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Climate change and sanitation,
water resources
Resilience in the face of Uncertainty: why cooperation is necessary
Suresh ...
Key Points for India :
Water security in the poor’s world:
The agenda for research, policy and cooperation to
manage scarc...
The face of India’s farmer
Grief, despair, desperation
Unseasonal rain, hail, freak storms have destroyed crops
over milli...
Not just normal variability
Is this climate change?
• Cannot say if this season of despair is linked to
climate change
• But cannot say that these ext...
Climate Negotiations on economy
Not ecology
Climate change is about economic growth
No country has built a low carbon econ...
Acceptable???
1 US citizen =
107 Bangladeshis
134 Bhutanese
19 Indians
269 Nepalese
Unacceptable.
Need to secure ecologica...
The age of climate risk
• Monsoon is India’s finance minister
• Water insecurity already high and crippling
• In this situ...
Agenda for water future
• Management of competing demands –
between agriculture, cities and industry
• Management of risk ...
India will not follow transition of rich world –
people move to cities; economies move to
service-industry; water moves wi...
Secure water for growth
• Agriculture will remain critical for livelihoods –
60% dependence
• But cities-industries will g...
Augment supply
• Water for agriculture must be secured
• Recognise groundwater provides bulk of
irrigation
• Recognise the...
Groundwater: needs recharge
• Recognise recharge is critical
• Large reservoirs centralize recharge
• But rain is decentra...
Groundwater irrigates more land
than surface water
But structures for decentralised
recharge have gone
Water security in new age
• Build millions of water recharge
structures to improve productivity
• India’s employment guara...
Link water with resilience
• Increase of productivity has to be low-cost
• Higher cost, higher risk, higher loss
• Need mu...
Resilience is not ‘technology’
• Water is about cropping pattern
• Water is about food we eat
• Diets are about food we ar...
Urban-industrial water
Challenges
• Need clean water supply for all
• Need to take back the waste generated by water
use
•...
The conventional way:
Bring water into the city – storage, diversion, pipe,
pump, treat – from further and further away.
F...
Agenda reinvent water-waste
Political economy of water supply
Political economy of defecation
Systems of water-waste manag...
Water: costly supply
Water sourced from far
Leads to increasing cost of supply
Leads to high distribution losses
Less wate...
Capital intensity, Leads to inequity
• Indian cities have ‘enough’ water for supply
• But water does not reach all
• Intra...
Groundwater: abused
Water supply does not reach all, only few. No
alternative but to move to groundwater
But this is not a...
Lakes: Present lost
Groundwater is not not considered as critical for
water supply, recharge is neglected
Land is valued, ...
Lakes: Future lost
• With climate change extreme rainfall
events will grow
• More rain, fewer rainy days
• Cities need spo...
Water=waste
Cities spend on water, have no funds to spend on
cleaning up waste
80% water leaves homes as sewage
More water...
Sewage: more sums
• 30% of total sewage can be treated
• But Delhi and Mumbai alone have 40 per cent
of sewage treatment c...
Cities do not have drains (Sewerage)
New growth cities are growing without
drains
Backlog and front-log impossible to fix
...
Example -
Bengaluru: not reaching
• 3610 km of sewage pipes
• 14 sewage treatment plants = 781 mld
• Generates 800-1000 ml...
Partial treatment = pollution
Cities cannot control pollution
Cost of building system is high
•City can build sewage syste...
Full costs are not affordable
Privatization or not is not the question
Water-sewage-pollution costs are high and
unafforda...
Re-invent water and waste
1. Plan deliberately to cut costs of supply
2. Spend on sewage not on water
3. Cut costs on sewa...
Humble engineering for future
• Current technologies for sustainability are
unaffordable. For rich when rich
• Need afford...
The real water agenda
Catch water where it falls
Flush but do not forget
….Create local and distributed water
infrastructu...
The real water agenda
• Water is starting point for the removal of poverty.
• Basis of food and livelihood security. Leadi...
