Reframing contestations over environmental resources: the themes of social justice in community forestry in Nepal<br />Har...
Presentation Outline<br />Framework of understanding the contestation over natural resources:<br />Q: “How the claims over...
Claiming environmental resources in  violent context<br />
Political discourse on social justice<br />The “modern” state imagined as a “social justice community”<br />The founding o...
Developmental/environmental <br />Developmentalist attitude to SJ<br />Supplying people with ‘basic needs’<br />people’s p...
Understanding Social Justice<br />Plural Conceptions of SJ<br />Economic-redistributive<br />Political-participative (asso...
CF in Nepal: brief outline<br />Before 1950: patrimonial appropriation of forest/land:  grants to client groups/govt. Empl...
CF handover<br />
Existing framework of assessing CF<br />Aimed primarily at<br />Halting deforestation<br />Enhancement of forest stock<br ...
Solidarities at work (modified after Gyawali) <br />
Patterns of contestation<br />
Few points<br />Forest conservation/management tends to be seen in ‘soft’ discourse<br />Politicisation—movement demands &...
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Hari Dhungana: Reframing contestations over environmental resources: the themes of social justice in community forestry in Nepal

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Presentation at the STEPS Conference 2010 - Pathways to Sustainability: Agendas for a new politics of environment, development and social justice

http://www.steps-centre.org/events/stepsconference2010.html

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Hari Dhungana: Reframing contestations over environmental resources: the themes of social justice in community forestry in Nepal

  1. 1. Reframing contestations over environmental resources: the themes of social justice in community forestry in Nepal<br />Hari Dhungana<br />College of Development Studies/Purvanchal University<br />&<br />ForestAction www.forestaction.org<br />Kathmandu<br />suhit@wlink.com.np<br />
  2. 2. Presentation Outline<br />Framework of understanding the contestation over natural resources:<br />Q: “How the claims over natural resources are framed, in the context of political transition & widespread violence?”<br />patterns of claiming natural resources<br />Legitimation of the claims<br />Basics: Evolution & the state of CF in Nepal<br />Three strands of thinking—development, politics, and environmentalism—converge to form the “social justice” problematic<br />Pluralist conception of SJ & “equity triad”<br />‘Soft’ versus radicalised constructions of contestation<br />Patterns of contestation<br />Conclusions<br />
  3. 3. Claiming environmental resources in violent context<br />
  4. 4. Political discourse on social justice<br />The “modern” state imagined as a “social justice community”<br />The founding of “modern” state used a cut-off date for the construction of historical injustice—that justifies:<br />Secessionism<br />Redress for historical appropriations by state/ dominant groups—of land, water, forest<br />Discursive privileging of the masses as a compulsion of electoral politics<br />Categorizations of peoples and places—link of a social group to a space since immemorial past<br />
  5. 5. Developmental/environmental <br />Developmentalist attitude to SJ<br />Supplying people with ‘basic needs’<br />people’s participation<br />Empowerment of backward groups<br />Poverty reduction—securing a minimum standard of living<br />Forest conservation policies<br />Disfavour to ‘fortress conservation’ model<br />Local people’s rights over resources<br />Livelihood benefits—one key priority,<br />Harmonisation of environmental & developmentalist thinking<br />
  6. 6. Understanding Social Justice<br />Plural Conceptions of SJ<br />Economic-redistributive<br />Political-participative (associational)<br />Cultural-recognitive<br />“Equity triad”—from Osterle (2002)<br />Resources (what to be distributed?)<br />Recipients (between whom?)<br />Principles (how?)<br />
  7. 7. CF in Nepal: brief outline<br />Before 1950: patrimonial appropriation of forest/land: grants to client groups/govt. Employees & nobilities<br />1950s—brought under eminent domain through nationalisation<br />Widespread destruction and inability of DOF<br />1970s onwards<br />Theory of Himalayan degradation—Eckholm<br />Ecological doom<br />Harmonise international forestry policy (donor strategy) with development and response to doom<br />(within DOF)—policing forest infeasible by DoF itself<br />Extensive mobilisation of resources—policy making to implementation<br />Government forest is “handed over” to CFUGs<br />14,439 CFUGs<br />32% of population: 1,659,775 households<br />25% forest areas: 1,229,669 hectares <br />
  8. 8. CF handover<br />
  9. 9. Existing framework of assessing CF<br />Aimed primarily at<br />Halting deforestation<br />Enhancement of forest stock<br />Poverty reduction—securing access to forest products<br />Inclusion of women and marginalised groups into forest user group committees<br />Positive linkage with agriculture—ecosystem services<br />
  10. 10. Solidarities at work (modified after Gyawali) <br />
  11. 11. Patterns of contestation<br />
  12. 12. Few points<br />Forest conservation/management tends to be seen in ‘soft’ discourse<br />Politicisation—movement demands & political discourse important<br />Forest provides important symbolic & material basis to articulate political demands<br />Frameworks of legitimation –convenience of stakeholder groups<br />Existence of multiple actors & multiple legitimacies<br />Key areas to look into:<br />Land rights versus forest rights<br />Ethnic autonomy and local people<br />Negotiating rights under current tranisition<br />

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