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Cash Transfers, Polygamy & IPV: Experimental evidence from Mali

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Melissa Hidrobo's (IFPRI) presentation at the Transfer Project Workshop in Arusha, Tanzania on 3rd April 2019.

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Cash Transfers, Polygamy & IPV: Experimental evidence from Mali

  1. 1. Cash transfers, polygamy, and intimate partner violence: Experimental evidence from Mali Rachel Heath 2 , Melissa Hidrobo 1 , Shalini Roy 1 1 International Food Policy Research Institute 2 University of Washington Transfer Workshop 2019 Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 1 / 15
  2. 2. Motivation Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most pervasive form of violence globally: 1 in 3 women aected in her lifetime In Mali, nearly 4 in 10 women have experienced physical violence in their lifetime (DHS 2012/2013) A growing body of literature shows that cash transfer programs in developing countries can reduce IPV (Angelucci 2008; Bobonis et al 2013; Hidrobo et al 2016; Haushofer and Shapiro 2013; Perova and Vakis 2013; Roy et al 2017) Find decreases in physical violence ranging from 5-11 percentage points although some subgroups found at greater risk for increases in violence Nearly all target women and are in Latin America Policy relevant given that ~1 billion transfer beneciaries in developing world (DFID 2011) Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 2 / 15
  3. 3. Motivation Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most pervasive form of violence globally: 1 in 3 women aected in her lifetime In Mali, nearly 4 in 10 women have experienced physical violence in their lifetime (DHS 2012/2013) A growing body of literature shows that cash transfer programs in developing countries can reduce IPV (Angelucci 2008; Bobonis et al 2013; Hidrobo et al 2016; Haushofer and Shapiro 2013; Perova and Vakis 2013; Roy et al 2017) Find decreases in physical violence ranging from 5-11 percentage points although some subgroups found at greater risk for increases in violence Nearly all target women and are in Latin America Policy relevant given that ~1 billion transfer beneciaries in developing world (DFID 2011) Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 2 / 15
  4. 4. Motivation Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most pervasive form of violence globally: 1 in 3 women aected in her lifetime In Mali, nearly 4 in 10 women have experienced physical violence in their lifetime (DHS 2012/2013) A growing body of literature shows that cash transfer programs in developing countries can reduce IPV (Angelucci 2008; Bobonis et al 2013; Hidrobo et al 2016; Haushofer and Shapiro 2013; Perova and Vakis 2013; Roy et al 2017) Find decreases in physical violence ranging from 5-11 percentage points although some subgroups found at greater risk for increases in violence Nearly all target women and are in Latin America Policy relevant given that ~1 billion transfer beneciaries in developing world (DFID 2011) Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 2 / 15
  5. 5. Motivation But a lot is still unknown: What happens to IPV when transfers are targeted to men? In some regions, targeting women may be viewed as contextually inappropriate Do impacts depend on household structure? Impacts of transfers in the context of complex family dynamics are likely to be dierent Polygamy is common in Mali, as in much of West Africa Dierent wives may be treated dierently and have dierent bargaining power What are the mechanisms through which transfers aect IPV? Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 3 / 15
  6. 6. Motivation But a lot is still unknown: What happens to IPV when transfers are targeted to men? In some regions, targeting women may be viewed as contextually inappropriate Do impacts depend on household structure? Impacts of transfers in the context of complex family dynamics are likely to be dierent Polygamy is common in Mali, as in much of West Africa Dierent wives may be treated dierently and have dierent bargaining power What are the mechanisms through which transfers aect IPV? Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 3 / 15
  7. 7. Motivation But a lot is still unknown: What happens to IPV when transfers are targeted to men? In some regions, targeting women may be viewed as contextually inappropriate Do impacts depend on household structure? Impacts of transfers in the context of complex family dynamics are likely to be dierent Polygamy is common in Mali, as in much of West Africa Dierent wives may be treated dierently and have dierent bargaining power What are the mechanisms through which transfers aect IPV? Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 3 / 15
