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  1. 1. Group 4 Perception (Part 2) and Consciousness
  2. 2. Perceptual Illusion – The Deception of Perceptions Usually thought to arise from the way sensory signals are encoded by the brain Also results from the way the brain decodes sensory information, reflecting strategies that optimize in performance in particular task.
  3. 3.  Perceptual illusion and ambiguous figures were of special interest to the Gestaltists because:  Illusions seem to indicate that our mind does not always accurately represent the perpetual input. For Gestaltists, this suggest that mind was ‘actively’ involved in interpreting the perceptual input rather than passively recording the input.
  4. 4.  Ebbinghaus Illusion You probably perceived that the middle circle as smaller in the figure on the left than the center circle in the figure on the right. Actually, they are of the same size.
  5. 5.  Herring-Helmholtz Illusion The perception would tell us that the first figure has middle lines bowing in, while the second figure has middle lines bowing out. But actually they are parallel lines.
  6. 6.  Ambiguous figures exemplify the fact that sometimes the same perpetual input can lead to very different representations.
  7. 7. Completion figures are figures in which the mind rather unambiguously interprets in a particular way despite the fact that the input is incomplete relative to what is typically ‘seen’.
  8. 8. Consciousness being awake and aware responsive to the environment contrast to being asleep or in a coma
  9. 9. Sleep  A natural state of bodily rest observed in humans and other animals.  Common to all mammals and birds (warm-blooded animals)  Essential for survival, but the reason why it is (sleep) and not any other way is still vague and under intense research  Undergoes stages, namely 1, 2, 3, 4 and REM
  10. 10. Stages of Sleep  First four stages of sleep is under NREM (non-rapid eye movement), the last is known as REM (rapid eye movement)  A complete sleep cycle takes an average of 90-110 minutes.  The cycle continues after every other, but REM periods lengthen in every cycle and deep sleep time decreases.
  11. 11. NREM Stage 1  NREM stage 1 lasts for 5-10 minutes  Alpha waves disappear and theta waves appear  Also known as light sleep  Eye moves slowly and muscle activity slows down  Some feel sudden muscle contraction preceded by the sensation of falling (hypnic jerk)
  12. 12. NREM Stage 2  Lasts for about 20 minutes  Eye movement stops and brain waves become slower with occasional burst of rapid brain waves
  13. 13. NREM Stage 3  This was previously two separate stages, 3 & 4, but was combined last 2007 by American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM)  Also known as slow-wave sleep (SWS) and deep sleep  Delta waves start to appear (stage 3 before), then continues to spike (stage 4 before)  In this stage, waking someone up is difficult.  Occurrence of parasomnias (sleep disorders)
  14. 14. REM stage  Breathing becomes more rapid, irregular and shallow  Eyes jerk rapidly  Limb muscles are temporarily paralyzed  Occurrence of dreams  Infants spend almost 50% of their time in this stage, 20% for adults  Most experience 3 to 5 intervals of REM sleep each night
  15. 15. Stages of Sleep
  16. 16. Parasomnias/Sleep Disorders Parasomnias is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or an animal. A test used to confirm sleep disorder is the use of polysomnogram to observe brain activity during sleep.
