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UNESCO 1 - “Intangible Cultural Heritage Convention: A decade after the entry into force”


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“Intangible Cultural Heritage Convention: A decade after the entry into force”

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UNESCO 1 - “Intangible Cultural Heritage Convention: A decade after the entry into force”

  1. 1. Intangible Cultural Heritage Convention: A decade after the entry into force. Tenth Annual Meeting of the South-East European Experts Network on Intangible Cultural Heritage Brač - CROATIA 14-15 June 2016
  2. 2. 2 The Convention today – States Parties As of 8 June 2016: • Ratified by 168 states overall • By all countries of SEE ICH network • 10 out of 24 Eastern European countries have been or are Committee members © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO/ ICH Western Europe and North America 21 Eastern Europe 24 Latin America and Caribbean 31 Asia and Pacific 33 Africa 41 Arab States 18 • Entered into force in 2006
  3. 3. 3 How is the Convention being implemented at national level? Creating a legal and administrative context for safeguarding Awareness-raising Identifying, defining and inventorying living traditions Establishing partnerships to safeguard the ICH present in territory of State Party
  4. 4. 4 Community participation • One of the most challenging aspects in implementation of 2003 Convention • Only communities possess specific intangible cultural heritage – it is not the property of States, nations, humanity but the Convention is an agreement between States • No definition of communities in the Convention • Convention and Operational Directives request States Parties to involve and assist communities, with their consent, in managing and safeguarding their living traditions Traditional Vallenato music of the Greater Magdalena region inscribed on Representative List, Colombia, 2015. © Leon Dario Pelaez, Revista Semana
  5. 5. 5 Inventorying of ICH • One of the few obligations under the Convention • Not necessarily ‘national’ • Inventories should be defined by communities; • Problem of hierarchy/ranking the importance of ICH elements; • Issue of inclusion/exclusion, scope and size of inventories; • Some national inventories are not in line with the Convention (‘outstanding value’, ‘authenticity’); • Issues of commercialization of ICH, labelling of inventoried ICH. © 2004 by Melitta Abber
  6. 6. 6 Awareness-raising • One of the biggest impacts of the Convention International Level • ICH has become an established concept in general cultural heritage vocabularies National level • Increased recognition, including through TV, radio, newspaper, internet etc. • Communities whose ICH elements have been listed have expressed intention to reinvigorate the cultural activities Suai villagers gathering, Timor Leste © UNESCO/R.Goswami
  7. 7. 7 Lists of the Convention… • 336 elements inscribed on the Representative List • 43 elements inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List • 12 programs / projects / activities selected for the Register of Best Safeguarding Practices • Clear imbalance in favour of the Representative List • Although it has contributed to raising awareness and impact on safeguarding ICH
  8. 8. 8 Inscribed elements – regional imbalance 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Western Europe and North America Eastern Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Asia and Pacific Africa Arab States Representative List Urgent Safeguarding List Register of Best Safeguarding Practices
  9. 9. 9 Working on cross-border ICH • Represents opportunity for international / regional cooperation; • Can raise awareness about shared identity and cultural roots; • Can sometimes be used to establish cooperation between and serve to mutual benefit for states; Listing can raise competitive feelings between states and communities; © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO/ ICH © 2012 by Péter Kohalmi © Information and Documentation Center of Folk Culture/Ministry of Culture and Tourism
  10. 10. 10 • Monitoring and evaluation framework with objectives, indicators and benchmarks needed to measure and demonstrate results • An expert meeting to take place in Chengdu (China) in July 2016 Monitoring and evaluation framework Tchopa, sacrificial dance of the Lhomwe people of southern Malawi inscribed on Representative List, Malawi, 2014, © Museums of Malawi
  11. 11. 11 Partnerships • 8 Category 2 Centres under the auspices of UNESCO for Intangible Cultural Heritage • 11 UNESCO Chairs in the field of ICH • Need to encourage tertiary education, including postgraduate level of ICH safeguarding studies • Collaboration with WHO, WIPO and the World BankParticipants of the Fourth Meeting of ICH category-2 centers
  12. 12. 12 Recent developments • 12 Ethical Principles • Operational Directives on ICH and Sustainable Development in line with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development • Improved access to International Assistance
  13. 13. 13 Just adopted- Chapter on ICH and sustainable development • Inclusive social development • Environmental sustainability • Inclusive economic development • Peace and security
  14. 14. 14 International assistance • Amount increased to US$ 100 000 for the requests to be examined by the Bureau, because:  States used to give priority to the Representative List, rather than International Assistance, when having to choose within the ceiling of files;  States lack human and financial resources to develop international assistance requests that adequately meet the eligibility criteria. • New area for improvement – requesting for services under international assistance mechanism
