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Operational groups-overview (1)

This document summarizes the organization and operations of the Office of Strategic Services' Operational Groups (OG) during World War II. It describes the OG's dual function of activating guerrilla organizations and executing independent operations against enemy targets. It outlines the OG's recruitment, training, and organizational structure. It provides details on specific OG operations in areas such as France, Italy, Yugoslavia, and Greece from 1943-1944, including sabotage missions and numbers of enemy casualties inflicted. The document is intended to define the basic organization, functions, doctrine, and purpose of the OG branch for personnel orientation.

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Operational groups-overview (1)
DECLASSIFIED
Authority: NND 843099
By: TKN Date: 1213/13
This booklet has been prepared for use w ithin
OSS, particularly by OG Branch for the general
orientation of its own personnel. Its primary
purpose is to define the basic organization of
the Branch, its functions, doctrine, and pur-
pose. It is not intended either as a technical
training manual or an historical record of ac-
tual accomplishments.
- December 1944
DECLASSIFIED
Authority: NND 843099
By: TKN Date: 1213/13
R
OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES
SECRET
OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES
is an agency of the Joint Chiefs of Staff charged with
collecting and analyzing strategic information and
secret intelligence required for military operations,
and with planning and executing programs of physi-
cal sabotage and morale subversion against the
enemy to support military operations.
OPERATIONt(Hl_f COMMAND
selects foreign-language speaking Army personnel
and trains them to operate as military units in '
enemy or enemy-held territory. OGs organize resist-
ance groups into effective guerrilla units, equip them
with weapons and supplies, and lead them in attacks
against enemy targets.
DECLASSIFIED
Authority: NND 843099
By: TKN Date: 12/3/13
~-------'~----------­
~
[~;;~S~E~C~RE~T~A~R~IA~T;;~~..............r--=::~~~::~~- _,
I I EXECUTIVE OFFICER . L--~------'
REGISTRY I .
SPECIAL OPERATIONS
MORALE OPERATIONS
MARITIME UNIT
FIELD EXPERIMENTAL UNIT
SPECIAL PROJECTS
DEPUTY DIRECTOR
STRATEGIC SERVICES
OPERATIONS
DECLASSIFiED
Authority: NND 843099
By; TKN Date: 12/3/13
DEPUTY DIRECTOR
INTELLIGENCE
SERVICES
BOARD OF REVIEW
DEPUTY DIRECTOR SCHOOLS & TRAINING DEPUTY DIRECTOR ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES
SCHOOLS & TRAINING BUDGET &
PROCEDURES
PROCUREMENT
& SUPPLY
REPRODUCTION TRANSPORTATION OFFICE SERVICES FINANCE
SECRET
SPECIAL ASSTS. &
REPRESENTATIVES
SECRET INTELLIGENCE
X-2
RESEARCH & ANALYSIS
FOREIGN NATIONALITIES
CENSORSHIP & DOCUMENTS
DEPUTY DIRECTOR PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PROCUREMENT
CIVILIAN
PERSONNEL
OG OBJECTIVES
• FUNCTIONS
Operational Groups have a dual func-
tion.
They serve as the operational nuclei of
guerrilla organizations which have been
formed from resistance groups in enemy
territory.
They execute independent operations
against enemy targets on orders of the
theater commander.
DECLASSIFIED
Authority: NND 843099
By: TKN Date: 12/3/13
AND · TE C H N I O U ES
• METHODS
OG works with individuals unfamiliar
with military operations as well as in-
sufficiently-equipped quasi-military or-
ganizations. The former are organized
and trained in military techniques of
resistance. The latter are provided with
supplies and their tactics are coordi-
nated with allied military plans. Leader-
ship is normally kept in the hands of
the native people, though OG may se-
lect leaders and unify opposing groups.
e A tMS
The aim of OG activity is to aid actual
and planned Allied military operations
by harassing the enemy behind his
lines. by disrupting his lines of com-
munication and supply. and by forcing
him to divert troops to protect himself
from guerrilla attacks and wide-scale
uprisings.
