English Grammar Group members: 1. Le Thi Hoai Thanh 2. Nguyen Hanh Le 3. Tran Thi Ut Tram 4. Hoang Thi Thu Huong 5. Le Thi Thu Phuong 6. Nguyen Thi Thu Trang
Definition : Nouns are words that name people, places, things, or ideas. thing Noun classesidea ? person Proper Common nouns nouns place
Proper nouns Personal geographical calendar institutions/ names names items organizationsBill Clinton the Nile Easter the UNICEF
Common nouns Count Ns Non-count Nscar Singular Singularcars Plural salt
Noun classesProper nouns Common nounsE.g. Tom, John Count Ns Non-count Ns Singular Plural Singular table tables freedom
Definition: A noun phrase is a group word with a noun or a pronoun as the head & other constituents as modifiers. Example: The second black bag on the table is very nice. art numeral adj head PP
Functions: noun phrases perform 6 major grammatical functions in the English language:1. Subject: This book is very interesting. S2. Direct Object: Mary kicked the ball. Od3. Indirect Object: He gives his father a hat. Oi
4. Subject Complement Ex: He is a student. S Cs5. Object Complement: Ex: We elected you team leader O Co6. Prepositional Complement Ex: I work in this company. PP Cpp
Determiners = words of close-system used before a N to “determine” the precise meaning of the N. Pre-determiners ( Central ) Determiners Post-determiners
Pre-determiners All, Both, Half Multipliers Fractions such , what (exclamative).
Pre-determiners All, Both, Half+ Before: - Articles ( a, an, the, zero articles) Ex: All the time - Possessive determiners (my, her ,his, etc.) Ex: Both his sisters - Demonstrative determiners ( this, that, these, etc.) Ex: Half those days.+ Not before: Quantitative determiners (no, each, any, some,enough, (n)either, every)
Pre-determiners All, Both, Half+ Take partitive “ of-phrases” Optional with Nouns Ex: All (of) the time Obligatory with pronouns Ex: All of them, both of us, Half of it+ “All, both” occur after head, either immediately or after the operator Ex: They (all) were (all) accepted.
Pre-determiners Multipliers Once, twice, three times, double, etc. + Used to denote the quality of the nouns Ex: Twice his strength Double their papers + Occur with the determiners “a, every, each” and “per” to indicate frequency. Ex: Once a week Twice every day Three time each year
Pre-determiners Fractions one-third, two-fifths, three- quarters, etc . + The fraction have the alternative of-construction. Ex: One-third (of ) the time . Two-fifths (of) the students. + The indefinite article can replace “one” Ex: He did it in one-third/ a third of the time it took me
Pre-determiners such , what (exclamative). + Occur before the head noun . + “ Such” combined with “all/no, quantifiers, cardinal numbers” Ex:No/many/30 such incidents
( Central ) Determiners (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)Possessive : My, Zero (A)n every,our, her, Article each,.etc...Wh- This, , Those much some, (n)eitherwords, any That Thesesome, any (unstress(stressed), ed)no enough
(central) Determiners respect to their co-occurrence with the noun classes Count Non-countSINGULAR bottle furniturePLURAL bottles
( Central ) Determiners Ex: (1) The Possessive („my‟, „your‟, his‟, etc.) Book Genitive („my father‟s‟, „Anne‟s‟, etc.) Possessiv No + Books e : My, our, her, Whose .etc... Which (ever) What (ever) Some (stressed) Ink Any (stressed)
( Central ) Determiners Ex: (2) Zero article Zero Some Books Article some, (unstressed) + any Any ink (unstress ed) (unstressed) enough enough
( Central ) Determiners Ex: (3) An/a Book (A)n every, every each, each + (n)either ink either neither
( Central ) Determiners Ex: (4) This Book + This, That That ink
( Central ) Determiners Ex: (5) Those Book + , Those These These ink
( Central ) Determiners Ex: (6) Much + Ink much
Post-determiners Cardinal numerals- Apart from One , which can co-occur only with singularcount nouns , all cardinal numerals ( two, three...) co-occur only with plural count nouns:Ex: The two students The two cars Det post-det head Det post-det head
Post-determiners Ordinal numerals-In addtion to the ordinals which have a one-for-one relation with thecardinals ( fourth~four; twentieth-twenty), we consider here items like next,last, (an) other, additional, which resemble them grammtically andsemantically.Ordinal numerals, exept first, co-occur only with count nouns. Ex: The first three planes His last two book Det post-det head Det post-det head
Post-determiners close-system quantifiers-Before count Ns: many , (a)few, several-Before non-count Ns: much, (a) littleEx: The few words Much stress Det post-det head post-det head