Resilience Building in face of uncertainty
Why water cooperation is necessary ?
• Emerging science …all streams of concern...
Way forward
… making water everybody’s business
Thank You.
email: srohilla@cseindia.org
Suresh Rohilla - Climate change and sanitation, water resources
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Suresh Rohilla - Climate change and sanitation, water resources

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Workshop on climate change and uncertainty from below and above, Delhi. http://steps-centre.org/2016/blog/climate-change-and-uncertainty-from-above-and-below/

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Suresh Rohilla - Climate change and sanitation, water resources

  1. 1. Climate change and sanitation, water resources Resilience in the face of Uncertainty: why cooperation is necessary Suresh Kumar Rohilla Programme Director Centre for Science and Environment, Delhi (India) at STEPS Workshop 27 January 2016
  2. 2. Key Points for India : Water security in the poor’s world: The agenda for research, policy and cooperation to manage scarcity, plenty, pollution and waste in an age of climate risk
  3. 3. The face of India’s farmer Grief, despair, desperation Unseasonal rain, hail, freak storms have destroyed crops over millions of hectares
  4. 4. Not just normal variability
  5. 5. Is this climate change? • Cannot say if this season of despair is linked to climate change • But cannot say that these extreme weather events are not climate change • Weird is now normal • Normal is now devastating – the poor not responsible for climate change are worst impacted
  6. 6. Climate Negotiations on economy Not ecology Climate change is about economic growth No country has built a low carbon economy So action is little and too late Convention signed in 1992 25 years later world is still talking; procrastinating; finding excuses not to act Economic growth on line
  7. 7. Acceptable??? 1 US citizen = 107 Bangladeshis 134 Bhutanese 19 Indians 269 Nepalese Unacceptable. Need to secure ecological space for growth
  8. 8. The age of climate risk • Monsoon is India’s finance minister • Water insecurity already high and crippling • In this situation, what do farmers do? • How will they manage scarcity; unseasonal and variable rain events; and extreme rain, which leads to flooding? • Agenda for water managers
  9. 9. Agenda for water future • Management of competing demands – between agriculture, cities and industry • Management of risk – untimely and deficient rain • Management of pollution – ensuring water is not degraded and so unusable
  10. 10. India will not follow transition of rich world – people move to cities; economies move to service-industry; water moves with it
  11. 11. Secure water for growth • Agriculture will remain critical for livelihoods – 60% dependence • But cities-industries will grow. Will need water for growth • Unless we manage competing needs; violence will grow • Already cases of protest and police firing over water allocation to industry or city
  12. 12. Augment supply • Water for agriculture must be secured • Recognise groundwater provides bulk of irrigation • Recognise there are over 19 million well owners – they take decisions on water • They are more efficient in use • But crisis is growing – groundwater levels falling
  13. 13. Groundwater: needs recharge • Recognise recharge is critical • Large reservoirs centralize recharge • But rain is decentralised…
  14. 14. Groundwater irrigates more land than surface water
  15. 15. But structures for decentralised recharge have gone
  16. 16. Water security in new age • Build millions of water recharge structures to improve productivity • India’s employment guarantee programme needs to be targeted to building durable assets • But this is not enough
  17. 17. Link water with resilience • Increase of productivity has to be low-cost • Higher cost, higher risk, higher loss • Need multiple crops; need crops that are water resilient; need systems of agriculture that can improve coping abilities of farmers
  18. 18. Resilience is not ‘technology’ • Water is about cropping pattern • Water is about food we eat • Diets are about food we are ‘sold’ • Need to make this link • Need to change nature of food industry in climate risked world
  19. 19. Urban-industrial water Challenges • Need clean water supply for all • Need to take back the waste generated by water use • Need to treat the waste so that it does not pollute • Need to do this in ways that it does not add to water conflicts • How?