The activities, mode of operation and personnel of OG
differ from those of the Special Operations Branch. OG
personnel activate guerrillas as military organizations to
engage enemy forces. They always operate in uniform as
military units and are not primarily concerned with in-
dividual acts of sabotage.
OG RECRUITING
• RECRUITS
Because of the hazardous nature of the
work, all OG officers and enlisted men
are selected from Army volunteers. All
recruits must meet the physical stand-
ards demanded for parachute jumping,
preferably should have combat train-
ing, and must give evidence of stability
and good judgment as well as daring.
They should speak the language of the
area and be acquainted with the terri-
tory in which they will operate.
DECLASSIFIED
Authority: NND 843099
AND TRAINING
• TRA INING IN THE U.S.
Six weeks' preliminary training is given
in the United States on the following
subjects:
Map reading
Scouting and patrolling
Close combat- armed and un-
armed
Physical conditioning
Fieldcraft and equipment pro-
tection
Hygiene and first aid
Military tactics
Demolition
Weapons- Allied and Axis
Operation and repair of enemy
vehicles
Enemy espionage organizations
Organization and training of
civilians for guerrilla warfare
Identification of aircraft and
vehicles
Security
Logistics
• TRAINING OV ERSEAS
Advanced training is given in the
theaters of operation. Personnel is
oriented to the locale while rehearsing
military tactics, parachute jumping,
and amphibious operations, but does
not undergo a set curriculum.
Overseas training has been given in:
• England
• Algiers
• Bari
• Ceylon
• Assam
OG
DECLASSIFIED
Authority: NND 843099
By: TKN Date: 12/3/13
HEADQUARTERS STRATEGIC PLANNING
•••••
•••••
COMMANDING OFFICER
OFFICER
MAPS & REPORTS
OFFICER
DEPUTY DIRECTOR
STRATEGIC SERVICES
OPERATIONS
S-1
PERSONNEL
S-2
INTELliGENCE & SECURITY
S-3
PLANS & TRAINING
S-4
SUPPLY
MEDICAL OFFICER
CHIEF SURGEON
PLANNING
GROUP
Overall plans and programs are
submitted to the Joint Chiefs of
Staff for approval before being
sent to the field.
integrates plans with military
and naval operations.
jointly develop strategic plans
and overall programs.
OG Fl ELD
Plans are based on intelligence
furnished by OSS Intelligence
Sections.
RESEARCH & ANALYSIS
Topography, industrial tar-
gets, enemy militat·y organi-
zation and morale.
SECRET INTELliGENCE
Location or enemy units and
installations, and strength
and disposition of guerrilla
groups.
X-2
Enemy espionage agents and
networks.
DECLASSIFIED
Authority: NND 843099
By: TKN Date: 12/3/13
ORGANIZATION: TACT ICAL
PLANNING
OFFICER
FIElD SERVICE HEADQUARTERS, roughly --1
comparable to an army battalion head-
quarters.
THE OPERA.TIONAL GROUP is the basic --1
field unit
ADMINISTRATIVE
ASSISTANT
OG
UNIT COMMANDER
~-----,------~
COMMANDING OFFICER
OPERATIONAL GROUP
L--------'
PLANNING
ADJUTANT
TRANSPORTATION
COMMUNICATIONS
SUPPLY
ARMORER
MEDICAL OFFICER
THE OPERATIONAL
Each group must be self-sufficient because opera-
tions are aimed at special isolatedobjectives. Further
decentralization within the group command is also
necessary becausecomponent parts may have to split
from their group, each to organize, train, or take
command of a different native force.
