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Impacts of Ghana LEAP 1000 through a gendered lens


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Tia Palermo's (UNICEF Innocenti) presentation at the Transfer Project Workshop in Arusha, Tanzania on 3rd April 2019.

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Impacts of Ghana LEAP 1000 through a gendered lens

  1. 1. Impacts of Ghana LEAP 1000 through a gendered lens Tia Palermo UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti On Behalf of the LEAP 1000 Evaluation Team Transfer Project Workshop Arusha, Tanzania April 3rd, 2019
  2. 2. LEAP 1000 Evaluation Team UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti: Tia Palermo (co-Principal Investigator), Richard de Groot, Elsa Valli; Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER), University of Ghana: Isaac Osei-Akoto (co-Principal Investigator), Clement Adamba, Joseph K. Darko, Robert Darko Osei, Francis Dompae and Nana Yaw; Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill: Clare Barrington (co-Principal Investigator), Gustavo Angeles, Sudhanshu Handa (co- Principal Investigator), Frank Otchere, Marlous de Miliano; Navrongo Health Research Centre (NHRC): Akalpa J. Akaligaung (co-Principal Investigator) and Raymond Aborigo.
  3. 3. Background • Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty Programme (LEAP): objectives: • Reduce poverty through increasing consumption and promoting access to services and opportunities among the extreme poor and vulnerable • Poverty is gendered and therefore sustainable poverty reduction cannot be achieved without addressing gender inequities • Gender-sensitive social protection • Structural constraints impede access to productive assets (land, credit) and physical, social and human capital assets (health, nutrition, education)
  4. 4. The Ghana LEAP programme • Ghana Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) – national programme reaching 327,000 households • LEAP 1000: Pilot in two regions in Northern Ghana, app. 6,000 households with infants/pregnant woman • Selection based on demographic eligibility and proxy means test (PMT) • Cash transfers: GH₵38 – 53 (USD 9.50 – 13.25) per month • Approximately 14% of baseline consumption expenditures • Integrated SP component: fee waiver for enrolment in National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS)
  5. 5. Gender-sensitive components of LEAP 1000 • Unconditional • More gender-sensitive than conditional cash transfers (CCT), which may increase women’s time poverty and unpaid care (or shift unpaid care to adolescent girls) • Beneficiary • Females directly receive the transfer • Life-course approach in targeting • Recognizes vulnerabilities related to reproduction and maternity • Linkages to health services • Fee waiver for enrolment in National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS)
  6. 6. Research questions • How does LEAP 1000 affect women’s well-being? • Savings • Agency and decision-making • Happiness • Life satisfaction • Social support • Intimate partner violence (IPV): experience & pathways • Are there differential impacts on time use between males and females?
  7. 7. Methods: Evaluation Design and sample  2-year mixed method, quasi-experimental, longitudinal study  8,058 households enumerated by government and 3,619 determined eligible  Evaluation aimed to include 1,250 households + 10% on either side of PMT cut-off  Baseline (Jul-Sept 2015), Endline (Jul-Sept 2017)  Final evaluation sample N=2,497 households (1,262 T and 1,235 C) Districts: Yendi, Karaga, East Mamprusi, Bongo Garu Tempane
  8. 8. Savings, happiness, life satisfaction, agency & decision-making Ghana LEAP 1000 (© Michelle Mills)
  9. 9. Happiness, life satisfaction, savings (binary) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Happiness Satisfied with life Saving money Treatment Control 12pp** 4.4pp** 0pp
  10. 10. Amount saved, agency & decision-making (continuous indicators) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Amount saved (cedis) Agency score Control over life Decion-making ability Treatment Control 6*** 0.2 0.230.25
  11. 11. Social support Ghana LEAP 1000 (© Michelle Mills)
  12. 12. Social support I was in a self-help group where we…support each other... Later I left the group because I couldn’t contribute but when the LEAP 1000 support started I joined the group again and I was made the group leader again. When my husband died they came to support me with food including rice, cooking oil, tomatoes, bread and cash, and all came from the contributions we do. (Mother of 3 children, Karaga) 51.5 52 52.5 53 53.5 54 54.5 55 Treatment Control 3.3***
  13. 13. Time use Ghana LEAP 1000 (© Michelle Mills)
  14. 14. Time use, by gender and age
  15. 15. Intimate partner violence (IPV) Ghana LEAP 1000 (© Michelle Mills)
  16. 16. Intimate Partner Violence • Overall IPV experience  No reductions in overall experience among full sample  5 - 8 percentage point decreases in overall IPV experience among monogamous sample only (6 pp emotional, 5 pp physical & 8 pp combined IPV)  However, no protective effects among women in polygamous unions, who are at increased risk of IPV overall • Frequency of IPV  0.09 - 0.11 standard deviation decrease among full sample (0.11 emotional, 0.09 physical & 0.11 combined IPV)
  17. 17. Summary and conclusions  Results underscore that cash transfers can improve wellbeing beyond primary program objectives  Could they do more if gender sensitive in design?  What are realistic expectations?  Findings indicate that target group & family structure matters in delivering impacts – yet we know little about why or how  We are not able to break out the contribution of the integrated component (health insurance waiver)  Missed opportunity to study impacts of move from manual to electronic payment on women’s empowerment – opportunities in other countries?
  18. 18. Acknowledgements We are grateful for the support of the Government of Ghana for the implementation of this evaluation, in particular William Niyuni, Mawutor Ablo and Richard Adjetey from the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection. In addition, the UNICEF Ghana team was instrumental to the success of this impact evaluation: Sara Abdoulayi, Luigi Peter Ragno, Jennifer Yablonski, Sarah Hague, Maxwell Yiryele Kuunyem, Tayllor Spadafora, Christiana Gbedemah and Jonathan Nasonaa Zakaria. We would also like to acknowledge the hard-working field teams of ISSER and NHRC, who conducted the data collection for this study to the highest standards. Funding for the evaluation was generously provided by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). Additional funding to include intimate partner violence modules in the evaluation and to produce this paper was received from an Anonymous donor and the American World Jewish Services by the UNICEF Office of Research—Innocenti via the US Fund for UNICEF. We thank Laura Meucci and Michelle Kate Godwin for grant administrative support.
  19. 19. Meda ase Asante Zikomo Thank you Ghana LEAP 1000 (© Michelle Mills)