  17. 17. The following is the list of the most common sleep disorders: o insomnia o bruxism/teeth grinding o sleep apnea o hypopnea o narcolepsy o cataplexy o sleep paralysis o sleepwalking
  18. 18. Insomnia a sleeping disorder characterized by persistent difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep despite the opportunity it is due to the inadequate quality or quantity of sleep causes functional impairment while awake and active
  19. 19. Types of Insomnia 1. Transient insomnia • lasts for days to weeks • caused by another disorder, change in sleep environment, changes in the time of sleep, severe depression, and stress • effects include sleepiness and impaired psychomotor performance
  20. 20. 2. Acute insomnia • inability to constantly sleep well for a period of three weeks to six months 3. Chronic insomnia • last for years • it can be caused by another disorder or a primary disorder itself • effects vary, including sleepiness, muscle fatigue, hallucinations, and mental fatigues, double visions • people experiencing this sees things in slow motion, and moving objects tends to blend together
  21. 21. Bruxism  grinding of the teeth, typically accompanied by clenching of the jaw  an oral parafunctional activity that occurs in most humans at some time of their lives  caused by the activation of reflex chewing activity  its etiology is unknown
  22. 22. Sleep Apnea  suspension of external breathing  during this, there is no movement of the respiratory muscles and lungs’ volume initially remains unchanged  this can be voluntarily achieved (holding one’s breath), drug-induced (opiate toxicity), mechanically induced (strangulation), trauma, or consequence of a neurological disease
  23. 23. Hypopnea  overly shallow breathing or an abnormally low respiratory rate  differs in apnea in that there remains some flow of air  causes a drop in blood oxygen level, which typically disrupts the stages of sleep  symptoms are loud and heavy snoring that is interrupted with choking sounds or loud snorts, followed by a period of silence
  24. 24. Narcolepsy  a chronic sleep disorder characterized by overwhelming drowsiness, sudden attacks of sleep and EDS (excessive daytime sleepiness)  narcoleptics experience disturbed nocturnal sleep, and REM within 5 minutes  often confused with insomnia
  25. 25. Cataplexy  sudden and transient episodes of loss of muscle tone, and is triggered by emotions such as laughing, crying, terror, etc  a rare disorder, but is mostly associated to people with narcolepsy  manifests itself as a muscular weakness which may range from a barely perceptible slackening of the facial muscles to the dropping of the jaw or the head, weakness at the knees or total collapse  slurred speech, double vision and inability to focus
  26. 26. Sleep Paralysis a condition that may occur in normal subjects or be associated with narcolepsy, cataplexy, and hypnagogic hallucination the pathophysiology of this condition is closely related to the normal hypotonia that occurs during REM sleep
  27. 27. Sleepwalking  also called somnambulism or noctambulism  a sleep disorder characterized by engaging in activities that are associated with wakefulness while sleeping, or in a sleep- state  is performed by getting out of the sleeping position, then walks around and performs actions as if he is awake  it is more common to people experiencing high level of stress, anxiety, psychological distress or to people with genetic history of it
  28. 28. Dreams  are series of images, sounds, and feelings occurring during a person’s sleep, accompanied with REM  typically last in the range of 5-50 minutes  like consciousness and sleep, dreams are still one of the Holy Grail of science  scientific study of this is known as oneirology
  29. 29. Why people dream  psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud referred to it as ‘the royal road to the unconscious’  interpreted dreams as manifestation of desires, especially sexual urges  form of fulfilling suppressed wishes by transforming dissatisfaction to visual fantasy.
  30. 30.  dream is a respond to our daily thoughts, activities and sensations  they are often a reflection of what consumed our minds in the preceding day or two  apparently a necessary part of our being, but still a mystery why we have it in the first place  experiments were conducted to test the purpose of dream by depriving subjects in having a REM sleep (drug-induced) and the results were: personality change (abrasive and angry) and difficulty in concentration  also shown that the younger a person is, the more important dreams are to their well being
  31. 31.  dreams are achieved during REM, and every full sleep cycle, REM sleep lengthens, causing longer dreams (first REM is 5 minutes, then can reach up to 50 minutes)  are easily forgotten, or gradually fleets from the person’s memory, being woken up from a REM sleep  the only dream we can remember is the last one that we have, and the dream is always seemingly meaningless in relation to daily lives