SECTION

RADIO~"•
DECLASSIFIED
Authority: NND 843099
By: TKN Date: 12/3/13
GROUP IS
GROUP COMMANDING
OFFICER
THE
SST
BASIC Fl ELD UN IT
Each section and each squad is capable of independ-
ent action.Thesmaller the unit, the more mobile and
inconspicuous, two leading requirements in opera-
tions conducted behind enemy lines and in constant
dangerofseparationfroma baseorsupportingforces.
SECTION
•
DECLASSIFIED
Authority: NND 843099
By: TKN Date: 12/3/13
OG FIELD H EADOUARTER S AND OPERATI"ON s: ETO-MEDTO
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
1943
1944
All OG operations in southern France were coordi-
nated with Allied plans for the invasion. Their pur-
pose was to destroy the enemy's lines of supply and
communication and force him to divert troops for
their protection, to protect the flanks of the Allied
forces driving in from the beaches, and to report on
enemy strength and movements. To this end OGs
were introduced throughout the area, organizing or
equipping guerrilla forces and guiding them in op-
erations.
Operations in Italy have been conducted from OG
headquarters on Corsica and bases in Italy. Inde-
pendently and in collaboration with Italian Parti-
sans and British and French forces, OGs have har-
assed the enemy by raids on military installations
and lines of communication, as well as by occupying
islands to establish observation posts.
Missions against the islands and mainland of Yugo-
slavia have been made from the OG baseon Vis. With
Partisan and British troops, OGs have engaged small
German forces, ambushed a naval convoy by shore
fire, and rescued many American aviators.
OGs have penetrated Greece by sea and air to co-
operate with guerrilla forces in attacking German
supply lines and destroying enemy headquarters.
0 OG FI E LD HEAD QUART E RS
. . . OG FIELD OPE RATI ON S
BERLIN e
/
·····........
...r··.......
·..·~
··.£'····...:;·
'·· ···:.,l''" ' •·..
.....
....
···. ..· :,.• .
:...f
''}-:............ ··...

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Operational groups-overview (1)

  • 2. DECLASSIFIED Authority: NND 843099 By: TKN Date: 1213/13 This booklet has been prepared for use w ithin OSS, particularly by OG Branch for the general orientation of its own personnel. Its primary purpose is to define the basic organization of the Branch, its functions, doctrine, and pur- pose. It is not intended either as a technical training manual or an historical record of ac- tual accomplishments. - December 1944 DECLASSIFIED Authority: NND 843099 By: TKN Date: 1213/13 R OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES SECRET
  • 3. OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES is an agency of the Joint Chiefs of Staff charged with collecting and analyzing strategic information and secret intelligence required for military operations, and with planning and executing programs of physi- cal sabotage and morale subversion against the enemy to support military operations. OPERATIONt(Hl_f COMMAND selects foreign-language speaking Army personnel and trains them to operate as military units in ' enemy or enemy-held territory. OGs organize resist- ance groups into effective guerrilla units, equip them with weapons and supplies, and lead them in attacks against enemy targets. DECLASSIFIED Authority: NND 843099 By: TKN Date: 12/3/13 ~-------'~----------­ ~ [~;;~S~E~C~RE~T~A~R~IA~T;;~~..............r--=::~~~::~~- _, I I EXECUTIVE OFFICER . L--~------' REGISTRY I . SPECIAL OPERATIONS MORALE OPERATIONS MARITIME UNIT FIELD EXPERIMENTAL UNIT SPECIAL PROJECTS DEPUTY DIRECTOR STRATEGIC SERVICES OPERATIONS DECLASSIFiED Authority: NND 843099 By; TKN Date: 12/3/13 DEPUTY DIRECTOR INTELLIGENCE SERVICES BOARD OF REVIEW DEPUTY DIRECTOR SCHOOLS & TRAINING DEPUTY DIRECTOR ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES SCHOOLS & TRAINING BUDGET & PROCEDURES PROCUREMENT & SUPPLY REPRODUCTION TRANSPORTATION OFFICE SERVICES FINANCE SECRET SPECIAL ASSTS. & REPRESENTATIVES SECRET INTELLIGENCE X-2 RESEARCH & ANALYSIS FOREIGN NATIONALITIES CENSORSHIP & DOCUMENTS DEPUTY DIRECTOR PERSONNEL PERSONNEL PROCUREMENT CIVILIAN PERSONNEL
