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The role of digital/online resources in the Jewish Diaspora communities

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A analytical definition of classical and modern diasporas followed by the historical description of the role of digital/online resources in the life of the Jewish Diaspora. A comprehensive review of existing way of online Jewish life are reviewed.

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The role of digital/online resources in the Jewish Diaspora communities

  1. 1. COST Action 1203:In Search of Transcultural Memory in Europe Dov Winer Scientific Manager, Judaica Europeana MAKASH Advancing CMC Applications The role of digital / online resources in the Jewish Diaspora communities
  2. 2. * * YIVO: The Power of Persuasion, Jewish Posters from Prewar Poland 1900-1939 http://www.yivoinstitute.org/exhibits/posterfr.htm
  3. 3. - Classical vs Modern Diasporas / Modern Diaspora Definition - Early applications Responsa (1967) Bulletin Board Systems Usenet Mailing lists Early portals: Shamash V.Jerusalem Jewishnet - Early events re Jewish Diaspora and the Internet Diffusion of the Internet to Israel Planning of the Global Jewish Network Israel 2020 – Macro Scenarios for Israel & Jewish People Jewish Peoplehood through Communication Technologies - Jewish web based activities today Institutional News, Radio, Videos Genealogy Dating Services Jewish Studies and Online Jewish Education Social Networks Francophone Jewish Diaspora Memory and Cultural Heritage: Judaica Europeana Outline
  4. 4. Classical Diaspora - Abulafia (2011)…enclosed areas…where a certain amount of privilege – self government, freedom to practice one’s religion, tax exemptions – was countered by constraint – limitations on free movement and reliance on capricious public authorities for protection. - Amersfoort (2004)… part of a feudal political arangement in which “outsiders” performed economic functions in trade and finance that were forbidden to the “insiders” whose aristocratic status prohibited them from engaging in such low ranking affairs as making money; the non-diasporic majority was a peasantry tied to the land - Classical diaspora people are endogamous, residentially and socially segregated and confined to specific occupations and professions. They are oriented to their fellow ethnics for trade and marriage relations and are, in that sense, part of a diaspora network.
  5. 5. Modern Diasporas Amersfoort (2004) 1. Distinction between immigrants who develop boundary maintenance institutions thereby securing intergenerational continuity from those assimilating. Populations with boundary-maintaining institutions are ethnic groups. 2. Ethnic groups that successfully participate in central institutions of the host country such as the labor market and educational system we call established. Those who remain confined to the lowest rungs of the social ladder form ethnic minorities. 3. Established ethnic groups that are institutionally engaged in politics with regard to their home state or home territory are modern diasporas. Ethnic groups that miss this attribute form ethnic cultural subdivisions of the state population.
  6. 6. Early beginnings: computers, BBSs, Usenet, Listservs
  7. 7. Early Online Events directly related to the Internet and the Jewish Diaspora
  8. 8. Planning of an Internet based Global Jewish Information Network Ministry of Communication 1990-1991 Before the opening of the Internet for commercial applications
  9. 9. Online Activities and Digital Resources today
  10. 10. Institutional Sites
  11. 11. Dating
  12. 12. Genealogy
  13. 13. Social Networking
  14. 14. Jewish Study and Education
  15. 15. Museum of the Jewish People http://www.bh.org.il
  16. 16. Cultural Heritage – Judaica Europeana
  17. 17. Jewish participation in urban life in Europe Jewish cultural expressions in European cities can be documented through objects dispersed in many collections: documents, books, manuscripts, periodicals, photographs, works of art, religious artefacts, postcards, posters, audio- recordings and films, as well as buildings and cemeteries. History of the Jews by Heinrich Graetz, Leipzig 1864. Copper engraving of Moses Mendelssohn by A. and TH. Weger. Judaica Collection, Goethe University Library
  18. 18. Why cities? Jews are the longest-established minority in Europe with Jewish inscriptions in an urban context dating back to the 3rd Century BCE in Greece. Marble plaque, bearing the images of a menorah, lulav and etrog. Found in 1977 by Prof. Homer Thompson near the ancient synagogue in the Agora of Athens. Probably part of the synagogue’s frieze, 3rd – 4th C.E. Jewish Museum of Greece
  19. 19. Jewish contribution to European cities Urbanisation and occupational specialisation has led to the identification of Jews with specific streets, neighbourhoods and other urban phenomena. The J-Street Project by Susan Heller. Compton Verney Trust and the DAAD, Berlin, 2005. A book, installation and video produced with the support of the European Association for Jewish Culture.
  20. 20. Jews and the City Prof. Steven Zipperstein points to the anti-urban bias of most of the Jewish historiography and how this began to change at the end of the 20th century. S. Zipperstein (1987),Jewish Historiography and the Modern City. Jewish History vol 2, pp 77-88 “Modernization is about everyone becoming urban, mobile, literate, articulate, intellectually intricate, physically fastidious, and occupationally flexible. It is about learning how to cultivate people and symbols, not fields and herds. It is about pursuing wealth for the sake of learning, learning for the sake of wealth, and both wealth and learning for their own sake. It is about transforming peasants and princes into merchants and priests, replacing inherited privilege with acquired prestige, and dismantling social estates for the benefit of individuals, nuclear families, and book-reading tribes (nations). Modernization, in other words, is about everyone becoming Jewish.” Yuri Slezkine, The Jewish Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004. For the first chapter: http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/s7819.html