  32. 32. Theories on Dreaming Psychoanalytic Perspective by Sigmund Freud Dream Theory by Alfred Adler Jungian Theory by Carl Jung
  33. 33. Psychoanalytic Perspective a disconnection from reality by extinguishing all external stimuli (door closed, curtains drawn, covering blanket, turning off lights), then the brain will protect the person from being disturbed by other external stimuli (noise, temperature, light, the need to urinate, etc), and internal stimuli (fear, dissatisfaction, desire)
  34. 34. Freud believe that dreams are composed of two parts – the manifest and the latent content manifest content can be thought as what a person would remember as soon as he wakes or what he would consciously describe to someone else when recalling the dream Freud said that manifest content are superficial and meaningless, and it masks the true thought of dream
  35. 35. on the other hand, latent content hold the true meaning of a dream – forbidden thoughts and unconscious desires appears in manifest content, but is disguised and highly recognizable in rare cases, manifest and latent contents can be indistinguishable, and Freud called it as ‘infantile dreams’
  36. 36. the process by which latent content is transformed to manifest content is known as ‘dream work’, and this distorts the latent thoughts in four ways 1. Condensation – two or more latent thoughts are combined to make up one manifest dream image or situation 2. Displacement – instead of directing the emotion or desire toward the intended person or subject, it is transferred onto a meaningless/unrelated object in a manifest dream
  37. 37. 3. Symbolism – where complex or vague concepts are transformed into dream images  mind uses images similar sounding word instead of what the real word  use a similar, less intrusive object/s  mostly, symbols have sex correlation  for example, he suggested that objects such as tree- trunks, ties, swords, rockets and other elongated objects refer to male genitalia; while objects such as boxes, cups, vases, suitcases and other hollow objects refer to female genitalia  sexual acts are symbolized by walking up a staircase, ladder, or steps  castration are represented by baldness or of cutting of hair  genitalia can also be represented by other body parts (for male, hand; for females, eyes or mouth)
  38. 38. 4. Secondary Revision – the final stage of dream work where in the dreams, according to Freud, loses the ‘appearance of absurdity and incoherence’. • in essence, this can be thought of as ways in which the dream work covers up the contradiction and attempts to reorganize the dream into a pattern in sync with the dreamers’ experience in everyday lives • used the method of ‘free association’ to discover the underlying meaning behind the dream (latent content) by letting the patient describe the dream as accurately as possible (manifest content), then let him focus on specific elements on the dream and form as many association as they could
  39. 39. Dream Theory by Alfred Alder  according to this theory, dreams are ways of addressing our insecurities  we can try out strategies for overcoming or shortcomings or compensate via wish fulfillment  it involves looking at the parts of a dream and analyzing what problems or inferiorities they might represent, then the reaction from that elements represent the way of overcoming the issue
  40. 40. Jungian Theory  Carl Jung, the proponent of this theory, stated that dreams are dramas on one’s inferior stage  it has steps, namely: the opening scene (settings, characters, initial situation of the main character), development of plot, emergence of a major conflict, and lastly the response of the main character to the conflict  but this theory falls on the account that dreams are too fragmented to be explained by this
  41. 41. Types of Dreams a. ordinary dream • occurs during REM sleep • In this type of dream, it is the thoughts that triggers them, based on stored knowledge, impressions, information and experiences of the day • This type of dream lacks any real story or straight interpretation, but cascades as images • This kind of dream usually occurs every 3 to 5 times per night, and can be easily forgotten
  42. 42. b. Lucid dreams • in this type of dream, you are aware that you are dreaming • In addition to this, the person experiencing this can also explore the possibilities or ‘what ifs’, giving him the power to control what would happen next • lucidity may also help you bolt out a bad dream by realizing it
  43. 43. c. Day dream • it happens when you are awake (i.e. in a class, in a meeting or in a car) • it is the way of imagination to wander • in a conscious state, but feels drowsy and relaxed d. False awakening dream • this happens when a person experiences waking up, but remembering he just performed some things already (going to the bathroom, playing video games, drinking water, etc)
  44. 44. e. Nightmares • a disturbing type of dream, for the person experiences terror, fear, sadness and anger • this will usually happen to people under stress or is deeply worried
