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Tools and Techniques for Project Management

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Where Creative Problem Solving meets Project Management

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Tools and Techniques for Project Management

  1. 1. Tools and Techniques in Project Management Teresa Lawrence, PhD, PMP, CSM CPSI 2018 International Deliverables, LLC is a NYS certified Women Business Enterprise (WBE) Bringing Processes to Life and Projects to Completion
  2. 2. Outline • The Need • The Benefit • Project Management, the Thinking Skills model, diverging and converging • Components of a project • Cognitive thinking skills and tools in Knowledge Areas • New thinking and applications
  3. 3. The Need • 21st century skills • Business reports • Creativity, decision making, problem solving collaboration and innovation • PM Network articles • The Project Management Book of Knowledge (PMBOK)
  4. 4. 21st Century Skills Creative Curious Energetic Experimenting Independent Industrious Flexible Open-minded Original Playful Perceptive Persevering Questioning Risk-taker Innovative Self-aware Sensitive Problem Solver Collaboration and teamwork Creativity and imagination Critical thinking Problem solving
  5. 5. Creative Problem Solvers Tolerance for Ambiguity Tolerance for Complexity Openness to Novelty So do Project Managers and Scrum Masters
  6. 6. The Need • 21st century skills • Business reports • Creativity, decision making, problem solving collaboration and innovation • PM Network articles • The Project Management Book of Knowledge • 21st century skills • Business reports • Creativity, decision making, problem solving collaboration and innovation • PM Network articles • The Project Management Book of Knowledge • 21st century skills • Business reports • Creativity, decision making, problem solving collaboration and innovation • PM Network articles • The Project Management Book of Knowledge (PMBOK)
  7. 7. Project Management Body of Knowledge The PMBOK defines Brainstorming as follows: “A technique used to generate and collect multiple ideas related to project and product requirements. Although Brainstorming by itself does not include voting or prioritizing, it is often used with other group creativity techniques that do.” PMBOK, 6th edition
  8. 8. PMI Core Knowledge Areas and Skills Brainstorming techniques Change management Conflict resolution techniques Data analysis Negotiating strategies Organization strategic plan and vision Problem-solving Analytical thinking Critical thinking Facilitation Innovative thinking Prioritizing Benchmarking Decision making Diagramming techniques Brainstorming Targeting PPCO/POINt Context Mapping Assistors/Resistors Storyboarding Problem-solving Feasibility Matrix Hit/Cluster/Restate Why, What’s Stopping You Scamper Cardsort How-How Diagrams Paired Comparison Diagramming techniques CPS Thinking Tools
  9. 9. Creativity and Problem Solving Project Managers are faced with the task of finding solutions to complex and ambiguous problems. The challenge: How to problem solve and what tools to use? Good news! Using thinking tools from the Creative Problem Solving process (CPS), Project Mangers can become deliberately creative and arrive at novel and useful solutions on DEMAND.
  10. 10. When Creativity Meets Project Management Creativity Novel Useful Project Management Time Bound Deliverable VALUE © International Deliverables
  11. 11. Projects & Project Management Project: A temporary endeavor to make a unique product, service or result. Project Management: The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.
  12. 12. Project Managers vs Project Management Professionals (PMP) Project Managers These individuals possess a certain skill set that allows them to envision, assemble, and act upon projects. No formal education, training, tracked experience or certification is required to merit the title of a Project Manager. Project Management Professional (PMP) These individuals have been certified to manage projects by PMI. PMPs have a) met educational and training requirements; b) tracked and accredited experience managing projects and, c) passed the certification examination attesting to their mastery of the knowledge and project management methodology prescribed by PMI. Recognized internationally, the PMP certification equips individuals with a common understanding of methodology, vocabulary and project management practices for use in a global market. PMs and those who possess PMP certification are individuals with similar motivation but with a different status in the same career field. Possessing - or not possessing - a PMI credential does not guarantee successful management of projects.
