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  1. 1. Protozoa Over all View
  2. 2. By <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>V.PARTHASARATHY </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lecturer in Zoology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vivekananda College, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tiruvedakam West </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Characteristics of Protozoa <ul><li>Unicellular Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Since Protozoa are single celled they often rely on other organisms for some necessities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reproduction : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asexual: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>binary fission: cytoplasmic division follows mitosis, producing two organisms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>budding: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>multiple fission or schizogeny : cell or organism is split into many new cells or organisms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Reproduction
  5. 5. Symbiosis: an intimate association between two organisms <ul><li>Three types of symbiosis : </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitism: one organism lives in or on a second organism, called the host . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the host is harmed, but usually survives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commensalism: one organism benefits and the other neither benefits nor is harmed </li></ul><ul><li>Mutualism: both organisms benefit from the relationship </li></ul>
  6. 6. Protozoan Taxonomy <ul><li>Phylum Sarcomastigophora </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subphylum Mastigophora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subphylum Sarcodina </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phylum Apicomplexa </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Ciliophora </li></ul>
  8. 9. Phylum Sarcomastigophora: 18,000 species, largest protozoan phylum <ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Unicellular or Colonial </li></ul><ul><li>Locomotion by flagella, pseudopodia, or both </li></ul><ul><li>Autotrophic, saprozoic, or heterotrophic </li></ul><ul><li>Single type of Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Reproduction (usually) </li></ul>
  10. 11. Subphylum Mastigophora: locomotion by one or more flagella
  11. 12. Subphylum Sarcodina: locomotion and food gathered by pseudopodia (false foot) - includes the Amoeba
  12. 13. Pseudopodia - temporary cell extension used for movement and gathering food <ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><li>Lobopodia: broad extensions used for locomotion and engulfing food </li></ul><ul><li>Filopodia: provide constant two-way streaming that delivers food in a conveyor belt fashion </li></ul><ul><li>Reticulopodia: similar to filopodia, except they extend out and form net-like series of extensions </li></ul><ul><li>Axopodia: thin, filamentous and supported by a central axis of microtubules </li></ul>
  13. 14. The AMOEBA
  15. 17. Phylum Apicomplexa: <ul><li>Characterisitics: </li></ul><ul><li>All are parasites </li></ul><ul><li>Apical Complex for penetrating host cells </li></ul><ul><li>Single type of Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Usually No Cilia and Flagella </li></ul><ul><li>Life cycles that typically include asexual and sexual phases </li></ul>
  16. 18. Malaria caused by Plasmodium
  17. 19. Phylum Ciliophora: <ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Cilia for locomotion and for the generation of feeding currents of water. </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively rigid pellicle and more or less fixed shape </li></ul><ul><li>Distinct cytostome (mouth) Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Dimorphic nuclei, typically larger macronuclei and one more smaller micronuclei </li></ul>
  18. 20. Ciliophora
  19. 21. Locomotion: cilia <ul><li>Cilia are generally similar to flagella but are much shorter, more numerous and widely distributed over the surface of the organism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cilia have evolved into more specialized structures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trichocysts : used for protection, rodlike or oval structures that can be discharged and stuck to predators </li></ul>
  20. 22. Trichocysts
  21. 23. Body types
  22. 24. Nutrition: <ul><li>some ciliates possess an oral groove </li></ul><ul><li>cilia sweep food particles down this groove toward the cytopharynx where a food vacuole forms </li></ul><ul><li>some ciliates even possess an anal pore which is used to remove waste from the organism </li></ul>
  23. 26. Genetic Control and Reproduction: <ul><li>Ciliate have two kinds of Nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Macronuclei: large polyploid nucleus that regulates daily metabolic activities </li></ul><ul><li>Micronuclei: one or more small nucleus which are genetic reserve of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Ciliates can reproduce asexually by transverse binary fission and occasionally by budding </li></ul><ul><li>Ciliates can reproduce sexually by conjugation </li></ul>
  24. 27. Conjugation: <ul><ul><li>Random contact brings individuals of opposite mating types together (called conjugants) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meiosis results in four haploid pronuclei </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three pronuclei and the macronucleus degenerate. Mitosis and mutual exchange of pronuclei is followed by fusion of the pronuclei. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conjugants separate. Nuclear divisions that restore nuclear characteristics of species follow. Cytoplasmic divisions may accompany these events </li></ul></ul>
  25. 28. Conjugation