  20. 20. The conventional way: Bring water into the city – storage, diversion, pipe, pump, treat – from further and further away. Flush and carry the waste out of the city – pipe, pump, divert, treat – further and further away. The water-sewage connection
  21. 21. Agenda reinvent water-waste Political economy of water supply Political economy of defecation Systems of water-waste management that are not affordable and equitable If not equitable then not sustainable
  22. 22. Water: costly supply Water sourced from far Leads to increasing cost of supply Leads to high distribution losses Less water to supply at end of pipeline Less water means more costly water Cities not able to recover costs of supply Cities have no money to invest in sewage
  23. 23. Capital intensity, Leads to inequity • Indian cities have ‘enough’ water for supply • But water does not reach all • Intra-city inequity is huge and growing • Challenge is about justice, but it is about technology – current system expensive, too expensive to supply to all
  24. 24. Groundwater: abused Water supply does not reach all, only few. No alternative but to move to groundwater But this is not accounted for Cities only consider ‘official’ groundwater use Millions depend on private wells, tanker mafia, bottled water No recognition of this water source; no respect for its management
  25. 25. Lakes: Present lost Groundwater is not not considered as critical for water supply, recharge is neglected Land is valued, water is not No legal protection for city lakes, catchment and drainage systems Sponges of our cities then get destroyed
  26. 26. Lakes: Future lost • With climate change extreme rainfall events will grow • More rain, fewer rainy days • Cities need sponges to capture rain, recharge for scarcity • Need to consider in future planning
  27. 27. Water=waste Cities spend on water, have no funds to spend on cleaning up waste 80% water leaves homes as sewage More water=more waste Interception of sewage expensive Treatment of sewage also expensive
  28. 28. Sewage: more sums • 30% of total sewage can be treated • But Delhi and Mumbai alone have 40 per cent of sewage treatment capacity in the country
  29. 29. Cities do not have drains (Sewerage) New growth cities are growing without drains Backlog and front-log impossible to fix As cities fix one drain, another goes under
  30. 30. Example - Bengaluru: not reaching • 3610 km of sewage pipes • 14 sewage treatment plants = 781 mld • Generates 800-1000 mld of sewage • But treats only 300 mld • Rest does not reach • Now plans to build 4000 km more • Builds, grows and more lines need repair • Catch-up that does not catch-up
  31. 31. Partial treatment = pollution Cities cannot control pollution Cost of building system is high •City can build sewage system for few •Spend to pump, repair and treat waste of few But •Treated waste of few gets mixed with untreated waste of majority •The result is pollution
  32. 32. Full costs are not affordable Privatization or not is not the question Water-sewage-pollution costs are high and unaffordable by all Cannot pay full costs
  33. 33. Re-invent water and waste 1. Plan deliberately to cut costs of supply 2. Spend on sewage not on water 3. Cut costs on sewage systems 4. Plan to recycle and reuse every drop 5. Connect water conservation to sewage management
  34. 34. Humble engineering for future • Current technologies for sustainability are unaffordable. For rich when rich • Need affordable and sustainable solutions • Need to look for answers in past ways; in the knowledge of the very poor; in ‘unproductive’ systems we discount • Need new engineering for future – Move from unraveling nature to imitating it for sustainable development.
  35. 35. The real water agenda Catch water where it falls Flush but do not forget ….Create local and distributed water infrastructure …Water sensitive design and planning
  36. 36. The real water agenda • Water is starting point for the removal of poverty. • Basis of food and livelihood security. Leading to local and distributed wealth generation • This will require new forms of institutional management as current water bureaucracies will find it difficult to manage such vast and disparate systems
  37. 37. Resilience Building in face of uncertainty Why water cooperation is necessary ? • Emerging science …all streams of concerns – health, climate change, energy security and local imperatives of sustainable development are converging. • • Need is to reinvent the framework for global and regional cooperation to find locally and globally appropriate solutions within co-benefit framework • Need is to bring together best practices in different regions on adaptation and resilience to build a network of advocates for change in different countries
  38. 38. Way forward … making water everybody’s business
  39. 39. Thank You. email: srohilla@cseindia.org

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