Origin of stars

578 views

Published on

by
Fatrick Vandamme Gregorio
Antonio Labuguen
Cristine Joyce Perez
Margarita Villiota
Roxanne Umayam

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Origin of stars

  1. 1. Creation Cosmology Origin of StarsAre we being told all the evidence or just selected information to support a particular idea?
  2. 2. The Origin of Stars Evolution Stars evolved billions of years before the earth Theistic evolutionStars evolved billions of years before the earth The Bible Earth created on day 1 The sun, moon, and stars on day 4
  3. 3. The Origin of StarsHugh Ross (Astronomer), “Species Development: NaturalProcess or Divine Action,” Audiotape (Pasadena, CA:Reasons to Believe, 1990).“The entire process of stellar evolution is bynatural process alone. We do not have toinvoke Divine intervention at any stage inthe history of the life-cycle of the stars thatwe observe.” Is this statement consistent with the Bible?
  4. 4. When I consider thy heavens, the workof thy fingers, the moon and the stars, which thou hast ordained; Psalms 8:3
  5. 5. The Origin of StarsAnd God made two great lights; thegreater light to rule the day, and the lesserlight to rule the night: he made the starsalso. (Genesis 1:16)Lift up your eyes on high, and behold whohath created these things, that bringeth outtheir host by number:… (Isaiah 40:26)
  6. 6. The Origin of Stars By the word of the Lord were the heavens made; and all the host of them. (Ps 33:6) Praise him, sun and moon, praise him, all you shining stars….for he commanded and they were created. (Ps 148:3-5) Thou, even thou, are Lord alone; thou hast made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host… (Nehemiah 9:6)
  7. 7. He determines the number of the stars and calls them each by name. (Psalm 147:4)
  8. 8. Stellar lifecycle
  9. 9. Nebula
  10. 10. Nebular solar system formation
  11. 11. Star Formation and PhysicsThe popular theory is that stars form fromvast clouds of gas and dust throughgravitational contraction. Gas and dust clouds Nebula will expand NOT contract
  12. 12. Star FormationDon DeYoung (Ph.D. in Physics),Astronomy and the Bible, 2000, p. 84.“The complete birth of a star hasnever been observed. The principlesof physics demand some specialconditions for star formation and alsofor a long time period. A cloud ofhydrogen gas must be compressed toa sufficiently small size so that gravitydominates. continued
  13. 13. In space, however, almost every gas cloudis light-years in size, hundreds of timesgreater than the critical size needed for astable star. As a result, outward gaspressures cause these clouds to spread outfarther, not contract.”
  14. 14. Star Formation Fred Whipple, The Mystery of Comets, (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institute Press, 1985), pp. 211, 213.“Precisely how a section of an interstellarcloud collapses gravitationally into a star… is still a challenging theoreticalproblem… Astronomers have yet to find aninterstellar cloud in the actual process ofcollapse.”
  15. 15. Star Formation Danny Faulkner, Ph.D. Astronomy“Most astronomers believe that theclouds gradually contract under theirown weight to form stars. Thisprocess has never been observed,but if it did occur, it would take manyhuman lifetimes. continued
  16. 16. It is known that clouds do notspontaneously collapse to form stars. Theclouds possess considerable mass, butthey are so large that their gravity is veryfeeble. Any decrease in size would bemet by an increase in gas pressure thatwould cause a cloud to re-expand.”
  17. 17. Star Formation Hannes Alfven (Nobel prize winner), Gustaf Arrhenius, “Evolution of the Solar System”, NASA, 1976, p. 480.“There is general belief that stars are formingby gravitational collapse; in spite of vigorousefforts no one has yet found anyobservational indication of conformation.Thus the „generally accepted‟ theory of stellarformation may be one of a hundredunsupported dogmas which constitute a largepart of present-day astrophysics.”
  18. 18. Supernova and Star Birth
  19. 19. Star FormationCharles Lada and Frank Shu (both astronomers),“The Formation of Sunlike Stars,” Science, 1990,p. 572.“Despite numerous efforts, we have yet todirectly observe the process of stellarformation…. The origin of stars representsone of the fundamental unsolved problemsof contemporary astrophysics.”
  20. 20. Star Nurseries Do pictures confirm stars are forming?Eagle nebula
  21. 21. Star NurseriesMartin Rees (A leading researcher on cosmicevolution), Before the Beginning, 1998, p. 19.“Stars are still forming today. About 1500light-years away lies the Orion Nebula:enough gas and dust to make millions ofstars…. It even contains protostars thatare still condensing …”
  22. 22. Star Formation and NebulaImages taken by the European SouthernObservatory Very Large Telescope inJanuary 2002 of the Horsehead Nebula inOrion verified that the structures are