  13. 13. What Project Management Could be
  14. 14. What Project Management Often Feels Like
  15. 15. PMI/PMBOK Framework and MethodologiesKanban Scrum Agile Extreme Programming (XP)
  16. 16. (CPS) - The Thinking Skills Model Cognitive Thinking Skill Affective Skill Objective Diagnostic Thinking Mindfulness Understanding Visionary Thinking Dreaming Desired State Strategic Thinking Sensing Gaps Well Defined Problem Ideational Thinking Playfulness Many & Varied Ideas Evaluative Thinking Avoiding Premature Closure Well Refined Solution Contextual Thinking Sensitivity to Environment Solution Commitment Tactical Thinking Tolerance for Risk Solution Commitment
  17. 17. PMs Need to be Skilled in Assessing the Situation Making careful examination of a situation, describing the nature of the problem and making decisions about appropriate process steps to be taken. • PMs influence - they need accurate data • PMs monitor and make adjustments - Iron Triangle • PMs sort through work data • PMs are decision makers • PMs seek (positive) risks • PMs assess and take action • PMs need to be mindful
  18. 18. PMs Need to be Skilled in Exploring the Vision Articulating a vivid image of what you desire to create. • PMs identify future opportunities • PMs help others work toward meaningful goals • PMs proactively initiate change/analysis • PMs provide direction • PMs discern which activities/tools yield insights • PMs need to articulate desired state
  19. 19. PMs Need to be Skilled in Formulating Challenges Identifying the critical issues that must be addressed and pathways needed to move toward desired future. • PMs preform alternative analysis • PMs go for root cause • PMs avoid rushing to decisions • PMs understand business need • PMs test assumptions before moving forward • PMs provide greater clarity to challenges • PMs need to identify variances and adjust
  20. 20. PMs Need to be Skilled in Exploring Ideas Producing original mental images and thoughts that respond to important challenges. • PMs invest in teams to feel more energized • PMs strive to find breakthrough solutions • PMs require original thinking to old problems • PMs face “what-if” scenarios • PMs facilitate meetings • PMs create environments where ideas are welcomed • PMs seek alternatives
  21. 21. PMs Need to be Skilled in Formulating Solutions Assessing the reasonableness and quality of ideas in order to develop workable solutions. • PMs clear obstacles for teams • PMs deliberately assess positive and negative risks and their potential • PMs turn ideas into viable solutions • PMs negotiate and secure buy-in • PMs develop solutions so they are less strange to others
  22. 22. PMs Need to be Skilled in Exploring Acceptance Understanding the interrelated conditions and circumstances that will support or hinder success. • PMs develop acceptance criteria • PMs intercept being blindsided • PMs speak to multicultural/multinational audiences • PMs ensure alignment of need with strategic goals • PMs build teams • PMs understand socio-political cultures
  23. 23. PMs Need to be Skilled in Formulating a Plan Devising a plan that includes specific and measureable steps for attaining a desired end and methods for monitoring effectiveness. • PMs assess tolerance levels for risk • PMs invest in planning • PMs create deliberate plans and timelines • PMs tackle detailed, multilayered processes • PMs build a “we can do this” atmosphere • PMs understand how activities sequence and interact • PMs hand over deliverables!
  24. 24. Two Types of Thinking • Divergent thinking: Generating ideas, free wheeling, imagination • Convergent thinking: Judging options, focusing, making decisions Divergent Thinking Convergent Thinking Dynamic Balance @InternationalDeliverables
  25. 25. Diverge!
  26. 26. When Would A PM Need Divergent Thinking? Develop Portfolio Management Plan Definition of Done Identify Stakeholders SWOT Analysis Procurement Negotiations Alternatives Generation End of Sprint demo Collecting Requirements Develop Portfolio Management Plan Burn Down Chart Activities Risk Analysis Proposal Evaluation Opportunity Identification User Stories WHENEVER THEY NEEDED IDEAS
  27. 27. Converge!
  28. 28. When Would A PM Need Convergent Thinking? Definition of Done Identify Stakeholders SWOT Analysis Procurement Negotiations Collecting Requirements Burn Down Chart Activities Risk Analysis Proposal Evaluation Opportunity Identification User Stories Project Selection Ground Rules Selection Criteria Paired Comparison WHENEVER THEY NEEDED SOLUTIONS
  29. 29. What is a Challenge Statement? • A definition of the problem stated like a question. • An alternative view as to what the problem is. • An insight in to what the “real” problem might be. • A sub-problem of the main goal. • A piece of the overall issue. • Another way to look at the overall goal. • Not a solution…Not trying to solve the problem yet
  30. 30. Formatting Challenge Statements My parents will NEVER let me take a “gap year”! • Statement starter (How might…) • Owner (I) • Verb (get) • Object (my parents on board to support a “gap year”?) How might…I… get… my parents on board to support a “gap year”?
  31. 31. Statement Starters • How to…(H2...) • How might...(HM…) • In what ways might…(IWWM…) • What might be all the…(WMBAT...)
