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Roma Ghettos in European Cities:
Who Made Them?
Cătălin Berescu
architect, PhD
What is a ghetto?
• Who are the Roma?
» Are Romanies migrants? What is a Gadje?
» What is the difference between Romanians...
Ghetto
• Venice, Florence
– segregation, political control
• Shtetl – The Jewish Pale of settlements
– teritorial segregat...
Ghetto
• ghetto / slum / banlieu / barriada / mahala / varos /
bidonville / șatră / țigănie / campo nomadi / platz /
kampu...
slum
New Poverty
Ghetto
Historical Ghetto
Jewish Ghetto in Venice, Warsaw, Budapest, etc.
Rich black ghetto
Ethno-Camp
Non...
Rosia Montana
Roma Ghettos in European Cities:
SECOND PART: How to make a CV for a
Ghetto researcher
Catalin
Berescu
CV: recycle / common space
CV: recycle - tradition
Jurilovca – Dolosman Cape ADOBE 2006-2010
Dolosman
Adobe houses, floodings and Roma
communities
CV: recycle - stereotypy
Venice Architecture
Biannual 2008
CV: recycle - stereotypy
CV: (re)cycle - science
CV: mapping the invisible
Bucharest – Peisajului St. – informal Roma settlement in a flooding area - 2005
Forced evictions...
CV: mapping the opinions
CV: mapping the toilets
CV: mapping poverty
CV: mapping the fear
CV: mapping the elections
CV: recycle ghettos
Roma Ghettos in European Cities:
THIRD PART: Europe – State of the Art
Catalin
Berescu
Roma in Eastern Europe
Who is a Roma? Where? How many?
Romania
Romania has the largest number of Roma
inhabitants in Europe. The economy of
transition produced a decline in thei...
Romania
Tirgu Mures – Cold Valley
Serbia
• Gazela Bridge
» Municipality relocation plan, Vladimir Macura - Holcim Awards,
UNHABITAT, Roma Decade, Belville, ...
Slovakia
“Some 14 walls segregating predominantly Roma
neighbourhoods have popped up across the
country since 2008, the la...
Hungary
Bulgaria
Greece
Greece
Roma in Western Europe
• Italy – Rome / Castel Romano
Roma in Western Europe
Italy
Castel Romano – Villagio della Solidarita (Walter Veltroni) 6 mil Euro
Napoli
Via del Reposo
Napoli
Scampia Casa Rosa
Napoli
France
• Paris St. Denis / Aubervilliers / Bobigny
• National Action Plan against Substandard Housing
– Substandard, indec...
Paris
• St Denis
Paris
Paris
UK
http://www.standard.co.uk
UK
Roma Ghettos in European Cities:
FOURTH PART: Roma by Gadje
Catalin
Berescu
Nomad / settled
• Are Roma
nomads?
• Are nomads
Roma?
• Roma vs.
Gipsy
Rudari/baiesi
Lehliu - Romania
Roma Palaces
Buzescu
Foto:IoifKiraly
Roma Palaces
Foto:IoifKiraly
Foto:IoifKiraly
Ciurea, Iasi
Photo Serban Bonciocat Photo Peter Velciov
Soroca, Moldova
Cluj – Pata Rat - Dallas
Cluj – Pata Rat – Garbage Pit
Roma Ghettos in European Cities:
FINAL PART: The making-of a Ghetto
Catalin
Berescu
The Making of a Ghetto
• Housing discrimination
– Water
» The European Roma Rights Centre is concerned by reports that mun...
Orăştie – Mecanica Stadium
Sorinel shows us the well proudly. It is the
only water source for the 20 families that
live he...
Orăştie – Mecanica Stadium
Orăştie – Mecanica Stadium
Orăştie – Mecanica Stadium
Miercurea Ciuc (Csikszereda)
• Social housing for Roma
Municipality Ghetto
No intervention ghetto
No intervention ghetto
No intervention ghetto
NGO intervention
Dorohoi
Dorohoi
Minimal apartment
5-6 people
3 rooms
13.500 Euro
Dorohoi
Roma Ghettos in European Cities:
Who Made Them?
Cătălin Berescu
architect, PhD
Thank you!
URBACT Summer University 2013 - Masterclass - Catalin Berescu "Roma Ghettos in European Cities: Who Made Them?"
URBACT Summer University 2013 - Masterclass - Catalin Berescu "Roma Ghettos in European Cities: Who Made Them?"
URBACT Summer University 2013 - Masterclass - Catalin Berescu "Roma Ghettos in European Cities: Who Made Them?"
URBACT Summer University 2013 - Masterclass - Catalin Berescu "Roma Ghettos in European Cities: Who Made Them?"
