Future Strategies for Cultural Tourism and Heritage Management Brussels, 7 September 2011 Mrs. Marie Paule Roudil Head of the UNESCO Liaison Office in Brussels and UNESCO Representative to the European Union
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization “That since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed” UNESCO constitution, adopted in 1945. UNESCO’s mandate is to contribute to peace and security by promoting collaboration among the nations through education, science, culture and communication.
UNESCO and Culture UNESCO is the sole UN agency with a cultural mandate UNESCO’s policies and actions aim at: Promoting cultural diversity by safeguarding heritage in its various dimensions and enhancing cultural expressions. Promoting social cohesion by fostering pluralism, intercultural dialogue, and a culture of peace. Emphasizing the contribution of culture for sustainable development and for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. UNESCO has developed 7 Conventions that support the elaboration of national cultural policies
Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural andNatural Heritage (1972) ratified by 187 States Parties UNESCO encourages the identification, protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity. The concept of World Heritage has a universal application : the sites inscribed on the World Heritage List constitute a world heritage for whose protection it is the duty of the international community as a whole to co-operate. (article 6) UNESCO leads international efforts to protect World Heritage, by launching international safeguarding campaigns.
World Heritage List 936 properties in 153 States Parties (in August 2011) 725 cultural, 183 natural, 28 mixed properties Inscription of new sites decided by the World Heritage Committee once a year Source: The World Heritage Center (2011); AFR: Africa, APA: Asia and the Pacific, ARB: The Arab States, EUR: Europe and North America, LAC: Latin America and the Caribbean
Intangible cultural Heritage The 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage aims to provide protection for often age-old oral and intangible cultural practices. Ratified by 136 States Parties 232 Intangible Heritage elements inscribed on the List
Fight against illicit traffic of cultural property Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property, adopted in 1970 and ratified by 120 Member States. A framework for discussion and negotiation: the Intergovernmental Committee for Promoting the Return of Cultural Property to its Countries of Origin or its Restitution in case of Illicit Appropriation
Cultural Heritage a vehicle for building mutual understanding Rebuilding of the Old bridge of Mostar (Bosnia and Herzegovina) It was destroyed in 1993 during the Bosnian war and rebuilt in 2004 thanks to a coalition of international partners, among which, the World Bank and UNESCO and funds from Italy, Croatia and the Netherlands. Objective : Fostering reconciliation between war-divided populations living on the banks of the Neretva River, through the recognition and rehabilitation of their common cultural heritage.
Cultural Heritage a potential resource for economic development Cultural heritage tourism contributes to: improve local economy by generating employment and incomes, and thus enhance the quality of life for local residents. enhance cultural and creative industries. generate wider Economic benefits at long term at the regional and European levels.
An Indicator suite to showcase the value of culture Launched in 2009, the UNESCO Culture for Development Indicator Suite seeks to establish a set of indicators that measures and describes the contribution of culture to development at national level. This advocacy and research tool aims at encouraging the growing recognition of culture’s development potential and its integration in national and international development strategies. With the support of AECIDwww.unesco.org/culture/CDIS
UNESCO Indicator suite applied to Bosnia and Herzegovina Some Preliminary results Culture as an Economic activity Indicator : Added value of cultural activities (contribution of cultural activities to GDP) Cultural activities represented 6.67% of GDP (1.6 billion KM or 818 000 €) Indicator: Employment in culture The share of the number of employed persons in cultural activities compared to the number of employed in all activities amounts to 3.36% Heritage Indicator : The allocations for cultural Heritage (government expenditure) The share of expenditure for cultural heritage in total expenditures amounts to 0.48%.
Challenges Such a touristic development, if poorly managed, threatens directly integrity and value of the sites. In order to ensure an appropriate conservation and protection of our common heritage, UNESCO encourages the development of partnerships between the main stakeholders involved in cultural tourism and the exchange of best practices and experiences in terms of sites management. Economic benefits remain unequally distributed at national level.
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