  • 4. OG OBJECTIVES • FUNCTIONS Operational Groups have a dual func- tion. They serve as the operational nuclei of guerrilla organizations which have been formed from resistance groups in enemy territory. They execute independent operations against enemy targets on orders of the theater commander. DECLASSIFIED Authority: NND 843099 By: TKN Date: 12/3/13 AND · TE C H N I O U ES • METHODS OG works with individuals unfamiliar with military operations as well as in- sufficiently-equipped quasi-military or- ganizations. The former are organized and trained in military techniques of resistance. The latter are provided with supplies and their tactics are coordi- nated with allied military plans. Leader- ship is normally kept in the hands of the native people, though OG may se- lect leaders and unify opposing groups. e A tMS The aim of OG activity is to aid actual and planned Allied military operations by harassing the enemy behind his lines. by disrupting his lines of com- munication and supply. and by forcing him to divert troops to protect himself from guerrilla attacks and wide-scale uprisings. The activities, mode of operation and personnel of OG differ from those of the Special Operations Branch. OG personnel activate guerrillas as military organizations to engage enemy forces. They always operate in uniform as military units and are not primarily concerned with in- dividual acts of sabotage. OG RECRUITING • RECRUITS Because of the hazardous nature of the work, all OG officers and enlisted men are selected from Army volunteers. All recruits must meet the physical stand- ards demanded for parachute jumping, preferably should have combat train- ing, and must give evidence of stability and good judgment as well as daring. They should speak the language of the area and be acquainted with the terri- tory in which they will operate. DECLASSIFIED Authority: NND 843099 AND TRAINING • TRA INING IN THE U.S. Six weeks' preliminary training is given in the United States on the following subjects: Map reading Scouting and patrolling Close combat- armed and un- armed Physical conditioning Fieldcraft and equipment pro- tection Hygiene and first aid Military tactics Demolition Weapons- Allied and Axis Operation and repair of enemy vehicles Enemy espionage organizations Organization and training of civilians for guerrilla warfare Identification of aircraft and vehicles Security Logistics • TRAINING OV ERSEAS Advanced training is given in the theaters of operation. Personnel is oriented to the locale while rehearsing military tactics, parachute jumping, and amphibious operations, but does not undergo a set curriculum. Overseas training has been given in: • England • Algiers • Bari • Ceylon • Assam
  • 5. OG DECLASSIFIED Authority: NND 843099 By: TKN Date: 12/3/13 HEADQUARTERS STRATEGIC PLANNING ••••• ••••• COMMANDING OFFICER OFFICER MAPS & REPORTS OFFICER DEPUTY DIRECTOR STRATEGIC SERVICES OPERATIONS S-1 PERSONNEL S-2 INTELliGENCE & SECURITY S-3 PLANS & TRAINING S-4 SUPPLY MEDICAL OFFICER CHIEF SURGEON PLANNING GROUP Overall plans and programs are submitted to the Joint Chiefs of Staff for approval before being sent to the field. integrates plans with military and naval operations. jointly develop strategic plans and overall programs. OG Fl ELD Plans are based on intelligence furnished by OSS Intelligence Sections. RESEARCH & ANALYSIS Topography, industrial tar- gets, enemy militat·y organi- zation and morale. SECRET INTELliGENCE Location or enemy units and installations, and strength and disposition of guerrilla groups. X-2 Enemy espionage agents and networks. DECLASSIFIED Authority: NND 843099 By: TKN Date: 12/3/13 ORGANIZATION: TACT ICAL PLANNING OFFICER FIElD SERVICE HEADQUARTERS, roughly --1 comparable to an army battalion head- quarters. THE OPERA.TIONAL GROUP is the basic --1 field unit ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT OG UNIT COMMANDER ~-----,------~ COMMANDING OFFICER OPERATIONAL GROUP L--------' PLANNING ADJUTANT TRANSPORTATION COMMUNICATIONS SUPPLY ARMORER MEDICAL OFFICER