  8. 8. Our study Investigate the impacts on IPV of a national cash transfer program in Mali where the targeted beneciary is household head usually male Investigate whether impacts vary by polygamy status Collect and analyze detailed data on mechanisms with a special focus on men the main beneciaries of the program and the perpetrator of violence in our study Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 4 / 15
  9. 9. Conceptual framework Citation: Buller et al (2018). A mixed-method review of cash transfers and intimate partner violence in low and middle-income countries.The World Bank Research Observer, Volume 33, Issue 2, August 2018 Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 5 / 15
  10. 10. Program Programme de Filets Sociaux Au Mali (Jigisemejiri): 2014 ongoing Targeting: Poor rural households Recipients: Heads of household, primarily men Components: Cash transfers: unconditional transfers of 10,000 FCFA/month (or USD 17/month) paid every trimester Accompanying Measures: trainings 1-2x month Preventive Nutrition Packages: fortied food distributed every trimester Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 6 / 15
  11. 11. Study design Location: Five southern regions Sikasso, Koulikoro, Kayes, Mopti, Segou. 36% households are polygamous. Design: Randomly assigned 96 communes to either receive treatment (transfers + training) or control 76 Treatment and 20 Control communes Control communes would get phased into program after 2 years. Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 7 / 15
  12. 12. Data Data sources: Baseline (Sept 2014-Feb 2015): before the start of the program Beneciary households with a child 6-23 months, N=3,080 Midline (Aug 2016-Nov 2016): before the control group was rolled into the program and before the rst PNP distribution Panel sample: random subset of baseline households, N=2533 Qualitative gender study (April-May 2017): Gender study focused on intrahousehold relationships Beneciary households in Sikasso Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 8 / 15
  13. 13. Main outcomes WHO Violence Against Women Instrument: questions on dierent acts of violence/behaviors in the last 12 months Emotional violence (4 questions) Physical violence (6 questions) Controlling behaviors (7 questions) Mechanisms: Emotional wellbeing of spouse: stress, anxiety, self ecacy Relationship quality: disputes, trust Female empowerment: labor and mobility Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 9 / 15
  14. 14. Main outcomes WHO Violence Against Women Instrument: questions on dierent acts of violence/behaviors in the last 12 months Emotional violence (4 questions) Physical violence (6 questions) Controlling behaviors (7 questions) Mechanisms: Emotional wellbeing of spouse: stress, anxiety, self ecacy Relationship quality: disputes, trust Female empowerment: labor and mobility Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 9 / 15
  15. 15. Main results Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 10 / 15
  16. 16. Pathways Quantitative results Qualitative results Pathway 1: Economic security and emotional well-being - ^ assets and food security in polygamous and monogamous HH - _ stress and anxiety in polygamous HH It [Jigis�m�jiri] gave me courage in support of my family problems. I don't concern or worry about it. Anyone who was coughing I immediately take him to the health centre Pathway 2: Intrahousehold conict - larger decreases in self-reported disputes in polygamous HH With Jigis�m�jiri the respect between members of my household has increased, the harmony has strengthened, it has also strengthened the respect and the harmony between my wives and myself. Pathway 3: Women's empowerment - No impacts This is the head of household who makes the decision on how to spend money from the program, he buys food, meat with that money...He explains how to spend the money Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 11 / 15
  17. 17. Discussion Why impact in polygamous households only? 1 Are we capturing something else correlated with polygamy? E.g., household size, age gap between spouses, wealth? 2 Is it due to dierences in the institution of polygamy that leads to dierences in communication or distribution of transfers? Less spousal communication, weaker emotional ties in polygamous marriages (Bove and Valeggia, 2009) Less cooperation and more conict in polygamous HHs (Barr et al 2017) 3 Is there simply greater potential for impact in polygamous HHs, due to higher initial conict? Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 12 / 15
