Psych

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the varieties of consciousness

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Psych

  1. 1. NATURE AND VARIETIES OF CONSCIOUSNESSBY:REBECCA BASTILLADA
  2. 2. CONSCIOUSNESS the state in which you are aware not only on the external environment but also of internal events such as thinking. A state of awareness of sensations, perception, or memories. The aspect of mental life in which one is normally aware. Is a fixed, unvarying state but can be altered.SLEEPHans Berger, a German physician, was first person to record the brain’s electrical activity.(EEG Electroencephalograph- measures the brain waves of sleeping subjects.
  3. 3. STAGES OF SLEEPStage 1: Light sleep drifting inand out between sleep andconsciousness. Muscle activityslows down.Stage 2: Eye movements stopwith a higher activity in brainswaves, also known as sleepspindles.Stage 3: Transition periodbetween light and deep sleep.Slow brain waves known as deltawaves emerge.Stage 4: Deep sleep begins andusually lasts for approximately 30minutes.Stage 5: The brain enters REMsleep and dreaming finally takesplace. Before entering this stage,the brain is said to repeat stage 2and 3 before entering REM sleep.
  4. 4. REM Sleep>>> orthodox sleepSLEEP DURATION The average young adult needs between 6Y2 to 8Y2 hours of sleep a night; some people need a little more, some a little less.SLEEP DURATION Sleep deprivation cause sensory disturbances, hallucinations, and delusions occur after only 60 sleepless hours.
  5. 5. CIRCADIAN RHYTHM A daily cycle. The sleep-awake cycle is considered to be a circadian rhythm
  6. 6. SLEEP ABNORMALITIES AND PATHOLOGYINSOMIAdifficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep for the necessary amount of time.NARCOLEPSan inherited pathological conditionSLEEP APNEAA cessation of breathing during sleep. It may be brief or protracted.
  7. 7. DREAMINGTheories:1.Psychoanalytic theory- by Sigmund Freud state that dreams are disguised representations or represses desires which appear in symbolic form.Lament content- The hidden true meaning of dream.Manifest Content- the overt, literal, dream content.2.Activation- Synthesis theory- a physiological model of dreaming that contends that the brain synthesis random neural activity generated during sleep organizes this activity into a dream.3. Housekeeping Hypothesis- dreaming may be a time of “house keeping” during which nonsensical information or “noise” is brought forth and swept clean.4. Off-line Time- the time when data are no longer an input, but rather are being analyzed, correlated or stored or treated in some processing fashion.
  8. 8. HYPNOSIS a state of consciousness characterized by relaxation and suggestibility.MEDITATION deep relaxation brought on by focusing one’s attention on a particular sound or image, breathing deeply and relaxing.PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS drugs that alter, conscious awareness or perception.
  9. 9. CLASSIFICATION1. STIMULANTS- drugs that can stimulate or excites the central nervous system. Ex. COCAINE2. DEPRESSANTS- drugs that can depress or show the central nervous system. Ex. ALCOHOL3. HALLUCINOGENS- drugs that cause excitation at synapses associated with sense perception.
  10. 10. PHYSICAL ADDICTION an overwhelming desire for a particular substance and physical reaction to withdrawal.PSYCHOLOGICAL ADDICTION an overwhelming desire for a particular substance due to the immediate sense of pleasure or fear reduction it provides.
  11. 11. Extrasensory Perception (ESP) Refers to the perception of knowledge about the environment that does not arrive through a known sensory channel and the study of ESP.PARAPSYCHOLOGY (beyond psychology) the psychology of events that go beyond what is considered possible.
  12. 12. Three forms of ESP1. Telepathy( mind reading)- refers to the transference of thought from one person to another.2. Precognition- refers to the ability to see the future.3. Clairvoyance- involves the knowledge of events not detectable by normal senses.
  13. 13. PSYCHOKINESIS (PK) The ability to move objects without touching them.PARANORMAL PHENOMENA Phenomena outside the range of normal events.

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