  23. 23. Star NurseriesRon Cowen, “Rethinking an Astronomical Icon: The Eagle‟sEGG, Not So Fertile,” Science News, Vol. 161, 16 March2002, pp. 171–172.“NASA‟s claim in 1995 that these picturesshowed hundreds to thousands of starsforming was based on the speculative „EGG-star formation theory.‟ It has recently beentested independently with two infrareddetectors that can see inside the dusty pillars. What did they find?
  24. 24. Few stars were there, and 85% of thepillars had too little dust and gas tosupport star formation. „The new findingsalso highlight how much astronomers stillhave to learn about star formation.‟” No star nurseries
  25. 25. Star Formation and Time 100 billion galaxies (1011) 200 billion stars per galaxy (2x1011) Universe 20 billion years old (2x1010)100 Billion x 200 Billion 1 trillion stars per 20 billion year 2.7 billion stars per day 31,700 stars per second
  26. 26. Conclusion on Star Formation Abraham Loeb, (Harvard Center for Astrophysics), quoted by Marcus Chown, “Let there be Light”, New Scientist, Feb 7, 1998, “The truth is that we don‟t understand star formation at a fundamental level.”
  27. 27. Heavens Declare Sun
  28. 28. Our Sun: Mediocre?“Who are we? What are we? We find that we live on an insignificant planet of a humdrum star lost in a galaxy tucked away in some forgotten corner of a universe in which there are far more galaxies than people.” Carl Sagan
  29. 29. A Special PlaceType G: only 9 percent of all stars. About 80 percent of all stars are Class M, which flare often and would kill us from radiation.
  30. 30. Designed Just for Us If too massive: would be unstable. If not massive enough: Earth would have to be too close, would be tidally locked. Its position in the galaxy is vital for life. Its galactic orbit is more nearly circular than about 80 percent of nearby stars.
  31. 31. About 85 Percent of Stars arein Binary or Multiple Systems
  32. 32. Binary star system
  33. 33. Sun Flares
  34. 34. Unusually Quiet and Gentle„Thank our lucky star‟, New Scientist, 161(2168):15,1999  One recent 30-year study: photosphere is “constant in temperature”  “Sun-like stars normally produce a bright superflare about once a century…Why a superflare has not occurred on the Sun in recorded history is unclear. „I think a consensus is emerging that our Sun is extraordinarily stable‟, suggests Galen Gisler, an astronomer at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico.”
  35. 35. Sun power and size video
  36. 36. Angular Momentum Observed: 2 km/sRequired: over 400 km/s
  37. 37. Angular Momentum and the Solar System“There is a fundamental and insuperable difficulty with the model as described. A striking characteristic of the solar system is that the planets with about 1/700th of the mass of the system, in their orbital motion account for over 99% of its angular momentum. There seems to be no way in which an initially diffuse nebula could evolve so as to partition mass and angular momentum in that way. It turns out… that the angular momentum problem is one of the most important hurdles to be negotiated by any plausible theory for the origin of the solar system.”Dormand and Woolfson, The Origin of the Solar System: the capture theory, 1989, p. 14
  38. 38. “The problem of the outward transfer of angular momentum has been a vexing dilemma for models attempting to explain the origin of the solar system…“This is the rock on which most theories for the formation of the solar system have foundered…“Theories for the origin of the solar system have, in general, failed to deal with this fundamental question.”Stuart Ross Taylor, Solar System Evolution: A New Perspective, 1992, p. 54
  39. 39. An Old Problem“During the 1970s the solar nebula concept became established as a fundamental assumption of astronomy, notwithstanding that its two-hundred-year-old problems had not been resolved.”Dormand and Woolfson, p. 47
  40. 40. The Early Faint Sun Paradox 40% Brighter Energy by thermonuclear fusion The core of the sun should alter and the sun should grow brighter with age If the sun is 4.6 billion years old, it should have brightened by about 40%
  41. 41. The Early Faint Sun ParadoxEarth average temperature (59O F or 15O C)A 25% increase in brightness increases theaverage temperature by about 32O F (18O C)(59o – 32o = 27o F (-2.78o C) Avg. temp
  42. 42. The Alternative V838 Mon
  43. 43. Chris AshcraftNorthwest Creation Network www.nwcreation.net
  44. 44. Galaxy FormationSpiral Galaxy M51 The Whirlpool M101 Galaxy
  45. 45. Formation of GalaxiesJoseph Silk (Professor of Astronomy at theUniversity of Oxford), The Big Bang, 2001, p. 195.“Many aspects of the evolution ofgalaxies cannot yet be determined withany certainty.”
  46. 46. Galaxies James Trefil, Ph.D. Physics, The Dark Side of the Universe, 1988, p. 3 & 55.“There shouldn‟t be galaxies out there atall, and even if there are galaxies,…The problem of explaining the existenceof galaxies has proved to be one of thethorniest in cosmology.”
  47. 47. Galaxy Formation The Facts on File Dictionary of Astronomy, 1994, p. 172.“Galaxies must have condensed out ofthe gases expanding from the big bang….Details of the formation of galaxies are stillhighly uncertain, as is their subsequentevolution.” Why is this any more scientific than: In the beginning God created…

×