  18. 18. Discussion Why impact in polygamous households only? 1 Are we capturing something else correlated with polygamy? E.g., household size, age gap between spouses, wealth? 2 Is it due to dierences in the institution of polygamy that leads to dierences in communication or distribution of transfers? Less spousal communication, weaker emotional ties in polygamous marriages (Bove and Valeggia, 2009) Less cooperation and more conict in polygamous HHs (Barr et al 2017) 3 Is there simply greater potential for impact in polygamous HHs, due to higher initial conict? Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 12 / 15
  19. 19. Discussion Why impact in polygamous households only? 1 Are we capturing something else correlated with polygamy? E.g., household size, age gap between spouses, wealth? 2 Is it due to dierences in the institution of polygamy that leads to dierences in communication or distribution of transfers? Less spousal communication, weaker emotional ties in polygamous marriages (Bove and Valeggia, 2009) Less cooperation and more conict in polygamous HHs (Barr et al 2017) 3 Is there simply greater potential for impact in polygamous HHs, due to higher initial conict? Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 12 / 15
  20. 20. Discussion Why impact in polygamous households only? 1 Are we capturing something else correlated with polygamy? E.g., household size, age gap between spouses, wealth? 2 Is it due to dierences in the institution of polygamy that leads to dierences in communication or distribution of transfers? Less spousal communication, weaker emotional ties in polygamous marriages (Bove and Valeggia, 2009) Less cooperation and more conict in polygamous HHs (Barr et al 2017) 3 Is there simply greater potential for impact in polygamous HHs, due to higher initial conict? Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 12 / 15
  21. 21. Discussion Preliminary analysis shows: HH size explains some of the results Some dierences in distribution of transfers within polygamous and non-polygamous households non-poly HHs are signicantly more likely than poly HHs to distribute the cash to a female for HH or individual purchases (17% versus 12%) Women in non-poly HHs report being more involved with transfer (e.g., input on how to use) than those in poly HHs IPV, stress, anxiety, disputes higher in polygamous HHs than non-polygamous HHs in control Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 13 / 15
  22. 22. Summary Large and signicant reductions in IPV due to the program in polygamous households (7-16 percentage points) - but minimal impact in non-polygamous households Analysis of mechanisms reveals signicant improvements in the emotional well-being of the spouse, and larger reductions in disputes in polygamous households compared to non-polygamous households Dierential impacts on polygamous HHs potentially explained by observable correlates, dierences in distribution of transfers, greater potential for impact Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 14 / 15
  23. 23. Summary Large and signicant reductions in IPV due to the program in polygamous households (7-16 percentage points) - but minimal impact in non-polygamous households Analysis of mechanisms reveals signicant improvements in the emotional well-being of the spouse, and larger reductions in disputes in polygamous households compared to non-polygamous households Dierential impacts on polygamous HHs potentially explained by observable correlates, dierences in distribution of transfers, greater potential for impact Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 14 / 15
  24. 24. Summary Large and signicant reductions in IPV due to the program in polygamous households (7-16 percentage points) - but minimal impact in non-polygamous households Analysis of mechanisms reveals signicant improvements in the emotional well-being of the spouse, and larger reductions in disputes in polygamous households compared to non-polygamous households Dierential impacts on polygamous HHs potentially explained by observable correlates, dierences in distribution of transfers, greater potential for impact Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 14 / 15
  25. 25. Conclusions Transfers targeted to men can reduce IPV, but it likely depends on context and household structure Does not alter gender norms, and may reinforce them Important when designing CT programs to think about how design features and context aect pathways through which transfers aect IPV Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 15 / 15
  26. 26. Conclusions Transfers targeted to men can reduce IPV, but it likely depends on context and household structure Does not alter gender norms, and may reinforce them Important when designing CT programs to think about how design features and context aect pathways through which transfers aect IPV Hidrobo et al. (International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Washington)Cash transfers and IPV Transfer Workshop 2019 15 / 15

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