  • 6. THE OPERATIONAL Each group must be self-sufficient because opera- tions are aimed at special isolatedobjectives. Further decentralization within the group command is also necessary becausecomponent parts may have to split from their group, each to organize, train, or take command of a different native force. SECTION RADIO~"• DECLASSIFIED Authority: NND 843099 By: TKN Date: 12/3/13 GROUP IS GROUP COMMANDING OFFICER THE SST BASIC Fl ELD UN IT Each section and each squad is capable of independ- ent action.Thesmaller the unit, the more mobile and inconspicuous, two leading requirements in opera- tions conducted behind enemy lines and in constant dangerofseparationfroma baseorsupportingforces. SECTION • DECLASSIFIED Authority: NND 843099 By: TKN Date: 12/3/13 OG FIELD H EADOUARTER S AND OPERATI"ON s: ETO-MEDTO SEPTEMBER OCTOBER 1943 1944 All OG operations in southern France were coordi- nated with Allied plans for the invasion. Their pur- pose was to destroy the enemy's lines of supply and communication and force him to divert troops for their protection, to protect the flanks of the Allied forces driving in from the beaches, and to report on enemy strength and movements. To this end OGs were introduced throughout the area, organizing or equipping guerrilla forces and guiding them in op- erations. Operations in Italy have been conducted from OG headquarters on Corsica and bases in Italy. Inde- pendently and in collaboration with Italian Parti- sans and British and French forces, OGs have har- assed the enemy by raids on military installations and lines of communication, as well as by occupying islands to establish observation posts. Missions against the islands and mainland of Yugo- slavia have been made from the OG baseon Vis. With Partisan and British troops, OGs have engaged small German forces, ambushed a naval convoy by shore fire, and rescued many American aviators. OGs have penetrated Greece by sea and air to co- operate with guerrilla forces in attacking German supply lines and destroying enemy headquarters. 0 OG FI E LD HEAD QUART E RS . . . OG FIELD OPE RATI ON S BERLIN e / ·····........ ...r··....... ·..·~ ··.£'····...:;· '·· ···:.,l''" ' •·.. ..... .... ···. ..· :,.• . :...f ''}-:............ ··...
  • 7. OPERA TIONS I N OG operationsin France were based on England and Algiers. The former worked closely with the Maquis to harass and ambush enemy units, driving Germans from vital hydroelectric plantsand protecting Ameri- can lines of communication. The latter coordinated the resistance movement in support of the invasions from England and North Africa. In cooperation with Maquis units that they organized and trained, these OGs killed 461, wounded 467, and captured 10,021 Germans; demolished 11 power lines and cables; mined 17 roads; shot down 3aircraft and destroyed 2 trains and 3 locomotives. They also rescued downed Allied fliers, gathered intelligence, selected and pre- pared landing strips, and assisted the FFI. For secu- rity purposes, each team in the field had its own code name used in communications and command. EMILY JUSTINE LOUISE BETSY LAFAYETTE WILLIAMS LEHIGH SIMON HELEN RUTH ALICE PAT PEG NANCY PERCY RED PERCY PINK PATRICK LINDSEY ADRIAN CHRISTOPHER DONALD ETO MEDTO DECLASSIFIED Authority: NND 843099 By: TKN Date: 12/3/13 SOUTHERN FRANCE. JANUAR Y OC TOBER • PARIS e ORl.EANS e VI ERZON e CHATEAUROUX S ARGENTAN 0 euMOGES 1 9 44 1 944 ·····..., DECLASSIFIED Authority: NND 843099 By: TKN Date: 12/3/13 SEP TE M BE R 19 43 OG O PERATIONS IN NORTHERN ITALY, OCTOBE R 1944 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 OGs parachuted into Sardinia at the time of the German evacuation and operated throughout island. Landed on Corsica, OGs fought with French troops through the entire campaign that drove Germans from the island. Established headquarters at Bastia. OGs with British troops were landed by sea and dropped by air in the Chieti area to aid escaped American and British prisoners of war. They also killed Italian Fascist informers. Occupied island of Capraia and established a permanent naval and air observation post with radio communication to headquarters on Corsica. Rescued downed American aviators. Occupied island of Gorgona and established a permanent naval and air observation post with radio communication to headquarters on Corsica. OGs landed with the Fifth Army in the invasion at Anzio and were used to gather intelligence. Damaged a highway bridge just south of Leghorn and with- drew successfully. OGs landed by sea to demolish tunnel entrances and the road fill of a railroad. An enemy convoy forced the withdrawal of OG boats and attempts at rescue proved unsuccessful. Enemy radio later announced a Commando-type unit had been wiped out. Landed with a French force on Pianosa, surrounded barracks and isolated the local prison to seize 24 Italian guards for intelligence purposes. Personnel and supplies flown from Brindisi were dropped by parachute to aid Italian Partisans. OGs were attached to the Third Garibaldi Brigade which controls the road from Torriglian to Bobbio and the surrounding country. 11 Four small teams were dropped in northern Italy to assist local Partisans and to transmit intelligence. .... ..........., ··....···: . . . !········ ····... ... ....·.:~· .. <,) • :··•• ! •••• •• ••• • •• • ••• ..... :''-._,.·{:-:0 ···, fv ""·:"...... ·::::::··: ··,:-:., ··:·:,:::· ': ::· ··.. ·~) ~-~ GENOA . Mil.AN I I GORGONJ I I I CAPRAIA I I BA STI 0 l.EGHORN O siENA • CORSICA CHIETI e ROME 0 ANZIO ''-...-~ NAPl.ES
  • 8. DECLASSIFIED Authority: NND 843099 By: TKN Date: 12/3/13 JANUARY 1944 OG OPERATIONS IN YUGOSLAVIA AND GREECE, OCTOBER 1944 Operations against the islands and mainland of Yugoslavia were based on Vis, to which troops returned after each action. Missions included: e Destruction of the entire German garrison on Solta and capture of the town of Grohote by OGs and British Com- mandos. e Attack on Brae. OGs with British troops forced part of the enemy into an inner defense ring. e Destruction of a German patrol on the island of Hvar. e Attack on Korcula. OGs and Partisans cleared two-thirds of the island of Germans. e From a cove on the Peljesac peninsula, OG troops and a small British naval detachment shelled three passing German ships. e Reconnaissance on Mljet, Lagosta, and the Yugoslav main- land. e Rescue of American aviators. More than 1,000 fliers of the Fifteenth Air Force have been safely brought to Vis. All action in Northern Greece was part or the NOAH"s ARK operation which infiltrated by sea and air to aid the guerrilla Andartes in harassing German forces. 1 Infiltration. 2 Attacked German headquarters in Yannitsa. 3 Attacked a train, small arms fire causing many enemy casual- ties. 4 Ambushed a truck convoy. 5 Blew up railway track and attacked a repair train. 6 Attacked a small convoy. 7 Aided by Andartes and British, OGs shelled a train, and set it afire. 8 Destroyed eight vehicles of a large German convoy. 9 Derailed six boxcars and destroyed a locomotive. 10 OGs parachuted into the Peloponnesus and made contact with an Allied Mission. They destroyed two strategic railway bridges. Y U GOSLAVIA I ON I AN SEA DECLASSIFIED Authorily: NND 843099 By: T-KN Date: 12/3/13 @~~ PRESE NTA TI O N OG230 UTHOGRAPHED IN THE REPRODUCTION BRANCH, OSS