Post-determiners Open-system quantifiers-Include : plenty of, a lot of, lost of, a great of, a largeof etc.-Verbs have number concord with the second nouns, not the quality nouns (lot, deal, lost, plenty, etc.) Ex: Lots of food was on the table. There was a lot of food on the table
I. Structure- Noun phrases play an important role in the construction of a sentence.- Basic noun phrases can be pronouns, numerals or head nouns with different determiners while complex ones include pre-modification, head noun and post- modification
Complex NP Pre- Post- + Head noun + modification modificationE.g.: All the 11 pupils playing football
Pre-modification Head noun Post- modificationThree Three men In a boatThe Italian Expression For coffeeA Pen On the table
Modifiers before the noun are called pre-modifiers. All of the pre-modifiers that are present and the noun together form a noun phrase . NOUN PHRASE pre-modifiers noun * ← white house * ← large man * ← post -modifiers—modifiers coming after a noun. a dream deferred → *
A "head noun" is the main noun that is modified by other elements in a noun phrase. It is important that you can find head nouns, because this allows you determine whether the phrase can take an indefinite article (if the head noun is a noncountnoun, then it cannot occur with a or an).. Like in the basic noun phrase, the head noun, first of all, is the central element and core component of the complex noun phrase. It may be count or mass noun which dictates concord and (for the most part) other kinds of congruence with the rest of the sentence outside the noun phrase.
Ex: The only girl in this class is hard working head - All of the beautiful girls in my class are kind - I like the car that you bought. Car is the head noun because the adjective clause modifies it..
Look at these examples. The head nouns are underlined. Notice that the head noun is NOT the noun right before the adjective clause. Ex:. The people in Japan I met were very polite and friendly.
Modificationfunction status Restrictive Permanent Non-restrictive Temporary
Modification • helps identify the head & indicate afunction limitation on the possible reference of the status head Restrictive Permanent • tends to come after the head • tends to be given more prosodic emphasis than the head Non-restrictive Temporary E.g.: The flowers in your garden are nice. He visited his aunt who often lent him money.
Modification • gives additional information to the head but is not essential for identifying thefunction status head Restrictive • the reference: unique or as member of a Permanent class that has been independently identified • tends to come before the head Non-restrictive • tends to beTemporary in pre-head position unstressed E.g.: The book, which I gave you yesterday, is quite readable. (member of a class) She is his poor, old mother. (unique)
Modification function status• Have reference to characteristicfeatures Non-restrictive Permanent• Mainly the items which are placedin pre- Restrictive Temporary modification position E.g.: an ugly man the easy-going lady
Modification• Have reference only to a specific function statustime• Mainly those adjectives which have Non-restrictive Permanentto be predicate Restrictive Temporary E.g.: A man who is timid = A timid man A man who is afraid # An afraid man
•Pre- modification including modifiers that stand before thehead off complex NP. • modifiers is a word (adj, adv…) that describes an other word or group of words or restrict its, meaning in some way. IT is the unit of forming a structure element. • modification is the act or process of changing something in order to improve it or make it more acceptable. It is the structure element
opinionPremodification size Determiner Adjectives age participle shape Adverbial color Sentence origion Noun modifier material Multiple premodifi-cation purpose
opinionPremodification Beautiful, good Size Determiner Adjectives age participle shape Adverbial Color Noun modifier origin Sentence material Multiple premodifi-cation purpose
opinionPremodification size Determiner Big, small age Adjectives participle shape Adverbial Color Noun modifier origin Sentence material Multiple premodifi-cation purpose
opinionPremodification size Determiner age Adjectives Big, small participle shape Adverbial Color Noun modifier origin Sentence material Multiple premodifi-cation purpose
