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performance uploading.pptx

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SanthiS10

Performance

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Computer Architecture
Dr.S.Santhi
Professor, Department of CSE
KIT-Kalaignarkarunanidhi Institute of Technology
UNIT 1
PERFORMANCE, POWER WALL, UNI-PROCESSORS,
MULTIPROCESSORS
Performance Metrics
Purchasing perspective
◦ given a collection of machines, which has the
◦ best performance ?
◦ least cost ?
◦ best cost/performance?
Design perspective
◦ faced with design options, which has the
◦ best performance improvement ?
◦ least cost ?
◦ best cost/performance?
Both require
◦ basis for comparison
◦ metric for evaluation
Our goal is to understand what factors in the architecture contribute to overall
system performance and the relative importance (and cost) of these factors
Defining Performance
Which airplane has the best performance?
Response Time and Throughput
Response time
◦ How long it takes to do a task
Throughput
◦ Total work done per unit time
◦ e.g., tasks/transactions/… per hour
How are response time and throughput affected by
◦ Replacing the processor with a faster version?
◦ Adding more processors?
We’ll focus on response time for now…
Relative Performance
Performance = 1/Execution Time
“X is n time faster than Y”
n

 X
Y
Y
X
time
Execution
time
Execution
e
Performanc
e
Performanc
 Example: time taken to run a program
 10s on A, 15s on B
 Execution TimeB / Execution TimeA
= 15s / 10s = 1.5
 So A is 1.5 times faster than B

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performance uploading.pptx

  • 1. Computer Architecture Dr.S.Santhi Professor, Department of CSE KIT-Kalaignarkarunanidhi Institute of Technology
  • 2. UNIT 1 PERFORMANCE, POWER WALL, UNI-PROCESSORS, MULTIPROCESSORS
  • 3. Performance Metrics Purchasing perspective ◦ given a collection of machines, which has the ◦ best performance ? ◦ least cost ? ◦ best cost/performance? Design perspective ◦ faced with design options, which has the ◦ best performance improvement ? ◦ least cost ? ◦ best cost/performance? Both require ◦ basis for comparison ◦ metric for evaluation Our goal is to understand what factors in the architecture contribute to overall system performance and the relative importance (and cost) of these factors
  • 4. Defining Performance Which airplane has the best performance?
  • 5. Response Time and Throughput Response time ◦ How long it takes to do a task Throughput ◦ Total work done per unit time ◦ e.g., tasks/transactions/… per hour How are response time and throughput affected by ◦ Replacing the processor with a faster version? ◦ Adding more processors? We’ll focus on response time for now…
  • 6. Relative Performance Performance = 1/Execution Time “X is n time faster than Y” n   X Y Y X time Execution time Execution e Performanc e Performanc  Example: time taken to run a program  10s on A, 15s on B  Execution TimeB / Execution TimeA = 15s / 10s = 1.5  So A is 1.5 times faster than B
  • 7. Measuring Execution Time Elapsed time ◦ Total response time, including all aspects ◦ Processing, I/O, OS overhead, idle time ◦ Determines system performance CPU time ◦ Time spent processing a given job ◦ Discounts I/O time, other jobs’ shares ◦ Comprises user CPU time and system CPU time ◦ Different programs are affected differently by CPU and system performance
  • 8. CPU Clocking Operation of digital hardware governed by a constant- rate clock Clock (cycles) Data transfer and computation Update state Clock period  Clock period: duration of a clock cycle  e.g., 250ps = 0.25ns = 250×10–12s  Clock frequency (rate): cycles per second  e.g., 4.0GHz = 4000MHz = 4.0×109Hz
  • 9. Review: Machine Clock Rate Clock rate (clock cycles per second in MHz or GHz) is inverse of clock cycle time (clock period) one clock period 1 nsec (10-9) clock cycle => 1 GHz (109) clock rate
  • 10. CPU Time Performance improved by ◦ Reducing number of clock cycles ◦ Increasing clock rate ◦ Hardware designer must often trade off clock rate against cycle count Rate Clock Cycles Clock CPU Time Cycle Clock Cycles Clock CPU Time CPU   
  • 11. CPU Time Example Computer A: 2GHz clock, 10s CPU time Designing Computer B ◦ Aim for 6s CPU time ◦ Can do faster clock, but causes 1.2 × clock cycles of A How fast must Computer B clock be? 4GHz 6s 10 24 6s 10 20 1.2 Rate Clock 10 20 2GHz 10s Rate Clock Time CPU Cycles Clock 6s Cycles Clock 1.2 Time CPU Cycles Clock Rate Clock 9 9 B 9 A A A A B B B               
  • 12. Instruction Count and CPI Instruction Count for a program ◦ Determined by program, ISA and compiler Average cycles per instruction ◦ Determined by CPU hardware ◦ If different instructions have different CPI ◦ Average CPI affected by instruction mix Rate Clock CPI Count n Instructio Time Cycle Clock CPI Count n Instructio Time CPU n Instructio per Cycles Count n Instructio Cycles Clock       
  • 13. CPI Example Computer A: Cycle Time = 250ps, CPI = 2.0 Computer B: Cycle Time = 500ps, CPI = 1.2 Same ISA Which is faster, and by how much? 1.2 500ps I 600ps I A Time CPU B Time CPU 600ps I 500ps 1.2 I B Time Cycle B CPI Count n Instructio B Time CPU 500ps I 250ps 2.0 I A Time Cycle A CPI Count n Instructio A Time CPU                     A is faster… …by this much
  • 14. CPI in More Detail If different instruction classes take different numbers of cycles     n 1 i i i ) Count n Instructio (CPI Cycles Clock  Weighted average CPI            n 1 i i i Count n Instructio Count n Instructio CPI Count n Instructio Cycles Clock CPI Relative frequency
  • 15. Power Trends In CMOS IC technology §1.7 The Power Wall Frequency Voltage load Capacitive Power 2     ) 2 / 1 ( ×1000 ×40 5V → 1V
  • 17. Multiprocessors Multicore microprocessors ◦ More than one processor per chip Requires explicitly parallel programming ◦ Compare with instruction level parallelism ◦ Hardware executes multiple instructions at once ◦ Hidden from the programmer ◦ Hard to do ◦ Programming for performance ◦ Load balancing ◦ Optimizing communication and synchronization

Editor's Notes

  1. Or smallest/lightest Longest battery life Most reliable/durable (in space)
  2. November 21, 2023
  3. November 21, 2023
  4. November 21, 2023
  5. November 21, 2023
  6. November 21, 2023
  7. A clock cycle is the basic unit of time to execute one operation/pipeline stage/etc.
  8. November 21, 2023
  9. November 21, 2023
  10. November 21, 2023
  11. November 21, 2023
  12. November 21, 2023
  13. November 21, 2023
  14. November 21, 2023
  15. November 21, 2023