NATURE AND VARIETIES OF CONSCIOUSNESSBY:REBECCA BASTILLADA
CONSCIOUSNESS the state in which you are aware not only on the external environment but also of internal events such as thinking. A state of awareness of sensations, perception, or memories. The aspect of mental life in which one is normally aware. Is a fixed, unvarying state but can be altered.SLEEPHans Berger, a German physician, was first person to record the brain’s electrical activity.(EEG Electroencephalograph- measures the brain waves of sleeping subjects.
STAGES OF SLEEPStage 1: Light sleep drifting inand out between sleep andconsciousness. Muscle activityslows down.Stage 2: Eye movements stopwith a higher activity in brainswaves, also known as sleepspindles.Stage 3: Transition periodbetween light and deep sleep.Slow brain waves known as deltawaves emerge.Stage 4: Deep sleep begins andusually lasts for approximately 30minutes.Stage 5: The brain enters REMsleep and dreaming finally takesplace. Before entering this stage,the brain is said to repeat stage 2and 3 before entering REM sleep.
REM Sleep>>> orthodox sleepSLEEP DURATION The average young adult needs between 6Y2 to 8Y2 hours of sleep a night; some people need a little more, some a little less.SLEEP DURATION Sleep deprivation cause sensory disturbances, hallucinations, and delusions occur after only 60 sleepless hours.
CIRCADIAN RHYTHM A daily cycle. The sleep-awake cycle is considered to be a circadian rhythm
SLEEP ABNORMALITIES AND PATHOLOGYINSOMIAdifficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep for the necessary amount of time.NARCOLEPSan inherited pathological conditionSLEEP APNEAA cessation of breathing during sleep. It may be brief or protracted.
DREAMINGTheories:1.Psychoanalytic theory- by Sigmund Freud state that dreams are disguised representations or represses desires which appear in symbolic form.Lament content- The hidden true meaning of dream.Manifest Content- the overt, literal, dream content.2.Activation- Synthesis theory- a physiological model of dreaming that contends that the brain synthesis random neural activity generated during sleep organizes this activity into a dream.3. Housekeeping Hypothesis- dreaming may be a time of “house keeping” during which nonsensical information or “noise” is brought forth and swept clean.4. Off-line Time- the time when data are no longer an input, but rather are being analyzed, correlated or stored or treated in some processing fashion.
HYPNOSIS a state of consciousness characterized by relaxation and suggestibility.MEDITATION deep relaxation brought on by focusing one’s attention on a particular sound or image, breathing deeply and relaxing.PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS drugs that alter, conscious awareness or perception.
CLASSIFICATION1. STIMULANTS- drugs that can stimulate or excites the central nervous system. Ex. COCAINE2. DEPRESSANTS- drugs that can depress or show the central nervous system. Ex. ALCOHOL3. HALLUCINOGENS- drugs that cause excitation at synapses associated with sense perception.
PHYSICAL ADDICTION an overwhelming desire for a particular substance and physical reaction to withdrawal.PSYCHOLOGICAL ADDICTION an overwhelming desire for a particular substance due to the immediate sense of pleasure or fear reduction it provides.
Extrasensory Perception (ESP) Refers to the perception of knowledge about the environment that does not arrive through a known sensory channel and the study of ESP.PARAPSYCHOLOGY (beyond psychology) the psychology of events that go beyond what is considered possible.
Three forms of ESP1. Telepathy( mind reading)- refers to the transference of thought from one person to another.2. Precognition- refers to the ability to see the future.3. Clairvoyance- involves the knowledge of events not detectable by normal senses.
PSYCHOKINESIS (PK) The ability to move objects without touching them.PARANORMAL PHENOMENA Phenomena outside the range of normal events.