  45. 45. Hypnosis  a mental state or set of attitudes usually induced by a procedure known as a hypnotic induction, which is commonly composed of series of preliminary instructions or suggestions  hypnosis or hypnotism are both derived from the term ‘neuro - hypnotism’ (nervous sleep) coined by James Braid to distinguish his theory and practice
  46. 46. Meditation  a mental discipline by which one attempts to get beyond the reflexive, ‘thinking’ mind into a deeper relaxation or awareness  often involves turning attention into a single point of reference  is believed to calm the mind, increase alertness, and bring the person into a state of physical and psychological balance
  47. 47. Psychoactive Drugs a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters the brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousn ess, and behavior
  48. 48. Types of Psychoactive Drug a. depressants • drugs that inhibit the function of the central nervous system and are among the widely used drugs in the world • causes drowsiness, relaxation, decreased inhibition, anesthesia, sleep, & coma • potentially addictive
  49. 49. examples of drugs that are classified as depressants: • ethyl alcohol – second most widely used psychoactive drug in the world • barbiturates – also known as ‘downers’, type of CNS depressant that causes euphoria and relaxation; has a dramatic effect on sleep patterns, resulting in the suppression of REM sleep • benzodiazepines – a CNS depressant that is used to treat anxiety and sleep disorders, but long-term usage causes dependency resulting to addiction
  50. 50. b. stimulants • drug that increases brain activity, resulting to elevated alertness, mood and awareness examples of drugs that are classified as stimulants: • caffeine – the most widely used psychoactive drug in the world; abuse causes insomnia or anxiety • nicotine – third most used psychoactive drug in the world, despite the fact that very few medical purpose can be benefitted from the drug • Cocaine – an illegal psychoactive drug that is extracted from the leaves of the coca tree; can be absorbed rapidly from any administration point (snorting, inhaling, injecting or swallowing) • Amphetamines – known as ‘uppers’; causes tremors, vasoconstriction, restlessness, tachycardia, insomnia, agitation and loss of appetite
  51. 51. c. hallucinogen • comprise a unique collection of substances that are ingested to induce alteration of consciousness • are usually visual, auditory and tactile, depending on the subject ingested, the setting and the experience of the user
  52. 52. examples of drugs that are classified as hallucinogens • Lysergic acid diethylamide – also known as LSD, was used to cure alcoholism and was believed to enhance creativity and well- being; heavy doses cause delusions and visual hallucination; also causes the ‘cross- over’ of senses (seeing sounds, hearing colors, etc.) • Peyote – also referred as crown (for it came from the top part of the peyote cactus); effects are similar to LSD, including increase in body temperature, elevated heart rate, ataxia, profound sweating and flushing
  53. 53. • psilocybin – also known as magic mushrooms; effects are similar to LSD, but also causes altered perception of time, and inability to discern fantasy from reality; can also cause panic and psychosis, memory impairment and tolerance • phencyclidine – also known as PCP, is a white crystalline powder that is readily soluble in water or alcohol; once used as an intravenous anesthetic, but was discontinued in 1965 because of its adverse effects like delusions, paranoia, hallucinations, disordered thinking, and sensation of distance from one’s environment
  54. 54. • marijuana – (scientific name: Cannabis sativa) is a plant that is widely used as a hallucinogen; can cause relaxation and elevation of mood, but abuse of it (which is often the case) causes hallucinations, paranoia, and euphoria; also causes dry mouth, swollen eyelids, bloodshot eyes, loss of coordination and accelerated heart rate
  55. 55. d. Narcotics – refers to any psychoactive drugs that has sleep-inducing properties examples of drugs that are classified as narcotics • heroin – semi-synthetic opioid drug synthesized from morphine; regular administration causes tolerance, moderate physical dependence and severe psychological dependence • opium – formed from the latex of the immature seed pops of opium poppies (scientific name: Papaver somniferum); has been widely used since antiquity and has been quoted by famous personalities (Friedrich Nietzsche, Jose Rizal, etc.)
  56. 56. • morphine – a highly potent analgesic drug, effects are similar to opium • codeine – an analgesic, antitussive, and antidiarrheal drug, and most widely used medication according to World Health Organization (WHO) • barbiturates – a depressant, affecting the CNS and has effects like sedation and anesthesia; are also anxiolytics, hypnotics, and anticonvulsant
  57. 57. Depressants
  58. 58. Stimulants
  59. 59. Hallucinogens
  60. 60. Narcotics