  21. 21. The Judaica Europeana project The facts • Co-funded by the eContentPlus program of the European Commission: initial budget framework of 3 Million Euro (~ 4 Million USD) • First stage 2010-2012: • Second stage 2012-14: continuity through a Memorandum of Understanding between partners and participation in DM2E – a 3-year Digital Humanities Europeana project to begin in 2012. The program • Digitisation and aggregation of Jewish content for Europeana: 5 million objects • Coordination of standards across institutions in order to synchronise the metadata with the requirements of Europeana. • Deployment of knowledge management tools: vocabularies, thesauri and ontologies for the indexing, retrieval and re-use of the aggregated content. • Dissemination activities to stimulate the use of digitised content in academic research; university- based teaching; schools; museums and virtual exhibitions; conferences; cultural tourism; the arts and multimedia.
  22. 22. Milestones on the way to Judaica Europeana The future of Jewish Heritage in Europe: an International Conference – Prague 24-27 April 2004 developing Jewish networking infrastructures EC projects: MinervaPlus | CALIMERA | MOSAICA MICHAEL | ATHENA | LINKED HERITAGE JAFI – Ministry of Science & Culture - NLI JAFI | MiBAC | MLA Council UK | EAJC | EPOCH/ Univ Firenze | HaNadiv Foundation | European Day of Jewish Culture: ECJC, Bnai Brith, Juderias de Espana Consultation on Digitisation of the Jewish Cultural Heritage 10 December 2004 at the EC in Brussels Cultural Diversity in Europe: a focus for the consultation
  23. 23. The growing network 35 institutions in 16 cities: museums, libraries and archives Partners • European Association of Jewish Culture, London • Judaica Sammlung der Universitätsbibliothek der Goethe Universität, Frankfurt am Main • Alliance Israélite Universelle, Paris • Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activity (MiBAC), Rome • Amitié, Centre for Research and Innovation, Bologna • British Library, London • Hungarian Jewish Archives, Budapest • Jewish Historical Institute, Warsaw • Jewish Museum of Greece, Athens • Jewish Museum London • National Technical University, Athens Associate Partners • Center Jewish History, New York • National Library of Israel, Jerusalem • Ministerio de Cultura, Madrid • Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana, Amsterdam • Jewish Historical Museum, Amsterdam • Jewish Museum Berlin • Jewish Museum, Frankfurt/Main • Leopold Zunz Centrum, Halle-Wittenberg • Lorand Collection, Augsburg University • Paris Yiddish Center—Medem Library • Sephardi Museum, Toledo • Central Zionist Archives, Jerusalem • Salomon Ludwig Steinheim Institute, Duisberg • Ben Uri Gallery – The London Jewish Museum of Art
  24. 24. ~3,700,000 digital objects DM2E – another 1,500,000 and many additional expressions of interest
  25. 25. Judaica Europeana Virtual Exhibitions
  26. 26. Virtual Exhibitions
  27. 27. Virtual Exhibitions http://exhibitions.europeana.eu/exhibits/show/yiddish-theatre-en http://exhibitions.europeana.eu/exhibits/show/dada-to-surrealism-en
  28. 28. Virtual Exhibitions http://www.culturaitalia.it/pico/speciali/stella_di_david_e_tricolore/index.html
  29. 29. Judaica Europeana Digital Humanities
  30. 30. Supporting a Community of Knowledge Jewish Enlightenment (HASKALA): The Republic of Letters Project Prof. Shmuel Feiner, Bar Ilan University Prof. Zohar Shavit, University of Tel Aviv Prof. Christoph Schulte, University of Potsdam Researchers: Dr Chagit Cohen, Dr Natalie Goldberg, Dr William Hiscott, Dr Tal Kogman, PhD Dr Stefan Litt. • Investigated the secularization of the traditional book culture • Established a detailed database about a thousand books from the end of the 18th and early 19th century • Texts in Hebrew, German. Database in SQL with a Visual Basic interface supporting some 147 pre-defined queries
  31. 31. Slide from the presentation by PhD Dr Stefan Litt at the 8th EVA/Minerva Jerusalem Conference, November 2011 http://www.minervaisrael.org.il/2011/20111116_EvaMinerva_Haskala_StefanLitt.pdf
  32. 32. Controlled vocabularies: hubs of Jewish Knowledge in the Structured Web
  33. 33. Tasks for a common agenda on Jewish vocabularies • Who? Names • Disseminate the use of VIAF • Seek to include periodical publications in VIAF • RAMBI • Long term common effort to achieve comprehensiveness • Where? Places • JewishGen and Yad Vashem gazetteers as linked data? • Use Europeana guidelines to map places coordinates • Registry of Jewish gazetteers / RDF/ community based Jewish gazetteer service similar to GeoNames, Freebase, LinkedGeoData etc • When? Periods • Survey available vocabularies and seek to express them as Linked Data • Institutional tools for in-depth probe on current periodisation practices http://www.judaica-europeana.eu/docs/jewish_vocabularies_LOD.pdf
  34. 34. Who?
  35. 35. When?
  36. 36. When?
  37. 37. Jewish gazetteers Where?
  38. 38. http://www.judaica-europeana.eu/Search_Europeana_Collections_with_Judaic_categories.html
  39. 39. http://www.judaica-europeana.eu/Search_Europeana_Collections_in_Hebrew.html
  40. 40. Thank you for your attention! www.judaica-europeana.eu Dov Winer Judaica Europeana Scientific Manager dov.winer@gmail.com

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