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The Models of the Universe


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*The Shape of the Earth
*Heliocentricity vs Geocentricity
*Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

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The Models of the Universe

  1. 1. The Universe and Physics Lesson 4 Physical Science jgF
  2. 2. The Big BangThe Big Bang • Happened 13.7 BYA • Started out as a singularity • Planck Time: 10-43 seconds
  3. 3. How did the ancient people thought about the creation and appearance of our world and the Universe?
  4. 4. Geocentricity Heliocentricity The Earth is at the center The Sun is at the center V S
  5. 5. Geocentric ModelViews of the Earth Thales of Miletus Anaximander of Miletus Asserted that the Earth is flat like a disk Asserted that the Earth is Shaped like a cylinder. Pythagoras OF Samos Alluded to a Spherical earth, though with Some ambiguity.
  6. 6. Geocentric Model Claudius Ptolemy Anaxagoras of Clazomenae The most famous supporter of the Geocentric Model Determined the positions of The Sun, Moon and Earth during Solar and lunar eclipses.
  7. 7. Geocentric Model Plato Eudoxus of Cnidus “Saving the Appearances”—A Challenge to explain the irregular Motion of the heavenly bodies which Are perfect. The earth is surrounded by 27 Spheres of the firmament.
  8. 8. Geocentric Model Aristotle Apollonius of Perga Added the Sphere Of The “Prime Mover” Introduced the Epicycle and The Deferent.
  9. 9. Geocentric Model Hipparchus of Nicaea Put the earth slightly Off-centered in his model. Claudius Ptolemy (yes, again) Ptolemaic Model Equant—A Point Placed directly opposite to Earth from the deferent's center …lasted for a very long time.
  10. 10. Heliocentric Model Philolaus of Croton Pyrocentricity—A great “Central Fire” Is at the middle of the Universe Aristarchus of Samos Considered to be the founder Of heliocentricity.
  11. 11. Heliocentric Model Nicolaus Copernicus A Renaissance-era mathematician and philosopher who formulated the heliocentric model 18 centuries after Aristarchus. “On the Revolution of Celestial Orbs” (1543) Pioneered Heliocentricity Despite possible religious Objections.
  12. 12. Heliocentric Model Tycho Brahe Attempted to combine the Copernican Model with the Benefits of the Ptolemaic System using his own: the Tychonic Model.
  13. 13. Heliocentric Model Galileo Galilei • The first person to use the telescope for scientific Observation • Had many important discoveries in the field of astronomy • A strong supporter of heliocentricity Despite persecution by the Catholic Church
  14. 14. Heliocentric Model Johannes KeplerAdopted Copernicus’ heliocentric approach and developed Three laws which explain the motion of the planets around The Sun.