URBACT Summer University 2013 - Masterclass - Catalin Berescu "Roma Ghettos in European Cities: Who Made Them?"
URBACT Summer University 2013 - Masterclass - Catalin Berescu "Roma Ghettos in European Cities: Who Made Them?"
URBACT Summer University 2013 - Masterclass - Catalin Berescu "Roma Ghettos in European Cities: Who Made Them?"
URBACT Summer University 2013 - Masterclass - Catalin Berescu "Roma Ghettos in European Cities: Who Made Them?"
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URBACT Summer University 2013 - Masterclass - Catalin Berescu "Roma Ghettos in European Cities: Who Made Them?"

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Presentation given by Catalin Berescu during the URBACT Summer University 2013 in Dublin

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URBACT Summer University 2013 - Masterclass - Catalin Berescu "Roma Ghettos in European Cities: Who Made Them?"

  1. 1. Roma Ghettos in European Cities: Who Made Them? Cătălin Berescu architect, PhD
  2. 2. What is a ghetto? • Who are the Roma? » Are Romanies migrants? What is a Gadje? » What is the difference between Romanians and Roma? • Who did the first ghetto? • Are we still building ghettos? – What about the illegal camps? • Who’s in, what and when are we going to do something? • EU to local – good practices? • Who is discriminating and on what grounds? • Social housing vs. forced evictions 2Roma Ghettos in European Cities:
  3. 3. Ghetto • Venice, Florence – segregation, political control • Shtetl – The Jewish Pale of settlements – teritorial segregation, prostitution, estreme poverty • Jadabwne, Dorohoi – neighbourhood pogrom • Iasi, Odessa – military pogrom • Budapest – urban planning operation, Holocaust / Shoah / Samudaripen • Chicago – hidden violence » Holocaust City - Tim Cole; Bodies and Souls – Isabel Vincent; Making the Second Ghetto – Arnold Hirsch; Neighbours – Jan Gross;
  4. 4. Ghetto • ghetto / slum / banlieu / barriada / mahala / varos / bidonville / șatră / țigănie / campo nomadi / platz / kampung » Urban Outcasts - Loic Wacquant; Planet of Slums – Mike Davis; Shadow Cities – Robert Newirth; Architecture for the Poor – Hassan Fathy » Global – local – glocal » Multiple determinations, intersectionality » Segregation, self-segregation, gated communities (ghettos chics) » Les ghettos du Gotha – Michel Pincon; Le ghetto francais – Eric Maurin
  5. 5. slum New Poverty Ghetto Historical Ghetto Jewish Ghetto in Venice, Warsaw, Budapest, etc. Rich black ghetto Ethno-Camp Non conflictual Ethnic neighbourghood (recent migrant areas, war refugee camps) subsidiarity, diminished ethnical dimension Residential segregation, Exposure to improper housing conditions, Exposure to hazard conditions (Environmental racism), Forced evictions, rent refusal, acces problems Ethno Park “Purely” ethnic areas mahala, igănie, atră,ț ș sat, new development zones with a strong ethnic dimension Substandard housi Discrimination Poverty Cultural Difference Ethnicity, Race, sexual orientation etc relative poverty banlieu poverty neighborghood severe poverty extreme poverty slum
  6. 6. Rosia Montana
  7. 7. Roma Ghettos in European Cities: SECOND PART: How to make a CV for a Ghetto researcher Catalin Berescu
  8. 8. CV: recycle / common space
  9. 9. CV: recycle - tradition Jurilovca – Dolosman Cape ADOBE 2006-2010
  10. 10. Dolosman
  11. 11. Adobe houses, floodings and Roma communities
  12. 12. CV: recycle - stereotypy Venice Architecture Biannual 2008
  13. 13. CV: recycle - stereotypy
  14. 14. CV: (re)cycle - science
  15. 15. CV: mapping the invisible Bucharest – Peisajului St. – informal Roma settlement in a flooding area - 2005 Forced evictions + residential segregation
  16. 16. CV: mapping the opinions
  17. 17. CV: mapping the toilets
  18. 18. CV: mapping poverty
  19. 19. CV: mapping the fear
  20. 20. CV: mapping the elections
  21. 21. CV: recycle ghettos
  22. 22. Roma Ghettos in European Cities: THIRD PART: Europe – State of the Art Catalin Berescu
  23. 23. Roma in Eastern Europe Who is a Roma? Where? How many?
  24. 24. Romania Romania has the largest number of Roma inhabitants in Europe. The economy of transition produced a decline in their housing condition, leading to an acute social exclusion. The racist attitude that forms the background of urban decisions can be seen today in the alarming development of the shantytowns surrounding the Romanian towns. The post revolution era reversed the process that defined the communist period – after the forced settlement of the nomads, the gypsies were the first to loose their jobs and to be evicted.