Premodification opinion size Determiner age Adjectives Old, young participle shape Adverbial Color Noun modifier origin Sentence material Multiple premodifi-cation purpose
Premodification opinion size Determiner age Adjectives participle shape Square, round Adverbial Color Noun modifier origin Sentence material Multiple premodifi-cation purpose
opinionPremodification size Determiner age Adjectives participle Shape Adverbial Color Blue, red… Noun modifier origin Sentence material Multiple premodifi-cation purpose
opinionPremodification size Determiner age Adjectives participle Shape Adverbial Color Noun modifier origin Sentence English, chinese material Multiple premodifi-cation purpose
Premodification opinion size Determiner age Adjectives participle Shape Adverbial Color Noun modifier orifin Sentence material Multiple premodifi-cation metal., purpose
opinionPremodification size Determiner age Adjectives participle Shape Adverbial Color Noun modifier orifin Sentence material Multiple premodifi-cation metal., material
article opinion size age shape color origin material purpose noun 1. a silly old English man 2. a huge round metal bowl 3. a small red sleeping bag
Premodifying intensifyingadjective a real hero, a definite loss, a Gennerally complete fool, a close friend attribute only reverse restrict the reference a certain personRestrictive of the noun the exact answeradjectives exclusively, the only occasion particularly or chiefly the very man. attributive only adjectives which cannot pre-modify faint, ill, well, the head, but can be able, afraid,etc. predicative
Premodification by participle-ing participle: temporary: the approaching train (=the train which is approaching) Permanent: an interesting book (=a book that interests readers). -ed participle: passive: the broken vase (=the vase that was broken) Non-passive: a retired teacher (=a teacher who has retired)
Noun modifiers“a children book”“a children book” means a book for childrenthe city council, the love story…Or I bought a new computer gameIn these cases the noun pre-modifier is closely connected to thehead noun that the two can almost be considered one word.This illustrates that when nouns pre-modify other nouns theyalways come next to the head noun ; nothing else can comebetween them
Multiple premodifi-cation Premodifiers head nounDeter adj participle denonialPredet det postdet gen age col shape… -ing/-ed adj nounThis beautiful new white Japanese cat.The old pentagonal crumbling church tower.
+ multiple head with one modifierOld man and women +modified modifierA noun can be premodified by either adjective or noun…. The meat production increase measures. The extremely beautiful pictures.
Definition of post – modificationPost – modification ( also called post – modifiers ) comprising all the items placed after the head. The girl speaking English fluently.Head post – modification The man who is standing outside is my neighbor.Head post - modifier
Relative clauseEx : the girl who is playing in the ground is my daughter. Nonfinite clauseEx : the girl playing in the ground is my daughter. Prepositional phrase/adverbEx : she loves the monitor in your class.
Determiner head post modifiers The man who told you the secret. Finite clause The girl speaking English fluently Nonfinite clause A book with the white cover Prepositional phrase The road back Adverb
Post – modification by relative clause ( finite clause ) which can be restrictive or non – restrictive. People who live in Vietnam are friendly and hospitable. Restrictive relative clause The boy who lives next door is very kind and polite. Restrictive relative clause Tom’s father, who is 78, goes swimming everyday. Non- restrictive
Restrictive relative clause_ help to definite the head noun_it is a essential clause to clarify it_ no commas between a noun and a restrictive relative clause. Non – restrictive relative clause_ give additional information_ it is not essential_ non – restrictive relative clauses are separated from their noun by commasThere are a number of relative clauses beginning with relative English pronoun ‘ who, whom, whose, that ‘ ( for personal ); which, that, what ( for things)….
Post – modification of the noun phrase is possible with all three of non – finite clause types : to – infinitive, -ing, -ed.The next flight to arrive was from London To – infinitive The beautiful girl speaking English fluently -ing clause The vase broken during the row -ed clause
A man from Britain who I was talking about last night. prepositional phrase relative clause The book on the bathroom floor is swollen fromshower steam. Prepositional phrase