traits (seriousness, warmth, imagination,
etc.) to a brand as a way to achieve differentiation.
• Usually done through long-term advertising and appropriate packaging and
• These traits inform brand behavior through both prepared
communication/packaging , etc.
and through the people who represent the brand- its employees.
• The way in which it speaks of its products or services shows what kind of
person it would be if it were human.
• A brand without a personality has trouble gaining awareness and developing
a relationship with customer.
Product personality and Gender
• Assigning of gender as part of personality description is fully consistent with the
marketplace reality that products and services, in general are viewed by consumers as
having a “gender-being.”
• Armed with such knowledge of the perceived gender of a product or a specific brand,
marketers are in a better position to select visual and copy-text for various marketing
• E.g.: Hero Honda Pleasure- “why should boys have all the fun”
: Gillette Venus .
*Cleaning, Home care products
*gadgets, bikes, cars, etc.
Product personality and geography
• Certain products, in the minds of consumers, possess a strong geographical
• Using the geographical association can create geographic equity
• E.g. : Banarasi sarees
Red Exciting, passionate
• Makes food smell better
• Coffee in a red can perceived as
• Women have a preference of
• Men have for yellowish red
• Coca cola own red
Green Secure, natural,
• Good work environment
• Associated with vegetables
& chewing gum
power, authority ,
• Powerful clothing
• High-tech electronics
White Goodness , purity,
• Suggests reduced calories
• Pure & wholesome food
• Clean, bath products
Personality are likely to
influence the individual’s
product choices. They affect the
way consumers respond to
marketers’ promotional efforts,
and when, where and how they
consume particular products or
services. Therefore, the
identification of specific
associated with consumer
behavior has proven to be
highly useful in the
development of a firm’s market