  25. 25. Romania Tirgu Mures – Cold Valley
  26. 26. Serbia • Gazela Bridge » Municipality relocation plan, Vladimir Macura - Holcim Awards, UNHABITAT, Roma Decade, Belville, Orlovsko Naselje
  27. 27. Slovakia “Some 14 walls segregating predominantly Roma neighbourhoods have popped up across the country since 2008, the latest erected in the country’s second largest city earlier this month. The walls differ in size and scope, but all are designed to segregate the poorer Roma communities from their neighbours. While such walls exist elsewhere in Europe the Slovak trend is exponentially stronger than anything underway elsewhere, said Dezideriu Gergely, executive director of the Budapest-based European Roma Rights Centre (ERRC). “This reflects and ‘us and them’ rhetoric that says there needs to be a clear distinction,” he said.” (The Economist, 25.07.2013) Nalepkovo (photo Marek Hojsik)
  28. 28. Hungary
  29. 29. Bulgaria
  30. 30. Greece
  31. 31. Greece
  32. 32. Roma in Western Europe
  33. 33. • Italy – Rome / Castel Romano Roma in Western Europe
  34. 34. Italy Castel Romano – Villagio della Solidarita (Walter Veltroni) 6 mil Euro
  35. 35. Napoli Via del Reposo
  36. 36. Napoli Scampia Casa Rosa
  37. 37. Napoli
  38. 38. France • Paris St. Denis / Aubervilliers / Bobigny • National Action Plan against Substandard Housing – Substandard, indecent (logement indigne), insalubrious, dangerous – Political vs. Technical vocabulary
  39. 39. Paris • St Denis
  40. 40. Paris
  41. 41. Paris
  42. 42. UK http://www.standard.co.uk
  43. 43. UK
  44. 44. Roma Ghettos in European Cities: FOURTH PART: Roma by Gadje Catalin Berescu
  45. 45. Nomad / settled • Are Roma nomads? • Are nomads Roma? • Roma vs. Gipsy Rudari/baiesi Lehliu - Romania
  46. 46. Roma Palaces Buzescu Foto:IoifKiraly
  47. 47. Roma Palaces Foto:IoifKiraly
  48. 48. Foto:IoifKiraly
  49. 49. Ciurea, Iasi Photo Serban Bonciocat Photo Peter Velciov Soroca, Moldova
  50. 50. Cluj – Pata Rat - Dallas
  51. 51. Cluj – Pata Rat – Garbage Pit
  52. 52. Roma Ghettos in European Cities: FINAL PART: The making-of a Ghetto Catalin Berescu
  53. 53. The Making of a Ghetto • Housing discrimination – Water » The European Roma Rights Centre is concerned by reports that municipal authorities in Torino, Italy, have cut the water supply of a public fountain providing water for approximately 300 Roma, including children and women. The Roma live in a nearby semiformal camp, Corso Tazzoli. The public fountain, the closest source of safe drinking water for the Roma, has been out of use since 29 July 2013. The ERRC is calling for the tap to be reconnected immediately. » Last week a Hungarian local authority cut public water supplies, affecting thousands of Roma. We are deeply concerned by these repeated incidents, and urge public authorities to allow Roma access to safe drinking water and to develop positive, proactive solutions for Roma communities and their inclusion. ( http://www.errc.org/article/italy-torino-municipality-shuts-off-water-supply-near- ) 59Title of Your Presentation
  54. 54. Orăştie – Mecanica Stadium Sorinel shows us the well proudly. It is the only water source for the 20 families that live here. They have been moved in the lockers under the Mecanica Stadium tribunes, from a delapidated block of flats with no utilities. Even if water is pouring from the ceilings whenever it rains, they succeeded in keeping the place clean. Medicinal plants grow here and there on the former football pitch; people look after a garden near the entrance, and there were several attempts to breed a swine, but the town hall denied it because they would "damage the pitch". Dampness and mould, chilliness and the garbage produced by "the dirty ones” lead to a high level of morbidity.
  55. 55. Orăştie – Mecanica Stadium
  56. 56. Orăştie – Mecanica Stadium
  57. 57. Orăştie – Mecanica Stadium
  58. 58. Miercurea Ciuc (Csikszereda) • Social housing for Roma
  59. 59. Municipality Ghetto
  60. 60. No intervention ghetto
  61. 61. No intervention ghetto
  62. 62. No intervention ghetto
  63. 63. NGO intervention
  64. 64. Dorohoi
  65. 65. Dorohoi Minimal apartment 5-6 people 3 rooms 13.500 Euro
  66. 66. Dorohoi
  67. 67. Roma Ghettos in European Cities: Who Made Them? Cătălin Berescu architect, PhD
  68. 68. Thank you!

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