  32. 32. What are all the challenges that come to mind? @InternationalDeliverables
  33. 33. What are all the challenges that come to mind?
  34. 34. Project Fundamentals
  35. 35. Components of a Project Process Groups - five chronological and essential phases through which a project moves Knowledge Areas - ten areas of specialization that may occur throughout any time during the process groups Processes - 49 activities within process groups characterized by ITTOs Inputs/Tools and Techniques/Outputs (ITTO)s - 200+ components of a process
  36. 36. Process Groups Initiating: Authorizing the project Planning: Defining and refining project objectives Executing: Coordinating people and resources to carry out the project Controlling: Ensuring objectives are met and adjusting when needed Closing: Formulizing the acceptance and closure of the project
  37. 37. Knowledge Areas I saw six cars quickly ram Carl’s rear passenger side. Integration Management Scope Management Schedule Management Cost Management Quality Management Resource Management Communications Management Risk Management Procurement Management Stakeholder Management
  38. 38. The 49 processes Processes (49) Process Groups (5) Knowledge Areas/Skill Areas (10)
  39. 39. ITTOs - MY WORK Inputs: Any item, whether internal or external to the project that is required by a process before that process proceeds. Tools and Techniques: Mechanisms applied to the inputs to create the outputs. Tools - Something tangible, such as a template or software program, used in performing an activity to produce a product or result. Techniques - A defined systematic procedure employed by a human resource to perform an activity to produce a product or result or deliver a service Outputs: A product, result, or service generated by a process.
  40. 40. Tools and Techniques of PM 49 Processes 200 + TnT
  41. 41. Process: Collect Requirements
  42. 42. Integration Management Integration Management is used to unity and coordinate the various processes and activities within the five project management processes and the other nine knowledge areas. • Develop Project Charter • Develop Project Management Plan • Direct and Manage Project Work • Manage Project Knowledge • Monitor and Control Project Work • Perform Integrated Change Control - Reviewing all change requests, approves and manages changes to the deliverables or to the project management plan. • Close Project or Phase
  43. 43. Perform Integrated Change Control Reviews all change requests, approves and manages changes to the deliverables or to the project management plan. Decision Making • Voting - get take the form of unanimity, majority, or plurality (the most votes even if no one block of votes gets a clear majority) • Autocratic decision making - one individual takes the responsibility for making the decision for the entire group • Multicriteria decision analysis - a systematic analytical approach to evaluate requested changes according to a set of predefined criteria PMBOK, 6th edition
  44. 44. Perform Integrated Change Control Decision Criteria Matrix (C) - Tactical Thinking
  45. 45. Scope Management Scope Management ensures a project’s scope is accurately defined and mapped. • Plan Scope Management • Collect Requirements - Defining and documenting stakeholders’ needs to meet the project activities. • Define Scope • Create WBS • Verify Scope • Control Scope
  46. 46. Collect Requirements Collect Requirements is the process of determining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet project objectives. Brainwriting - Visionary Thinking
  47. 47. Schedule Management Schedule management aims to ensure the timely completion of a project. • Plan Schedule Management • Define Activities - Identifying and documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce project deliverables. • Sequence Activities • Estimate Activity Durations • Develop Schedule • Control Schedule
  48. 48. Define Activities Breaking down work packages into activities that provide a basis for estimating, scheduling, executing, monitoring, and controlling the project work. How/How Diagram - Strategic Thinking
  49. 49. Cost Management Cost Management determines the policies, procedures, and documentation that will be used for planning, executing, and controlling project cost. • Plan Cost Management • Estimating Cost - Developing an approximation of the cost of resources needed to complete project work • Determine Budget • Control Cost
  50. 50. Estimating Cost Developing an approximation of the cost of resources needed to complete project work. Sequencing - Diagnostic Thinking
  51. 51. Quality Management The degree to which the project fulfills requirements and satisfies the needs for which it was undertaken…Did we build the thing right? • Plan Quality Management • Manage Quality - Executing and auditing the processes being used to achieve the quality standards • Control Quality
  52. 52. Manage Quality The process of comparing quality requirements to actual quality measurements from the project. The goal is to ensure the project is meeting quality requirements and to look for ways to improve processes. Hit/Cluster/Restate- Ideational Thinking
  53. 53. Resource Management Resource Management identifies, acquires and manages the resources needed for the successful completion of a project. • Plan Resource Management • Estimate Resources • Acquire Resources • Develop Team - Improving competencies, team member interaction, and the overall team environment to enhance project performance • Manage Team • Control Resources
  54. 54. Develop Team (SCRUM) Improving competencies, team member interaction, and the overall team environment to enhance project performance. SPRINT Retrospective - a process review that welcomes failure/welcomes errors. By the end of the Sprint Retrospective, the Scrum Team should have identified improvements that it will implement.