  15. 15. 15 Capacity-building - most important • Long-term engagement with states to create institutional and professional environments for safeguarding ICH • Activities in more than 70 countries since 2011 • 5 priorities:  Redesign of institutional infrastructures  Revision of cultural and other policies and legislation  Development of inventory methods  Development of effective safeguarding measures  Participation in international cooperation mechanisms • Content and training materials + network of trained expert facilitators
  16. 16. 16 Funding of capacity building in South-East Europe • Sofia C2C centre’s support is much appreciated, as no other donor in the region for the time being • Cooperation with European Union with a view to start long-term and sustainable capacity building for ICH safeguarding: • Safeguarding ICH is not one of the priorities for EU • The voice of potential beneficiary countries is important in their negotiations with EU bodies • Through international assistance • By funds coming from countries’ themselves
  17. 17. 17 SYNERGIES BETWEEN 1972 AND 2003 CONVENTION © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO/ ICH
  18. 18. 18 1972 Convention 2003 Convention Focus Conservation of natural and cultural heritage properties Safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage elements Nature Cultural and/or natural Cultural and/or social Link to Development Heritage as fundamental to sustainable development Cultural heritage as a mainspring of cultural diversity, an important vector for sustainable development Major Stakeholders Enhanced role of communities (strategic objectives 5Cs) Communities and individuals maintaining living intangible heritage Similarities in domains… Cultural landscapes Cultural spaces Differences & similarities
  19. 19. 19 World Heritage • World Heritage List • List of WH Sites in Danger • WH Committee identifies sites in serious danger • To encourage corrective action Intangible Cultural Heritage • Representative List • Register of Best Safeguarding Practices • Urgent Safeguarding • Identified and nominated by State Parties • To mobilize assistance Mechanisms
  20. 20. 20 World Heritage • Outstanding Universal Values (OUV) decided by authorities and experts in consultation with stakeholders • Comparison of value between sites; site must fill a gap on the World Heritage List as best exemplar or representative within its geo-cultural region/globally Intangible Cultural Heritage • Significance to communities, and decided by communities • No comparison of value among ICH elements • ICH changes over time Core concepts
  21. 21. 21 World Heritage • Integrity: wholeness and intactness of site, no impact on OUV from development/neglect • Authenticity to be protected: OUV is truthfully and credibly expressed through form and design, materials and substance, spirit and feeling, etc. • Evolution from the Venice Charter (1964) to the Nara Document on Authenticity (1994) Intangible Cultural Heritage • ICH can evolve but should not be divorced from its social context. • Viability to be safeguarded: keeping the transmission and healthy changes of the practices to next generations >> continued practice / “Living Heritage” Core Concepts
  22. 22. 22 In some cases, Intangible Heritage is one of the contributing factors that determines the Outstanding Universal Value of the World Heritage site. Criterion (vi): be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance e.g. Hiroshima Peace Memorial, Auschwitz Birkenau… 22
  23. 23. 23 Example of synergies in the lists (Kenya) © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO/ ICH World Heritage List Representative List of ICH Sacred Mijikenda Kaya Forests Traditions and practices associated with the Kayas in the sacred forests of the Mijikenda • Consist of 11 separate forest sites spread over some 200 km; • Contain remains of numerous fortified villages, known as kayas, of the Mijikenda people; • Regarded as the abodes of ancestors and are revered as sacred sites and, as such, are maintained as by councils of elders. • The Mijikenda includes nine Bantu-speaking ethnic groups in the Kaya forests; • The Mijikenda identity is expressed through forests- related oral traditions and performing arts; • Practices constitute codes of ethics and governance systems, and include prayers, oath-taking, burial rites and charms, naming of the newly born, initiations, reconciliations, marriages and coronations.
  24. 24. 24 Example of synergies in the lists (Philippines) © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO/ ICH World Heritage List Representative List of ICH Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras Hudhud chants of the Ifugao • For 2,000 years, the Ifugao rice fields have followed the contours of the mountains; • They are the fruit of knowledge handed down from one generation to the next, and the expression of sacred traditions and a delicate social balance; • They have helped to create a landscape of great beauty that expresses the harmony between humankind and the environment. • The Hudhud consists of narrative chants traditionally performed by the Ifugao community; • The community is well known for its rice terraces extending over the highlands of the Philippine northern island; • It is practised during the rice sowing season, at harvest time and at funeral wakes and rituals. • Include more than 200 chants. A complete recitation may last several days.
  25. 25. 25 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO/ ICH Dr. Tim Curtis Secretary of the 2003 Convention and Chief of the Intangible Cultural Heritage Section, UNESCO