  55. 55. Sprint Retrospective Meeting - POINt/PPCo Objective: Team members reflect on the past sprint and check three things: what went well during the sprint, what didn't, and what improvements could be made in the next sprint. Plusses: • We had a great deal of synergy • Work and roles were clearly defined Potentials: • We can trust and determine individually where to pick up/assume new work when work is achieved • Implementing new strategies will increase efficiencies Issues: • H2 increase communication among one another? • H2 take notes during SPRINT re DoD? New thinking: • Document communication styles • Hang PostIt chart paper Evaluative Thinking
  56. 56. Pitfalls on a project Cardsort – Strategic Thinking
  57. 57. Communications Management Communications Management ensures prompt and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, retrieval, and ultimate disposition of project information. • Plan Communications Management - Developing an appropriate approach for project communications activities based on the information needs of each stakeholder. • Manage Communications • Monitor Communication
  58. 58. Communication methods PUSH “TO”, no formal confirmation of receipt – email blast, faxes, voice mail, press releases PULL “GET”, no formal confirmation of receipt – post on a website, intranet sites, e-learning INTERACTIIVE “EXCHANGE”, formal confirmation of receipt – meeting, phone call, video conference (With the stakeholder register in hand) - What are all the things we need to consider when communicating with stakeholders? Brainstorming - Contextual Thinking Developing an appropriate approach for project communications activities based on the information needs of each stakeholder.
  59. 59. Risk Management Risk Management works to increase the probability and/or impact of positive risks and to decrease the probability/impact of negative risks in a project. Plan Risk Management Identify Risk - The process of identifying which risks may affect the project and identifying their characteristics Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Plan Risk Response Implement Risk Responses Monitor Risks
  60. 60. Identify Risk The process of identifying individual project risks as well as sources of project risk and identifying their characteristics. SWOT Analysis Strategic Thinking
  61. 61. Procurement Management Procurement Management supports the purchase and acquisition of products, services or results needed from outside the project team. Plan Procurement Management Conduct Procurements - Distributing procurement documents, selecting sellers and awarding contacts Control Procurements
  62. 62. Conduct Procurements The process of obtaining seller responses, selecting a seller, and awarding a contract in alignment with internal and external stakeholder expectations through Tactical Thinking
  63. 63. Stakeholder Management Stakeholder management is the systematic identification, analysis, planning and implementation of actions designed to engage with stakeholders who have an interest in the project, program or portfolio because they are involved in the work or affected by the outcomes. Identify Stakeholders - Identify the stakeholders, analyze and document information regarding their interests, involvement, interdependencies, influence, and potential impact on project success. Plan Stakeholder Engagement Manage Stakeholder Engagement Monitor Stakeholder Engagement
  64. 64. Identify Stakeholders A process of identify the stakeholders, analyze and document information regarding their interests, involvement, interdependencies, influence, and potential impact on project success. Influence/PowerofStakeholder Interest of Stakeholder Stakeholder Analysis - Contextual Thinking
  65. 65. New Thinking Interesting Useful Intriguing Potential Uses or Applications
  66. 66. Outline • The Need • The Benefit • Project Management, the Thinking Skills model, diverging and converging • Components of a project • Cognitive thinking skills and tools in Knowledge Areas • New thinking and applications
  67. 67. Contact Information Teresa Lawrence, PhD, PMP, CSM teresa@internationaldeliverables.com (716) 536.4848 PM Boosters, PMI Certification Training, PM & CPS Consulting International Deliverables, LLC is a NYS certified Women Business Enterprise (WBE) Bringing Processes to Life and Projects to Completion
  68. 68. More about the content • Infusing Creativity in Project Management, Deliberate Creative, Episode #88 • Engaging Your Stakeholders, Improving Your Requirements, PMXPO • The Cognitive Thinking and Affective Skills Every Project Manager Needs to Master, ProjectManagement.com • Creative Project Management: Utilizing Creative Problem Solving to Build Team Capacity, Construction Management Association of America

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